HYGINUS, FABULAE 100 - 149
106. Ransom of Hector
107. Contest of Arms
108. Trojan Horse
112. Challenging Combatants and their Adversaries
113. Those who Killed Princes
114. Slayers Achaean Side
115. Slayers Trojan Side
124. Kings of the Achaeans
126. Recognition of Ulysses
130. Icarius and Erigone
145.Nioba or Io
FABLES 100 - 149, TRANSLATED BY MARY GRANT
Idas, son of Aphareus, wished to rob Teuthras, king of Moesia, of his kingdom. When Telephus, Hercules’ son, with Parthenopaeus his friend, ahd come there seeking his mother in accordance with the oracle, Teuthras promised he would give him his kingdom and his daughter Auge in marriage if he would protect him from his enemy. Telephus did not disregard the proposal of the king, and with Parthenopaeus’ help overcame Idas in one battle. The king fulfilled his promise, and gave him his kingdom and Auge as wife, unaware of the relationship. Since she [faithful to Hercules] wished no mortal to violate her body, she intended to kill Telephus, not realizing he was her son. And so when they had entered the wedding-chamber, Auge drew a sword to slay Telephus. Then by the will of the gods a serpent of huge size is said to have glided between them, and at the sight Auge dropped the sword and revealed her attempt to Telephus. Telephus, when he heard this, not realizing she was his mother, was about to kill her, but she called for help on Hercules her ravisher, and by that means Telephus recognized his mother, and took her back to her own country.
Telephus, son of Hercules and Auge, is said to have been wounded by Achilles in battle with the spear of Chiron. When for days he suffered cruel torture from the wound, he sought oracular advice from Apollo for a remedy. The answer came that no one could heal him except the very spear that wounded him. When Telephus heard this, he went to King Agamemnon, and by Clytemnestra’s advice snatched the infant Orestes from his cradle, threatening to kill him if the Achaeans did not heal him. Then since the Achaeans had been given an oracle too, that Troy could not be taken without the leadership of Telephus, they readily made peace with him, and begged Achilles to heal him. Achilles replied that he didn’t know the art of healing. Then Ulysses said: Apollo does not mean you, but calls the spear the inflictor of the wound.” When they scraped it, he was healed. When they begged him to go with them to attack Troy, they did not obtain their request, because he had as wife Laodice, daughter of Priam. But in return for their kindness in healing him, he led them there, pointing out places and ways. From there he departed to Moesia.
When Philoctetes, son of Poeas and Demonassa, was on the island of Lemnos, a snake struck his foot. Juno had sent it, angry with him because he alone rather than the others had dared to build the funeral pyre of Hercules when his human body was consumed and he was raised to immortality. Because of the favour Hercules gave him his marvellous arrows. But when the Achaeans could not endure the offensive odour of the wound, by Agamemnon’s order he was left on Lemnos together with the marvellous arrows. A shepherd of King Actor, named Iphimachus, son of Dolops, cared for the abandoned man. Later an oracle was given to them that Troy could not be taken without the arrows of Hercules. Then Agamemnon sent Ulysses and Diomede as scouts to visit him. They persuaded him to be reconciled and to help in attacking Troy, and took him off with them.
An oracle warned the Achaeans that the man who first reached the shore of the Trojans would perish. When the Greek fleet had neared shore, and the others were delaying, Iolaus, son of Iphiclus and Diomedia, was first to leap from his ship, and was promptly killed by Hector. All called him Protesilaus, since he was the first of all to die. When his wife Laodamia, daughter of Acastus, heard that he had died, she wept and begged the gods that she be allowed to speak with him for three hours. It was granted, and when he was led back by Mercury, she spoke with him for three hours. But when Protesilaus died a second time, Laodamia, could not endure her grief.
When Ladomia, daughter of Acastus, after her husband’s loss had spent the three hours which she had asked from the gods, she could not endure her weeping and grief. And so she made a bronze likeness of her husband Protesilaus, put it in her room under pretense of sacred rites, and devoted herself to it. When a servant early in the morning had brought fruit for the offerings, he looked through a crack in the door and saw her holding the image of Protesilaus in her embrace and kissing it. Thinking she had a lover he told her her father Acastus. When he came and burst into the rom, he saw the statue of Protesilaus. To put an end to her torture he had the statue and the sacred offerings burned on a pyre he had made, but Laodamia, not enduring her grief, threw herself on it and was burned to death.
Ulysses, because he had been tricked by Palamedes, son of Nauplius, kept plotting day by day how to kill him. At length, having formed a plan, he sent a soldier of his to Agamemnon to say that in a dream he had been warned that the camp should be moved for one day. Agamemnon, believing the warning true, gave orders that the camp be moved for one day. Ulysses, then, secretly by night hid a great quantity of gold in the place where the tent of Palamedes had been. He also gave to a Phrygian captive a letter to be carried to Priam, and sent a soldier of his ahead to kill him not far from the camp. On the next day when the army came back to the camp, a soldier found on the body of the Phrygian, the letter which Ulysses had written, and brought it to Agamemnon. Written on it were the words: “Sent to Palamedes from Priam,” and it promised him as much gold as Ulysses had hidden in the tent, if he would betray the camp of Agamemnon according to agreement. And so when Palamedes was brought before the king, and so denied the deed, they went to his tent and dug up the gold. Agamemnon believed the charge was true when he saw the gold. In this way Palamedes was tricked by the scheme of Ulysses, and though innocent, was put to death by the entire army.
Agamemnon, at the time when he returned Chryseis to Chryses, priest of Apllo Zmitheus, took from Achilles because of her exceeding beauty Briseis, the Moesian captive, daughter of the priest Brisa, whom Achilles had won. In wrath over this Achilles did not go to battle but amused himself with the cithara in his tent. But when the Argives were being put to flight by Hector, Achilles, at Patroclus’ pleading, gave him his armor. Wearing this, he put the Trojans to flight, since they thought he was Achilles, and he slew Sarpedon, son of Jove and Europa. Later Patroclus himself was killed by Hector and the armor taken from his body. When Achilles was reconciled to Agamemnon, and Briseis was returned to him, then, since he was going out against Hector unarmed, Thetis his mother secured armor for him from Vulcan, and the Nereids brought it to him over the sea. Wearing this, he slew Hector, tied his body to his chariot, and dragged it round the walls of the Trojans. On his refusal to give the body to his father for burial, at Jove’s command Priam, with Mercury as guide, came into the camp of the Danaans, received the body for an equal weight of gold, and gave it burial.
After Hector’s burial, when Achilles was wandering along the ramparts of the Trojans and saying that he alone had reduced Troy, Apollo in anger, taking the form of Alexander Paris, struck him with an arrows on the heel which was said to be vulnerable, and killed him. When Achilles was killed and given burial, Telamonian Ajax demanded from the Danaans the arms of Achilles, on the grounds that he was cousin on his father’s side. Through the anger of Minerva they were denied him by Agamemnon and Menelaus, and given to Ulysses. Ajax, harbouring rage, in madness slaughtered his flocks, and killed himself with that sword he had received from Hector as a gift when the two met in battle line.
Since the Achaeans during ten years were not able to take Troy, Epeus at Minerva’s suggestion made a wooden horse of remarkable size, and in it were gathered Menelaus, Ulysses, Diomedes, Thessander, Sthenelus, Acamas, Thoas, Machaon, Neoptolemus. On the horse they wrote: “The Danaans give it as a gift to Minerva”, and moved camp to Tenedos. When the Trojans saw this, they thought the enemy had gone away; Priam ordered he horse to be brought to the citadel of Minerva, and gave a proclamation that they celebrate magnificently. When the prophetess Cassandra kept insisting that there were enemies within, they did not believe her. They put it in the citadel, and at night when they slept, overcome by sport and wine, the Achaeans came out of the horse which had been opened by Sinon, killed the guards at the gates, and at a given signal admitted their friends. Thus they gained possession of Troy.
When Polydorus, son of Priam by Hecuba, was born, they gave him to Priam’s daughter Iliona to be reared. She was the wife of Polymnestor, King of the Thracians, and she brought him up as her own son. She brought up Deipylus, who she had conceived by Polymnestor, as if he were her brother, so that if anything happened to either of them she could give the other to her parents. But when, after the fall of Troy, the Achaeans wanted to destroy the race of Priam, they cast down Astyanax from the walls, and sent messengers to Polymnestor promising him Electra in marriage together with a great amount of gold if he would put Polydorus, son of Priam, to death. Polymnestor did not oppose the words of the ambassadors, and slew his own son Deipylus unwittingly, thinking he had killed Polydorus, son of Priam. Polydorus, however, went to the oracle of Apollo to inquire about his parents and was told that his city was burned, his father killed, and his mother held in servitude. When he returned and saw that things were not as the oracle had said . . . thinking he was the son of Polymnestor, he asked his sister Iliona why the oracle had spoken falsely. His sister revealed the truth to him, and by her advice he blinded Polymnestor and killed him.
When the victorious Danaans were embarking from Troy, and about to return to their own country, each one taking his share of the spoils, the voice of Achilles from his tome is said to have demanded a part of the spoils. And so the Danaaans sacrificed at his tome Polyxena, daughter of Priam, a most beautiful girl, because when Achilles had sought her in marriage and had come for an interview, he was killed by Alexander and Deiphobus.
When Ulysses was taking into servitude Hecuba, Priam’s wife, daughter of Cisseus, or according to some writers, daughter of Dymas, she threw herself into the Hellespont, and is said to have been changed into a dog. The place is called Cyneus from this.
Menelaus with Alexander; Venus rescued Alexander. Diomedes with Aeneas; Venus saved Aeneas. The same (Diomedes) with Glaucus; they parted, when they recognized ties of guest-friendship. The same (Diomedes) with Pandarus and another Glaucus; Pandarus and Glaucus were killed. Ajax with Hector; they parted with an exchange of gifts: Ajax gave Hector the belt by which he was dragged, and Hector gave Ajax a sword with which he killed himself. Patroclus with Sarpedon; Sarpedon was killed. Menelaus with Euphorbus; Euphorbus was killed. He later became Pythagoras and recalled this his soul had passed into several bodies. Achilles with Asteropaeus; Asteropaeus was killed. The same (Achilles) with Hector; Hector was killed. The same (Achilles) with Aeneas; Aeneas was routed. The same (Achilles) with Agenor; Apollo saved Agenor. The same (Achilles) with Penthesilea, daughter of Mars and Otrera; Penthesilea was killed. Antilochus with Memnon; Antilochus was killed. Achilles with Memnon; Memnon was killed. Philoctetes with Alexander; Alexander was killed. Neoptolemus with Eurypylus; Eurypylus was killed.
Apollo [killed] Achilles under the guise of Alexander.
Hector, Protesilaus, and likewise Antilochus.
Agenor, Elephenor, and likewise Clonius.
Deiphobus, Ascalaphus, and likewise Antonous.
Ajax [killed] Hippodamus, and likewise Chromius.
Agamemnon, Iphidamas, and likewise Glaucus.
Locrian Ajax, Gargasus, and likewise *Gavius.
Diomedes, Dolon and likewise Rhesus.
Eurypylus [killed] Nireus, and likewise Machaon.
Sarpedon, Tlepolemus, and likewise Antiphus.
Achilles [killed] Astynomus, and likewise Pylaemenes.
Achilles to the number of 72; Antilochus, 2; Protesilaus, 4; Peneleus, 2; Eurypylus, 1; Ajax, son of Oileus, 14; Thoas, 2; Leitus, 20; Thrasymedes, 2; Agamemnon, 16; Diomedes, 18; Menelaus, 8; Philoctetes, 3; Meriones, 7; Ulysses, 12; Idomeneus, 13; Leonteus, 5; Telamonian Ajax, 28; Patroclus, 54; Polypoetes, 1; Teucer, 30; Neoptolemus, 6; total, 362.
Hector to the number of 31; Alexander, 3; Sarpedon, 2; Panthous, 4; Gargasus, 2; Glaucus, 4; Polydamas, 3; Aeneas, 28; Deiphobus, 4; Clytus, 3; Acamas, 1; Agenor, 2; total, 88.
When the Danaans were returning home after the capture of Troy and the division of spoils, the anger o the gods caused their shipwreck on the Cepharean Rocks. They sent a storm and contrary winds because the Greeks had despoiled the shrines of the gods and Locrian Ajax had dragged Cassandra from the statue of Pallas. In this storm Locrian Ajax was struck with a thunderbolt by Minerva. The waves dashed him against the rocks, and from this they are called the Rocks of Ajax. When the others at night were imploring the aid of the gods, Nauplius heard, and though the time had come for avenging the wrong to his Palamedes. And so, as if he were bringing aid to them, he brought a burning torch to that place where the rocks were sharp and the coast most dangerous. Believing that this was done out of mercy they steered their ships there. As a result many ships were wrecked, and many of the troops and their leaders perished in the storm, their limbs and entrails dashed on the rocks. Those who could swim to shore were killed by Nauplius. But the wind bore Ulysses to Mar[ath]on, and Menelaus to Egypt. Agamemnon with Cassandra arrived at his own country.
Clytemnestra, daughter of Tyndareus and wife of Agamemnon, heard from Oeax, brother of Palamedes, that Cassandra was being brought as a concubine to her house, a false statement Oeax made in order to avenge the wrong done to his brother. Then Clytemnestra, together with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes, planned to kill Agamemnon and Cassandra. They killed him with an axe as he was sacrificing, and Cassandra, too. But Electra, Agamemnon’s daughter, rescued her brother, the infant Orestes, and sent him to Strophius in Phocis. Strophius had married Agamemnon’s sister, Astyoche.
In Egypt Proteus, the prophetic old man of the sea, is said to have dwelt, he who used to change himself into all sorts of shapes. By the advice of his daughter Idothea, Menelaus bound him with a chain, so that he would tell him when he would reach home. Proteus told him that the gods were angry because Troy had been taken, and on that account an offering should be made which the Greeks call hekatombe, a hundred animals being slain. And so Menelaus offered a hekatombe. Then at length, the eighth year after he left Troy, he returned home with Helen.
When Orestes, son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, grew to manhood, he desired to avenge his father’s death. And so he made a plan with Pylades and came to Mycenae to his mother Clytemnestra, saying that Orestes, who Aegisthus had turned over to the people to be killed, was dead, and that he was an Aetolian guest-friend. Not long after this, Pylades, son of Strophius, came to Clytemnestra brining an urn which he said contained the bones of Orestes. Aegisthus rejoiced and welcomed them both hospitably. When an opportunity came, Orestes with help of Pylades by night slew Clytemnestra, his mother, and Aegisthus. When Tyndareus accused him, Orestes was allowed to go into exile by the people of Mycenae because of his father. Later the Furies of his mother pursued him.
When the Furies were pursuing Orestes, he went to Delphi to inquire when his sufferings would end. The reply was that he should go to the lad of Taurica to King Thoas, father of Hypsipyle, and bring to Argos from the temple there the statue of Diana; then there would be an end to his sufferings. Upon hearing this oracle, along with Pylades his companion, son of Strophius, he embarked and quickly came to the land of the Taurians. It was their custom to sacrifice at the temple of Diana whatever stranger came within their borders. When Orestes and Pylades were hiding in a cave waiting an opportunity, they were seized by shepherds and brought to King Thoas. Thoas, as was his custom, ordered them to be brought bound into the temple of Diana to be sacrificed. The priestess there was Iphigenia, sister of Orestes, and when by tokens and questioning she found out who they were and why they had come, she herself, casting aside the vessels for sacrifice, started to remove the statue of Diana. When the king came up and asked her why she was doing this, she made pretence and said that since the men were accursed they had defiled the statue; because impious and wicked men had been brought into the temple, the statue should be taken to the sea for cleansing. She bade him make a proclamation forbidding citizens to go outside the city. The king complied with the words of the priestess. Iphigenia, seizing the opportunity, took the statue, embarked with Orestes and Pylades, and by a favouring breeze was borne to the island Zminthe to Chryses, priest of Apollo.
When Agamemnon was on his was to Troy, Achilles, too, came to Moesia, and took Chryseis, daughter of the priest of Apollo, and gave her in marriage to Agamemnon. When Chryses came to Agamemnon to beg him to return his daughter, he was refused. Because of this Apollo destroyed almost all the army, partly by famine, partly by pestilence. And so Agamemnon sent back Chryseis, though she was pregnant, to the priest. Though she claimed to be untouched by him, when her time came she bore Chryses the Younger, and said she had conceived by Apollo. Later when Chryses was about to return Iphigenia and Orestes to Thoas, he [Chryses the Elder] learned that they were children of Agamemnon, and revealed to Chryses his [grand]son the truth – that they were brothers and that he was a son of Agamemnon. Then Chryses, thus informed, with Orestes his brother, killed Thoas, and from there they came safe to Mycenae with the statue of Diana.
To Electra, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, a messenger came, falsely saying that her brother and Pylades had been sacrificed in Taurica to Diana. When Aletes, Aegisthus’son, heard that no-one of the race of the Atreidae survived, he seized the kingly power in Mycenae. But Electra went to Delphi to inquire about her brother’s violent death. She came thee the same day that Iphigenia and Orestes arrived. The same messenger who had reported about Orestes, said that Iphigenia was the murderess of her brother. When Electra heard this, she seized a burning firebrand from the altar, and in her ignorance would have blinded her sister Iphigenia if Orestes had not intervened. After this recognition they came to Mycenae, and Orestes killed Aletes, son of Aegisthus, and would have killed Erigone, daughter of Clytemnestra and Aegisthus, but Diana rescued her and made her a priestess in the Attic land. Orestes, moreover, after Neoptolemus was slain, married Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen, and Pylades married Electra, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra.
Neoptolemus, son of Achilles and Deidamia, begat Amphialus by captive Andromache, daughter of Eetion. But after he heard that Hermione his betrothed had been given to Orestes in marriage, he went to Lacedaemon and demanded her from Menelaus. Menelaus did not wish to go back on his word, and took Hermione from Orestes and gave her to Neoptolemus. Orestes, thus insulted, slew Neoptolemus as he was sacrificing to Delphi, and recovered Hermione. The bones of Neoptolemus were scattered through the land of Ambracia, which is in the district of Epirus.
Phoroneus, son of Inachus; Argus, son of Jove; Peranthus, son of Argus; Triops, son of Peranthus; Pelasgus, son of Agenor; Danaus, son of Belus; Tantalus, son of Jove; Pelops, son of Tantalus; Atreus, son of Pelops; Thyestes, of Pelops; Agamemnon, of Atreus; Aegisthus, of Thyestes; Orestes, of Agamemnon; Aletes, of Aegisthus; Tisamenus, of Orestes; Temenus, son of Aristomachus; Clytus, son of Temenus; [Alexander of Eurystheus].
When Ulysses was returning from Tory to his country Ithaca, he was carried by a storm to the Cicones. He attacked their town, Ismarus, and distributed the spoils among his comrades. From there he went to the Lotus Eaters, quite good men, whose custom it was to eat the lotus, a flower growing from the leaves. This food was so sweet that those who tasted it would forget to return home. Two men sent to them by Ulysses, on tasting the plants they gave, forgot to return to the ships. He bound them and brought them back himself.
From there he went to the Cyclops Polyphemus , son of Neputune, to whom a prophecy had been given by the augur Telemus, son of Eurymus, that he should beware of being blinded by Ulysses. He had one eye in the middle of his forehead, and feasted on human flesh. After he drove his flock back into the cave he would place a great stone weight at the door. He shut Ulysses and his comrades within, and started to devour the men. When Ulysses saw that he could not cope with his size and ferocity, he made him drunk with the wine he had received from Maron, and said that he was called Noman. And so, when Ulysses was burning out his eye with a glowing stake, he summoned the other Cyclopes with is cries, and called to them from the closed cave, “Noman in blinding me!” They thought he was speaking in sport, and did not heed. But Ulysses tied his comrades to the sheep and himself to the ram, and in this way they got out.
He came to Aeolus, son of Hellen, to whom control of the winds had been given by Jove. He welcomed Ulysses hospitably, and gave him as a gift a bag full of winds. But his comrades took it, thinking it to be gold and silver, and when they wished to divide it, they opened the bag secretly, and the winds rushed out. He was carried again to Aeolus, who cast him out because the divinity of the gods seemed hostile to him.
He came to the Laestrygonians, whose king was Antiphates . . . Some he devoured and shattered eleven of his ships, with the exception of the one in which Ulysses escaped when his comrades had been lost.
He came to the island of Aenaria, to Circe, daughter of Sol, who, by giving a potion, used to change men into wild beasts. When he sent Eurylochus to her with twenty-two of his men, she changed them from human form; but Eurylochus in fear did not enter, but fled and reported to Ulysses. Ulysses himself alone went to her, but on the way Mercury gave him a charm, and showed him how to deceive Circe. After he came to Circe and took the cup from her, at Mercury’s suggestion he put in the charm, and drew his sword, threatening to kill her unless she restored his comrades. Then Circe knew that this had not happened without the will of the gods, and so, promising that she would not do the like to him, she restored his comrades to their earlier forms. She herself lay with him, conceived, and bore two sons, Nausithous and Telegonus.
From there he set out for Lake Avernus, descended into the Lower World, and found there his comrade Elpenor, whom he had left behind at Circe’s. He asked Elpenor how he had come there, and Elpenor replied that in his drunkenness he had fallen down the ladder and broken his neck. He begged him to give him burial when he returned to the upper world, and place his oar on his grave. There he also spoke to his mother, Anticlia, about the end of his journey. Then he returned to the upper world, buried Elpenor, and fixed the oar on his tomb as he had asked.
Next he came to the Sirens, daughters of the Muse Melpomene and Achelous, women in the upper parts of their bodies but bird below. It was their fate to live only so long as mortals who heard their song failed to pass by. Ulysses, instructed by Circe, daughter of Sol, stopped up the ears of his comrades with wax, had himself bound to the wooden mast, and thus sailed by.
From there he came to Scylla, daughter of Typhon, who was woman above, but fish from the hips down, with six dogs joined to her body. She snatched and devoured six men from Ulysses’ ship. He had come to the island of Sicily to the sacred herds of Sol, but their flesh lowed when his comrades cooked it in a brazen kettle. He had been warned by Tiresias and by Circe, too, not to touch them, and as a result he lost many comrades there. Borne on to Charybdis, who three times a day sucked down the water and three times belched it up, by Tiresias’ warning he passed by. But Sol was angry because his herd had been harmed. (When Ulysses had come to the island, and at Tiresias’ warning forbade anyone’s touching the herd, his comrades seized some cattle while he slept; as they were cooking them the flesh lowed from the brazen kettle.) For his reason Jove struck his ship with a thunderbolt and burned it
Wandering from this, his comrades lost in the shipwreck, he swam to the island of Aeaea, where the nymph Calypso, daughter of Atlas, lived. She enamoured of the handsome form of Ulysses, kept him a whole year, and was unwilling to release him until Mercury, by Jove’s command, bade her release him. When a raft had been made there, Calypso sent him off with an abundance of provisions, but Neptune shattered the raft with his waves because he had blinded his son, the Cyclops. While he was being tossed about by the waves, Leucothoe, who we call Mater Matuta, who lives forever in the sea, gave him her girdle to bind around his chest, to buoy him up. When he had done this, he swam to safety.
From there he came to the island of the Phaeacians, and hid his nakedness under the leaves of trees. There Nausicaa, daughter of King Alcinous, brought garments to the stream to wash. He crept out from the leaves and begged help from her. Moved by pity, she gave him a mantle, and led him to her father. Alcinous welcomed him with generous hospitality, honoured him with gifts, and sent him to his country, Ithaca.
By Mercury’s wrath, he was shipwrecked again. After the twentieth year, with the loss of his comrades, he returned alone to his country. On reaching his home, unrecognized, he found suitors who sought to marry Penelope occupying his palace, so he pretended to be a stranger. But his nurse Euryclia, while bathing his feet, recognized him as Ulysses by a scar. Later, with the help of Minerva, he and his son Telemachus and two servants killed the suitors with arrows.
After Ulysses had been sent away with gifts by King Alcinous, father of Nausicaa, he was shipwrecked and came naked to Ithaca to a certain house where a man, Eumaeus by name, was a sybotes, that is a swineherd. Although the dog recognized him and fawned upon him, Eumaeus did not know him, since Minerva had changed his appearance and attire. Eumaeus asked him where he came from, and he replied that he had been shipwrecked. When the shepherds questioned him whether he had seen Ulysses, he said he was his comrade, and gave signs and proofs. Soon Eumaeus took him into his house, and revived him with food and drink. When the servants, sent as usual to bring in the flocks, had come, and he had asked Eumaeus who they were, Eumaeus said: “After Ulysses left, when some time had intervened, suitors came to ask for Penelope in marriage. She kept putting them off with this condition - ‘When I finish this weaving, I shall marry’ – but what she wove in the day, she unravelled at night, and so she put them off. But now they feast with the maid-servants of Ulysses and waste his flocks.” Then Minerva restored his former appearance to him. Suddenly the swineherd saw it was Ulysses, and clinging to him and embracing him, he wept for joy, and wondering what it was that had changed him. Ulysses said to him: “Tomorrow take me to the palace to Penelope.”
When he took him there, Minerva again changed his appearance to that of a beggar, and when Eumaeus took him to the wooers, and they were feasting with the hand-maids, he said to them: “Look! You have another beggar, who will amuse you along with Irus.” Then Melanthius, one of the suitors, said: “Yes, let them wrestle and the victor will get a stuffed goat’s-belly pudding, and a cane to drive away the loser.” When they had wrestled and Ulysses had struck Irus and driven him out, Eumaeus led Ulysses in beggar’s disguise to his nurse Euryclia, and told her he was a comrade of Ulysses. When she wished . . . was going [to cry out], Ulysses held his hand over her lips, and warned her, and told Penelope to give his bow and arrows to the suitors, saying that whoever of them drew it, could have her as a wife. When she did this . . . they strove among themselves and no one could draw it, Eumaeus said in ridicule: “Let us give . . . “ Melanthius did not permit . . . Eumaeus gave the bow to the old man. He transfixed all the suitors except Melanthius the slave; he was seized, apart from the suitors, and nose, arms, and other parts of his body were cut in bits. So Ulysses obtained his palace and his wife. He bade his handmaids cast their bodies into the sea, and later, at Penelope’s request, after the death of the suitors, he punished them, too.
Telegonus, son of Ulysses and Circe, sent by his mother to find his father, by a storm was carried to Ithaca, and there, driven by hunger, began to lay waste the fields. Ulysses and Telemachus, not knowing who he was, took up arms against him. Ulysses was killed by his son Telegonus; it had been told him by an oracle to beware of death at his son’s hands. Telegonus on discovering who he was, with Telemachus and Penelope returned to his home on the island of Aeaea by Minerva’s instructions. They brought the body of Ulysses to Circe, and buried it there. By the advice of Minerva again, Telegonus married Penelope, and Telemachus married Circe. From Circe and Telemachus Latinus was born, who gave his name to the Latin language; from Penelope and Telegonus Italus was born, who called the country Italy from his own name.
Ampycus, son of Elatus; Mopsus, son of Ampycus; Amphiaraus, son of Oecleus or Apollo; Tiresias, son of Everes; Manto, daughter of Tiresias; Polyidus, son of Coeranus; Helenus, son of Priam; Cassandra, daughter of Priam; Calchas, son of Thestor; Theoclymenus [son of Thestor; Telemus], son of Proteus; Telemus, son of Eurymus; the Samian Sibyl - others call her Cymaean.
When Liber had come as a guest to Oeneus, son of Parthaon, he fell in love with Althaea, daughter of Thestius and wife of Oeneus. When Oeneus realized this, he voluntarily left the city and pretended to be performing sacred rites. But Liber lay with Althaea, who became mother of Dejanira. To Oeneus, because of his generous hospitality, he gave the vine as a gift, and showed him how to plant it, and decreed that its fruit should be called oinos from the name of his host.
When Father Liber went out to visit men in order to demonstrate the sweetness and pleasantness of his fruit, he came to the generous hospitality of Icarius and Erigone. To them he gave a skin full of wine as a gift and bade them spread the use of it in all the other lands. Loading a wagon, Icarius with his daughter Erigone and a dog Maera came to shepherds in the land of Attica, and showed them the kind of sweetness wine had. The shepherds, made drunk by drinking immoderately, collapsed, and thinking that Icarius had given them some bad medicine, killed him with clubs. The dog Maera, howling over the body of the slain Icarius, showed Erigone where her father lay unburied. When she came there, she killed herself by hanging in a tree over the body of her father. Because of this, Father Liber afflicted the daughters of the Athenians with alike punishment. They asked an oracular response from Apollo concerning this, and he told them they had neglected he deaths of Icarius and Erigone. At this reply they exacted punishment from the shepherds, and in honour of Erigone instituted a festival day of swinging because of the affliction, decreeing that through the grape-harvest they should pour libations to Icarius and Erigone. By the will of the gods they were put among the stars. Erigone is the sign Virgo whom we call Justice; Icarius is called Arcturus among the stars, and the dog Maera is Canicula.
When Liber was leading his army into India, he gave the authority over his Theban kingdom to his nurse Nysus until he should come back. But after Liber returned from there, Nysus was unwilling to yield the kingdom. Since Liber didn’t want to quarrel with his nurse he permitted him to keep the kingdom until an opportunity should come to recover it. And so, three years later, he made up the quarrel with him, and pretended he wanted to celebrate in the state the sacred rites termed Trieteric, because he performed them after the third year. He introduced soldiers as Bacchanals in women’s dress, captured Nysus, and recovered his kingdom.
Lycurgus, son of Dryas, drove Liber from his kingdom. When he denied that Liber was a god, and had drunk wine, and in drunkenness tried to violate his mother, he then tried to cut down the vines, because he said wine was a bad medicine in that it affected the mind. Under madness sent by Liber he killed his wife and son. Liber threw Lycurgus himself to his panthers on Rhodope, a mountain of Thrace, over which he ruled. He is said to have cut off one foot thinking it was a vine.
When Liber was hunting for water in India, and hadn’t succeeded, ram is said to have sprung suddenly from the ground, and with this as guide he found water. So he asked Jove to put the ram among the stars, and to this day it is called the equinoctial ram. Moreover, in the place where he found water he established a temple which his called the temple of Jove Ammon.
When the Tyrrhenians, later called Tuscans, were on a piratical expedition, Father Liber, then a youth, came on their ship and asked them to take him to Naxos. When they had taken him on and wished to debauch him because of his beauty, Acoetes, the pilot, restrained them, and suffered at their hands. Liber, seeing that their purpose remained the same, changed the oars to thyrsi, the sails to vine-leaves, the ropes to ivy; then lions and panthers leapt out. When they saw them, in fear they cast themselves into the sea, and even in the sea he changed them to a sort of beast. For whoever leaped overboard was changed into dolphin shape, and from this dolphins are called Tyrhhenians, and the sea Tyrrhenian. They were twelve in number with the following names: Aethalides, Medon, Lycabas, Libys, Opheltes, Melas, Alcimedon, Epopeus, Dictys, Simon, Acoetes. The last was the pilot, whom Liber saved out of kindness.
Laocoon, son of Acoetes, brother of Anchises, and priest of Apollo, against the will of Apollo had married and had children. By lot he was appointed to sacrifice to Neptune on the shore. Opportunity thus presenting itself, Apollo sent two snakes from Tenedos over the waves of the sea to kill his sons Antiphantes and Thymbraeus. When Laocoon tried to bring aid to them, the snakes killed him, too, in their folds. The Phrygians thought this happened because Laocoon had thrown his spear against the Trojan Horse.
When Glaucus, son of Minos and Pasiphae, was playing ball, he fell into a jar full of honey. In the parents’ search, they made inquiry of Apollo about he boy. Apollo told them: A prodigy has been born for you. Whoever explains it will restore the child to you. Upon hearing this reply, Minos began inquiring from his people about the prodigy. They told him that a bullock had been born which changed colour three times a day, every four hours - first white, then red, then black. Minos then called together the augurs to explain the prodigy, and when no one was found who could do so, Polyidus, son of Coeranus, showed that the bullock was like a mulberry tree, for first its fruit is white, then red, and when ripe, black. Then Minos said to him: “According to the words of Apollo, you should be able to restore my son to me.” While Polyidus was observing omens, he saw an owl sitting over the wine-cellar and putting bees to flight. He interpreted the omen, and brought out the lifeless boy from the jar. Minos said to him: “You have found the body. Now restore life to it.” When Polyidus said this was impossible, Minos ordered him to be shut in a tomb with the boy, and a sword placed there. When they had been shut in, a snake suddenly made for the body of the boy, and Polyidus, judging the creature whished to devour the body, suddenly drew the sword and killed it. Another snake, seeking its mate, saw that it was dead, and came and brought a herb, and its touch restored life to the dead snake. Polyidus did the same. When they called out from within, a passerby reported it to Minos, who opened the tomb and found his son safe. He sent Polyidus many gifts back into his country.
When Polyphontes, King of Messenia, had killed Cresphontes, son of Aristomachus, he gained possession of his kingdom and his wife Merope [with whom Polyphontes, after slaying Cresphontes, seized the kingdom]. But Merope hid the infant son whom she had borne to Cresphontes and sent him to a guest-friend in Aetolia. Polyphontes kept hunting for him with great assiduity, and promised gold to the one who killed him. After he came to man’s estate, he planned to avenge the deaths of his father and his brothers, so he came to King Polyphontes to claim the gold, saying that he had killed the son of Cresphontes and Merope – Telephon. In the meantime the King bade him remain as a guest, in ordere to find out more about him. When he had fallen asleep through weariness, the old man who was an intermediary between mother and son came weeping to Merope, saying that he wasn’t at the guest-friend’s home, nor could he be found. Merope, believing that the one who was asleep was the slayer of her son, went into the chamber with an axe, unaware that she was about to kill her son. The old man recognized him and kept the mother from the crime. When Merope saw she had opportunity to avenge herself on her foe, she became reconciled with Polyphontes. While the king was joyfully making sacrifice, his “guest” falsely presented to strike the victim to be offered, killed him, and secured his father’s kingdom.
When Saturn was hunting Jove throughout the earth, assuming the form of a steed he lay with Philyra, daughter of Ocean. By him she bore Chiron the Centaur, who is said to have been the first to invent the art of healing. After Philyra saw that she had borne a strange species, she asked Jove to change her into another form, and she was transformed into the tree which is called the linden.
After Opis had borne Jove by Saturn, Juno asked her to give him to her, since Saturn and cast Orcus under Tartarus, and Neptune under the sea, because he knew that his son would rob him of the kingdom. When he had asked Opis for what she had borne, in order to devour it, Opis showed him a stone wrapped up like a baby; Saturn devoured it. When he realized what he had done, he started to hunt for Jove throughout the earth. Juno, however, took Jove to the island of Crete, and Amalthea, the child’s nurse, hung him in a cradle from a tree, so that he could be found neither in heaven nor on earth nor in the sea. And lest the cries of the baby be heard, she summoned youths and gave them small brazen shields and spears, and bade them go around the tree making a noise. In Greek they are called “Curetes”; others call them “Corybantes”; these [in Italy?], however are called “Lares."
Python, offspring of Terra, was a huge dragon who, before the time of Apollo, used to give oracular responses on Mount Parnassus. Death was fated to come to him from the offspring of Latona. At that time Jove lay with Latona, daughter of Polus. When Juno found this out, she decreed (?) that Latona should give birth at a place where the sun did not shine. When Python knew that Latona was pregnant by Jove, he followed her to kill her. But by order of Jove the wind Aquilo carried Latona away, and bore her to Neptune. He protected her, but in order not to make voice Juno’s decree, he took her to the island Ortygia, and covered the island with waves. When Python did not find her, he returned to Parnassus. But Neptune brought the island of Ortygia up to a higher position; it was later called the island of Delos. There Latona, clinging to an olive tree, bore Apollo and Diana, to whom Vulcan gave arrows as gifts. Four days after they were born, Apollo exacted vengeance for his mother. For he went to Parnassus and slew Python with his arrows. (Because of this deed he is called Pythian.) He put Python’s bones in a cauldron, deposited them in his temple, and instituted funeral games for him which are called Pythian.
The Sirens, daughter of the River Achelous and the Muse Melpomene, wandering away after the rape of Proserpina, came to the land of Apollo, and there were made flying creatures by the will of Ceres because they had not brought help to her daughter. It was predicted that they would live only until someone who heard their singing would pass by. Ulysses proved fatal to them, for when by his cleverness he passed by the rocks where they dwelt, they threw themselves into the sea. This place is called Sirenides from them, and is between Sicily and Italy.
Prometheus, son of Iapetus, first fashioned men from clay. Later Vulcan, at Jove’s command, made a woman’s form from clay. Minerva gave it life, and the rest of the gods each gave come other gift. Because of this they named her Pandora. She was given in marriage to Prometheus’ brother Epimetheus. Pyrrha was her daughter, and was said to be the first mortal born.
Inachus, son of Oceanus, begat Phoroneus by his sister Argia, and he is said to have been the first of mortals to rule. Men for many centuries before lived without town or laws, speaking one tongue under the rule of Jove. But after Mercury had explained the languages of men (when he is called ermeneutes, “interpreter,” for Mercury in Greek is called Hermes; he too, divided the nations), then discord arose among mortals, which was not pleasing to Jove. And so he gave over the first rule to Phoroneus, because hew as first to make offerings to Juno.
Men in early times sought fire from the gods, and did not know how to keep it alive. Later Prometheus brought it to earth in a fennel-stalk, and showed men how to keep it covered over with ashes. Because of this, Mercury, at Jove’s command, bound him with iron spikes to a cliff on Mount Caucasus, and set an eagle to eat out his heart; as much as it devoured in the day, so much grew again at night. After 30,000 years Hercules killed this eagle and freed Prometheus.
From Phoroneus and *Cinna were born Apis and Nioba. Nioba was the first mortal to be embraced by Jove; to her was born Argus who named the city Argos from his own name. From Argus and Evadne, Criasus, Piranthus, and Ecbasus wee born; from Piranthus and Callirhoe, Argus, Arestorides, and Triopas; he . . . from him *Eurisabe, Anthus, Pelasgus, and Agenor; from Triops and * Oreaside, Xanthus and Inachus; from Pelasgus, Larisa, from Inachus and Argia, Io.
Jupiter loved and embraced Io, and changed her to heifer form so that Juno would not recognize her. When Juno found out, she sent Argus, who had gleaming eyes all around to guard her. Mercury, at Jove’s command, killed him. But Juno sent a fearful shape to plague her, and out of terror of it she was driven wildly and compelled to cast herself into the sea, which is called Ionian. Thence she swam to Scythia, and the Bosporus is named from that; thence she went to Egypt where she bore Epaphus. When Jove realized that for his sake she had borne such suffering, he restored her to her own form, and made her a goddess of the Egyptians, called Isis.
Pluto asked from Jove that he give him in marriage Ceres’ daughter and his own. Jove said that Ceres would not permit her daughter to live in gloomy Tartarus, but bade him seize her as she was gathering flowers on Mount Etna, which is in Sicily. While Proserpina was gathering flowers with Venus, Diana, and Minerva, Pluto came in his four-horse chariot, and seized her. Afterwards Ceres obtained from Jove permission for her to stay half of the year with her, and half with Pluto.
When Ceres was hunting for her daughter, she came to King Eleusinus, whose wife Cothonea had borne the boy Triptolemus, and pretended she was a wet nurse. The queen gladly took her as nurse for her son. Since Ceres wanted to make her charge immortal, she fed him by day with divine milk, but by night secretly hid him in the fire. In this way he grew more than mortals are wont to grow, and so, when the parents wondered at it, they watched her. When Ceres was about to put him in the fire, the father was terrified. In her anger, she struck down Eleusinus, but on Triptolemus, her foster-son, she conferred everlasting honour, for she gave him her chariot yoked with Serpents to spread the cultivation of grain. Riding in it he sowed grain throughout the earth. When he returned, Celeus bade him be killed for his benefactions, but when this was known, by Ceres’ order he gave the kingdom to Triptolemus, who called it Eleusis from his father’s name. He also established sacred rites in honour of Ceres, which hare called in Greek Thesmophoria.
When Vulcanus knew that Venus was secretly lying with Mars, and that he could not oppose his strength, he made a chain of adamant and put it around the bed to catch Mars by cleverness. When Mars came to the rendezvous, the together with Venus fell into the snare so that he could not extricate himself. When Sol reported this to Vulcan, he saw them lying there naked, and summoned all the gods . . . who saw. As a result, shame frightened Mars so that he did not do this. From their embrace Harmonia was born, and to her Minerva and Vulcan gave a robe “dipped in crimes” as a gift. Because of this, their descendants are clearly marked as ill-fated. To Sol’s progeny, however, Venus, because of his disclosure, was always hostile.
Jupiter bade Epaphus, whom he begat by Io, fortify the towns in Egypt and rule there. First of all he founded Memphis, and then many others. By Cassiopia his wife he begat a daughter, Libya, from whom the land is named.