HYGINUS, FABULAE 150 - 199
150. War with the Titans
151. Children of Typhon and Echidna
153. Deucalion and Pyrrha
154. Phaethon of Hesiod
155. Sons of Jove
156. Children of Sol
157. Sons of Neptune
158. Sons of Vulcan
159. Sons of Mars
160. Sons of Mercury
161. Sons of Apollo
162. Sons of Hercules
170. Daughters of Danaus
173. Those who Hunted the Calydonian Boar
182. Daughters of Ocean
183. Names of the Horses of the Sun and of the Hours
184. Pentheus and Agave
191. King Midas
199. The Other Scylla
FABLES 150 - 199, TRANSLATED BY MARY GRANT
After Juno saw that Epaphus, born of a concubine, ruled such a great kingdom, she saw to it that he should be killed while hunting, and encouraged the Titans to drive Jove from the kingdom and restore it to Saturn. When they tried to mount heaven, Jove with the help of Minerva, Apollo, and Diana, cast them headlong into Tartarus. On Atlas, who had been their leader, he put the vault of the sky; even now he is said to hold up the sky on his shoulders.
From Typhon the giant and Echidna were born Gorgon, the three-headed dog Cerberus, the dragon which guarded the apples of the Hesperides across the ocean, the Hydra which Hercules killed by the spring of Lerna, the dragon which guarded the ram’s fleece at Colchis, Scylla who was woman above but dog below, with six dog-forms sprung from her body, the Sphinx which was in Boeotia, the Chimaera in Lycia which had the fore part of a lion, the hind part of a snake, while the she-goat itself formed the middle. From Medusa, daughter of Gorgon, and Neptues, were born Chrysaor and horse Pegasus; from Chrysaor and Callirhoe, three-formed Geryon.
Tartarus begat by Tartara, Typhon, a creature of immense size and fearful shape, who had a hundred dragon heads springing from his shoulders. He challenged Jove to see if Jove would content with him for the rule. Jove struck his breast with a flaming thunderbolt. When it was burning him he put Mount Etna, which is in Sicily, over him. From this it is said to burn still.
Phaethon, son of Sol and Clymene, who had secretly mounted his father’s car, and had been borne too high above the earth, from fear fell into the river Eridanus. When Jupiter struck him with a thunderbolt, everything started to burn. In order to have a reason for destroying the whole race of mortals, Jove pretended he wanted to put out the fire; he let loose the rivers everywhere, and all the human race perished except Deucalion and Pyrrha. But the sisters of Phaethon, because they had yoked the horses without the orders of their father, were changed into poplar trees.
When the cataclysm which we call the flood or deluge occurred, all the human race perished except Deucalion and Pyrrha, who fled to Mount Etna, which is said to be the highest mountain in Sicily. When they could not live on account of loneliness, they begged Jove either to give men, or to afflict them with a similar disaster. Then Jove bade them cast stones behind them; those Deucalion threw he ordered to become men, and those Pyrrha threw, to be women. Because of this they are called laos, “people”, for stone in Greek is called las.
Phaethon, son of Clymenus, son of Sol, and the nymph Merope, who, as we have heard was and Oceanid, upon being told by his father that his grandfather was Sol, put to bad use the chariot he asked for. For when he was carried too near the earth, everything burned in the fire that came near, and, struck by a thunderbolt, he fell into the river Po. This river is called Eridanus by the Greeks; Pherecydes was the first to name it. The Indians became black, because their blood was turned to a dark color from the heat that came near. The sister of Phaethon, too, in grieving for their brother, were changed into poplar trees. Their tears, as Hesiod tells, hardened into amber; [in spite of the change] they are called Heliades [daughters of Helios]. They are, then, Merope, Helie, Aegle, Lampetia, Phoebe, Aetherie, Dioxippe. Moreover, Cygnus, King of Liguria, who was related to Phaethon, while mourning for his relative was changed into a swan; it, too, when it dies sings a mournful song.
Liber by Proserpine, whom the Titans dismembered. Hercules, by Alcumena. Liber by Semele, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia. Castor and Pollux by Leda, daughter of Thestius. Argus by Nioba, daughter of Phoroneus. Epaphus by Io, daughter of Inachus. Perseus by Danae, daughter of Acrisius. Zethus and Amphion, by Antiopa, daughter of Nycteus. Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthus by Europa, daughter of Agenor. Helen by Pyrrha, daughter of Epimetheus. Aethlius by Protogenie, daughter of Deucalion. Dardanus by Electra, daughter of Atlas. Lacedaemon by Taygete, daughter of Atlas. Tantalus by Pluto, daughter of Himas. Aeacus by Aegina, daughter of Asopus. Aegipan by the she-goat *Boetis. Arcas by Callisto, daughter of Lycaon. [Etolus by Protogenia, daughter of Deucalion.] Pirithous by Dia, daughter of Deioneus.
Circe by Persis, daughter of Ocean, and Pasiphae. By Clumene, daughter of Ocean, Phaethon, Lampetie, Aegle, Phoebe . . .
Boeotus and Hellen by Antiopa, daughter of Aeolus. Agenor and Belus by Libye, daughter of Epaphus. Bellerophon by Eurynome, daughter of Nysus. Leuconoe by Themisto, daughter of Hypseus. Hyrieus by Alcyone, daughter of Atlas. Abas by Arethusa, daughter of Nereus. [*Ephoceus by Alcyone, daughter of Atlas.] [Belus.] Actor . . . Dictys by Agamede, daughter of Augeas. Evadne by *Lena, daughter of Leucippus. Megareus by Oenope, daughter of Epopeus. Cygnus by Calyce, daughter of Hecato. Periclymenus and Ancaeus by Astypale, daughter of Phoenix. Neleus and Pelias by Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus. Eupemus and Lycus and Nycteus by Celaeno, daughter of *Ergeus. Peleus *Arprites. Antaeus . . .Eumolpus by Chiona, daughter of Aquilo . . . by Amymone . . . likewise Cyclops Polyphemus . . . *Metus by Melite, daughter of Busiris.
Philammon. Cecrops. Erichthonius. Corynetes. Cercyon. Philottus. Spinther.
Oenomaeus by Sterope. Harmonia by Venus. Lycus. **** Diomedes, the Thracian. Ascalaphus. Ialmenus. Cycnus. Dryas.
Priapus. Echion by Antianira, and Eurytus. Cephalus by Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus. *Eurestus *Aptale. Libys by Libye, daughter of Palamedes.
Delphus. Asclepius by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas. Euripides by Cleobula. Ileus by *Urea, daughter of Neptune. Agreus by Euboea, daughter of Macareus. Philammon by Leuconoe, daughter of Lucifer [Hesperos]. Lycoreus by a Nympha. Linus by the Muse Urania. Aristaeus by Cyrene, daughter of Peneus.
Hyllus by Dejanira. Tlepolemus by Astyoche. *Leucites. Telephus by Auge, daughter of Aleus. Leucippus. Therimachus. Creontiades. Archelaus. Ophites. Deicoon. Euhenus. Lydus. Twelve Thespiades, which he begat by the daughters of King Thespius.
Ocyale, Dioxippe, Iphinome, Xanthe, Hippothoe, Otrere, Antioche, Laomache, Glauce, Agave, Theseis, Hippolyte, Clymene, Polydora, Penthesilea.
When there was a contest between Neptune and Minerva as to who should be the first to found a town in the Attic land, they took Jove as judge. Minerva won because she first planted the olive in that land, said to be there to this day. But Neptune, in anger, wanted to have the sea flood that land. Mercury, at Jove’s command, forbade his doing that. And so Minerva in her own name founded Athens, a town said to be the first established in the world.
Minerva is said to have been the first to make pipes from deer bones and to have come to the banquet of the gods to play. Juno and Venus made fun of her because she was grey-eyed and puffed out her cheeks, so when mocked in her playing and called ugly she came to the forest of Ida to a spring, as she played she viewed herself in the water, and saw that she was rightly mocked. Because of this she threw away the pipes and vowed that whoever picked them up would be punished severely. Marsyas, a shepherd, son of Oeagrus, one of the satyrs, found them, and by practicing assiduously kept making sweeter sounds day by day, so that he challenged Apollo to play the lure in a contest with him. When Apollo came there, they took the Muses as judges. Marsyas was departing as victor, when Apollo turned his lyre upside down, and played the same tune – a thing which Marsyas couldn’t do with the pipes. And so Apollo defeated Marsyas, bound him to a tree, and turned him over to a Scythian who stripped his skin off him limb by limb. He gave the rest of his body for burial to his pupil Olympus. From his blood the river Marsyas took its name.
When Vulcan had made [golden sandals] for Jove and for the other gods, he made one of adamant [for Juno?], and as soon as she sat down she suddenly found herself hanging in the air. When Vulcan was summoned to free his mother whom he had bound, in anger because he had been thrown from Heaven, he denied that he had a mother. When Father Liber had brought him back drunk to the council of the gods, he could not refuse (this) filial duty. Then he obtained freedom of choice from Jove, to gain whatever he sought from them. Therefore Neptune, because he was hostile to Minerva, urged Vulcan to ask for Minerva in marriage. This was granted, but Minerva, when he entered her chamber, defended her virginity with arms. As they struggled, some of his seed fell to earth, and from it a boy was born, the lower part of whose body was snake-formed. They named him Erichthonius, because eris in Greek means “strife”, and khthon means “earth”. When Minerva was secretly caring for him, she gave him in a chest to Aglaurus, Pandrosus, and Herse, daughters of Cecrops, to guard. A crow gave the secrete away when the girls opened the chest, and they, driven made by Minerva, threw themselves into the sea." -Hyginus Fabulae 166
Liber, son of Jove and Proserpine, was dismembered by the Titans, and Jove gave his heart, torn to bits, to Semele in a drink. When she was made pregnant by this, Juno, changing herself to look like Semele’s nurse, Beroe, said to her: “Daughter, ask Jove to come to you as he comes to Juno, so you may know what pleasure it is to sleep with a god.” At her suggestion Semele made this request of Jove, and was smitten by a thunderbolt. He took Liber from her womb, and gave him to Nysus to be cared for. For this reason he is called Dionysus, and also “the one with two mothers.”
[** Various deities of Dionysaic or Orphic ritual, which came into Greece (from Thrace or Phrygia) about he seventh or sixth centuries BC … never fully absorbed into native belief or cult. Zagreus is the name applied to Bacchus in their story ‘and Zeus having swallowed the heart of his son, was able to beget him once more, this time on Semele.]
Danaus, son of Belus, had fifty daughters by as many wives, and his brother Aegyptus had the same number of sons. Aegyptus wished to kill Danaus and his daughters, so he alone might hold the paternal kingdom; he asked his brother for wives for his sons. Danaus, realizing the plot, with Minerva’s aid flew from Africa to Argos. Then for the first time Minerva is said to have built a two-prowed ship in which Danaus could escape. When Aegyptus knew that Danaus had got away, he sent his sons to pursue his brother, bidding them kill Danaus or not return to him. When they reached Argos, they started to attack their uncle. When Danaus saw that he could not resist them, he promised them his daughters if they would give up the fight. They took as wives the cousins they had demanded, but the girls, at their father’s command, killed their husbands, all but Hypermnestra, who saved Lynceus. Because of this a shrine was made for hypermetric and Lynceus, but the others are said to carry water to fill a leaky jar in the Lower World.
When Amymone, daughter of Danaus, was eagerly hunting in the woods, she struck a satyr with her dart. He wanted to ravish her, but she begged the aid of Neptune. When Neptune came there, he drove away the satyr, and lay with her himself. From this embrace Nauplius was born. At the place where this occurred, Neptune is said to have struck the earth with his trident. Water flowed out, called the Fountain of Lerna and the Amymonian River.
Amymone, daughter of Danaus, was sent by her father to get water for performing sacred rites. While hunting for it, she grew weary and fell asleep. A satyr tried to seduce her, but she implored the help of Neptune. When Neptune had hurled his trident at the satyr, it became fixed in a rock. Neptune drove off the satyr. When he asked the girl what she was doing in this lonely place she said she had been sent by her father to get water. Neptune lay with her, and in return he did her a favour, bidding her draw out his trident from the rock. She drew it out and three streams of water flowed, which were called the Amymonian Spring from her name. From the embrace Nauplius was born. The fountain, however, later was called the Fountain of Lerna.
Midea killed Antimachus. Philomela, Panthius, Scylla, Proteus. Amphicomone, Plexippus. Evippe, Agenor. *Demoditas, Chrysippus. Hyale, *Perius. Trite [killed] Enceladus. Damone, Amyntor. Hippothoe, Obrimus. Myrmidone, *Mineus. Eurydice, Canthus. Cleo, Asterius. Arcadia [killed] Xanthus. Cleopatra, Metalces. Phila, Philinus. Hipparete, Protheon. Chrysothemis, Asterides. *Pyrante, Athamas. * Armoasbus, Glaucippe, *Niauius. Demophile, Pamphilus. Autodice, Clytus. Polyxena, Aegyptus. Hecabe, Dryas. Acamantis [killed] Ecnomius. *Arsalte, Ephialtes. *Monuste, Eurysthenes. Amymone, *Midanus. Helice, *Evidea. Oeme, Polydector. Polybe [killed] *Itonomus. *Helicta, Cassus. Electra, *Hyperantus. Eubule, Demarchus. *Daplidice, *Pugno. Hero, Andromachus. *Europome [killed] Athletes. *Pyrantis, Plexippus. Critomedia, Antipaphus. Pirene, Dolichus. Eupheme, Hyperbius. Themistagora, *Podasimus. Celaeno, Aristonoos. Itea, Antiochus. Erato, Eudaemon. Hympermnestra saved Lynceus.
When Danaus perished and Abas first reported the death, Lynceus, looking around in the temple for something to give him as a gift, by chance saw the shield which Danaus had consecrated to Juno, which he had carried as a youth. He took it down and gave it to Abas, and established sacred games which are held every fifth year, and are called aspis en Argeia. In these games, not a wreath, but a shield is given to the runners. But the Danaids, after their father’s death, married Argive men, and their sons are named from these.
Oeneus and Mars both slept one night with Althaea, daughter of Thestius. When Meleager was born from them, suddenly in the palace the Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, appeared. They thus sang his fate: Clotho said that he would be noble, Lachesis that he would be brave, but Atropos looking at a brand burning on the hearth and said, “He will live only as long as this brand remains unconsumed.” When Althaea, the mother, heard this, she leaped from the bed, put out the fatal brand, and buried it in the midst of the palace, so that it shouldn’t be destroyed by fire.
Since Oeneus, son of Porthaon, king of Aetolia, had made sacrifices yearly to all the gods, but had omitted Diana, she, in anger, sent a Boar of immense size to lay waste the district of Calydon. Then Meleager, son of Oeneus, promised that he would go with chosen leaders to attack it.
Castor and Pollux, sons of Jove. Eurytus son of Mercury . . . Parth* . . . Echion, son of Mercury [from Thebes]. Aesculapius, son of Apollo. Jason, son of Aeson [fom Thebes]. Alcon, son of Mars, from Thrace. Euphemus, son of Neptune. Iolaus, son of Iphiclus. Lynceus and Idas, sons of Aphareus. Peleus, son of Aeacus. Telamon, son of Aeacus. Admetus, son of Pheres. Laertes, son of Arcesius. Deucalion, son of Minos. Theseus, son of Aegeus. Plexippus . . . [Ideus Lynceus] sons of Thestius, brothers of Althaea. Hippothous, son of Cercyon. Caeneus, son of Elatus, Mopsus, son of Ampycus. Meleager, son of Oeneus. Hippasus, son of Eurytus. Ancaeus, son of Lycurgus. Phoenix, son of Amyntor. Dryas, son of Iapetus. Eneasimus, Alcon, Leucippus, sons of Hippocoon from Amyclae. Atlanta, daughter of Schoeneus.
*Ternerdos, Iolcos, Sparta, Pleurone, Messene, Perrhaebia, Phthia, Magnesia, Salamin, Calydon, Thessalia, Oechialia, Ithaca, Tegea, Crete, Dolopia, Athens, [Magnesia], and Arcadia.
Althaea, daughter of Thestius, bore Meleager to Oeneus. There in the palace a glowing brand is said to have appeared. The Fates came there, and foretold the fate of Meleager, that he would live as long as the brand was unharmed. Althaea, putting it in a chest, carefully preserved it. In the meantime the wrath of Diana sent a boar of huge size to lay waste the district of Calydon, because Oeneus had not made yearly offerings to her. Meleager, with the help of chosen youths of Greece, killed it, and gave the hide to the virgin Atalanta because of her valor. Ideus, Plexippus, Lynceus . . . brothers of Althaea, wished to take if from her. When she asked the help of Meleager, he intervened, and putting love before family relationship, killed his uncles. When Althaea, the mother, heard that her son had dared to commit such a crime, remembering the warning of the Parcae, she brought out the brand from the chest and threw it on the fire. Thus, in desiring to avenge the death of her brothers, she killed her son. But his sisters, all except Gorge and Deianeira, because of their weeping, were by the will of the gods changed into birds. These are called Meleagrides, ‘guinea hens.’ And Alcyone, wife of Meleager, died from grief in mourning for him.
When Agrius, son of Parthaon, saw his brother Oeneus bereft of children and in need, he drove him out of his kingdom, and took it over himself. In the meantime, after the fall of Troy, Diomede, son of Tydeus and Deipyle, hearing that his grandfather had been driven from his kingdom came to Aetolia with Sthenelus, son of Capaneus, and fought with Agrius'son, Lycopeus. He killed him, and expelled the needy Agrius from the kingdom, and restored it to his grandfather Oeneus. Afterwards Agrius, expelled from the kingdom, killed himself.
Jove is said to have come as guest to Lycaon, son of Pelasgus, and to have seduced his daughter Callisto. From them Arcas was born, who named the land from his own name. But the son of Lycaon wanted to test Jove, to see whether he was a god or not; they mixed human flesh with the other meat, and set it before him at a banquet. When he realized it, in anger he overturned the table, and slew the sons of Lycaon with a thunderolt. At that place Arcas later fortified a town which he called Trapezus. But for Lycaon, their father, Jupiter changed into the form lykon, that is, the form of a wolf.
Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, is said to have been changed into a bear by the wrath of Juno, because she had lain with Jove. Afterwards Jove put her among the number of the stars as a constellation called Septentrio, which does not move from its place, nor does it set. For Tethys, wife of Ocean, and foster mother of Juno, forbids its setting in the Ocean. This, then, is the greater Septentrio, about whom it is written in Cretan verses: “Thou, too, born of the transformed Lycaonian Nympha, who, stolen from the chill Arcadian height, was forbidden by Tethys ever to dip herself in the Oceanus because once she dared to be concubine to her foster child . . . ’
This bear, then is called Helice by the Greeks. She has seven rather dim stars on her head, two on either ear, one on her shoulder, a bright one on her breast, one on her forefoot, a bright one at the tip of her tail; at the back on her thigh, two; at the bottom of her foot, two; on her tail, three – twenty in all.
Europa was the daughter of Argiope and Agenor, a Sidonian. Jupiter, changing his form to that of a bull, carried her from Sidon to Crete, and begat by her Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthus. Her father Agenor sent his sons to bring their sister back, or else not to return to his sight. Phoenix set out for Africa, and there remained. From this the Africans are called Phoenicians. Cilix from his own name gave the name to Cilicia. Cadmus in his wanderings came to Delphi. There the oracle told him to buy from farmers an ox which had a moon-shaped mark on its side, and to drive it before him. Where it lay down it was fated that he found a town and rule. When Cadmus heard the oracle, he did as he was told. While seeking water he came to the fountain of Castalia, which a dragon, the offspring of Mars, was guarding. It killed the comrades of Cadmus, but was killed by Cadmus with a stone. Under Minerva’s instructions he sowed the teeth and ploughed them under. From them sprang the Sparti. These fought themselves, but from them five survived, namely, Chthonius, Udaeus, Hyperenor, Pelorus, and Echion. Moreover, Boeotia was named from the ox Cadmus followed.
Jove desired to lie with Semele, and when Juno found out, she changed her form to that of the nurse Beroe, came to Semele, and suggested that she ask Jove to come to her as he came to Juno, “that you may know”, she said, “what pleasure it is to lie with a god.” And so Semele asked Jove to come to her in this way. Her request was granted, and Jove, coming with lightning and thunder, burned Semele to death. From her womb Liber was born. Mercury snatched him from the fire and gave him to Nysus to be reared. In Greek he is called Dionysus.
Actaeon, son of Aristaeus and Autonoe, a shepherd, saw Diana bathing and desired to ravish her. Angry at this, Diana made horns grow on his head, and he was devoured by his own dogs.
When Diana, wearied from constant hunting in the thickly shadowed valley of Gargaphia, in the summertime was bathing in the stream called Parthenius, Actaeon, grandson of Cadmus, son of Aristaeus and Autonoe, sought the same place for cooling himself and the dogs which he had exercised in chasing wild beasts. He caught sight of the goddess, and to keep him from telling of it, she changed him into a stag. As a stag, then, he was mangled by his own hounds. Their names were (these are all male): Melampus, Ichnobates, [Echnobas], Pamphagos, Dorceus, Oribasus, Nebrophonus, Laelap, Theron, Pterelas, Hylaeus, Nape, Ladon, Poemenis, [Therodanapis], Aura, Lacon, Harpyia, Aello, Dromas, Thous Canache, Cyprius, Sticcte, Labros, Arcas, Agriodus, Tigris, Hylactor, Alce, Harpalus, Lycisca, Melaneus, Lachne, Leucon. Likewise there who devoured him - females: Melanchaetes, Agre, theridamas, Oreistrophos. Other authors give these names too: Acamas, Syrus, Leon, Stilbon, Agrius, Charops, Aethon, Corus, Boreas, Draco, Eudromus, Dromius, Zephyrus, Lampus, Haemon, Cyllopodes, Harpalicus, Machimus, Ichneus, Melampus, Ocydromus, Borax, Ocythous, Pachylus, Obrimus; and females: Argo, Arethusa, Urania, Theriope, Dinomache, Dioxippe, Echione, Gorgo, Cyllo, Harpyia, Lynceste, Leaena, Lacaena, Ocyptete, Ocydrome, Oxyrhoe, Orias, *Sagnos, Theriphone, *Volatos, *Chediaetros.
The daughters of Oceanus are Idothea, Althaea, and Adrasta, but others say they are daughters of Melisseus, and nurses of Jove. The nymphs which are called Dodonides (others call them Naides) . . . Their names are Cisseis, Nysa, Erato, Eriphia, Bromis, Polyhymno. On Mount Nysa these obtained a boon from their foster-son, who made petition to Medea. Putting off old age, they were changed to young girls, and later, consecrated among the stars, they are called Hyades. Others report that they were called Arsinoe, Ambrosie, Bromie, Cisseis, and Coronis.
Eous; by him the sky is turned. Aethiops, as if faming, parches the grain. These trace-horses are male. The female are yoke-bearers: Bronte, whom we call Thunder, Sterope, whom we call Lightning. Eumelus of Corinth is the authority for this. There are also the ones that Homer names: Abraxas, *Therbeeo. Ovid, too: Pyrois, Eous, Aethon, and Phlegon.
The names of the Horae, daughters of Jove, son of Saturn, and Themis, daughter Titanidis, arethese: Auco, Eunomia (Order), Pherusa, Carpo (Fruit), Dice (Justice), Euporia, Irene (Peace), Orthosie, Thallo. Other writers give ten by these names: Auge (When light first appears), Anatole (Dawn), Musica, Gymnastica, Nymphe (Hour of Bath), Mesembria (Noon), Sponde (Libations poured before dinner), *Elete, *Acte, Hesperis, and Dysis (Setting).”
Pentheus, son of Echion and Agave, denied that Liber was a god, and refused to introduce his Mysteries. Because of this, Agave his mother, along with her sisters Ino and Autonoe, in madness sent by Liber tore him limb from limb. When Agave came to her senses and saw that at Liber’s instigation she had committed such a crime, she fled from Thebes. In her wanderings she came to the territory of Illyria to King Lycotherses, who received her.
Schoeneus is said to have had a most beautiful daughter, Atalanta, who by her swiftness used to surpass men in the race. She asked her father that she might remain a virgin. And so, since she was sought by many in marriage, her father set up a contest, that her suitors should contend with her first in a foot-race; then a limit being set, that the man, unarmed, should flee, and she should pursue him with a weapon; the one she overtook within the limits of the course, she should kill, and fix his head up in the stadium. When she had overtaken and killed many, she was finally defeated by Hippomenes, son of Megareus and Merope. For he had received from Venus three apples of exceptional beauty, and had been instructed how to use them. By throwing them down in the contest. He had slowed up the speed of the girl, for as she picked them up and admired the gold, she lost time, and gave victory to the youth. Schoeneus willingly gave him his daughter because of his ingenuity, but as he was taking her home, forgetting that he had won by the favour of Venus, he did not give thanks to her. While he was sacrifice to Jove Victor on Mount Parnassus, inflamed with passion through the anger of Venus, he lay with Atalanta in the shrine, and Jupiter because of this changed them into lion and lioness, animals to whom the gods deny intercourse of love.
Neptune seduced Melanippe, a very beautiful girl, daughter of Desmontes or as other poets say, of Aeolus, and begat by her two sons. When Desmontes found this out, he blinded Melanippe, and shut her in a prison, with commands that only scant food and water be given to her, and that the children be thrown to wild beasts. When thy had been thrown out, a cow in milk came to the children and offered them her udders, and cowherds, seeing this, took he children to rear. In the meantime Metapontus, King of Icaria, demanded of his wife Theano that she bear children to him, or leave the kingdom. She, in fear, sent to the shepherds asking them to find a child she could present to the king. They sent her the two babies they had found, and she presented them to king Metapontus as her own. Theano later bore two sons to Metapontus. Since, however, Metapontus, was exceedingly fond of the first two, because they were very handsome, Theano sought to get rid of them and save the kingdom for her own sons. A day came when Metapontus went out to perform sacrifices to Diana Metapontina, and Theano, seizing the opportunity, revealed to her sons that the older boys wee not her own. “So, when they go out to hunt, kill them with hunting knives.” When they had gone out in the mountains, at their mother’s instructions, they started fighting. But with the aid of Neptune, Neptune’s sons overcame them and killed them. When their bodies wee borne into the palace, Theano killed herself with a hunting knife. The avengers, Boeotus and Aeolus, fled to the shepherds where they had been reared, and there Neptune revealed to them that they were his sons and that their mother was held in custody. They went to Desmontes, killed him, and freed their mother, whose sight Neptune restore. Her sons brought her to Icaria to King Metapontus, and revealed Theano’s treachery to him. After this, Metapontus married Melanippe, and adopted the two as his sons. In Propontis they founded towns called by their names - Boeotus, Boeotia, and Aeolus, Aeolia.
Since Alope, daughter of Cercyon, was very beautiful, Neptune embraced her, and from this embrace she bore a child which she gave to her nurse to expose, since she did not know its father. When the child was exposed, a mare came and furnished it milk. A certain shepherd, following the mare, saw the child and took it up. When he had taken it home, clothed in its royal garments, a fellow shepherd asked that it be given to him. The first gave it without the garments, and when strife rose between them, the one who had taken the child demanding signs it was free-born, but the other refusing to give them, they came to King Cercyon and presented their arguments. The on who had taken the child again demanded the garments, and when they were brought, Cercyon knew that they were taken from the garments of his daughter. Alope’s nurse, in fear, revealed to the King that the child was Alope’s, and he ordered that his daughter be imprisoned and slain, and the child exposed. Again the mare fed it; shepherds again found the child, and took him up, and reared him, feeling that he was being guarded by the will of the gods. They gave him the name Hippothous. When Theseus was journeying from Troezene, he killed Cercyon; Hippothous, however, came to Theseus and asked for his father’s kingdom. Theseus willingly gave it to him when he learned he was the son of Neptune, from whom he claimed his own birth. The body of Alope Neptune turned into a fountain, called by the name Alope.
Theophane, a most beautiful maiden, was the daughter of Bisaltes. When many suitors sought her from her father, Neptune carried her off and took her to the island of Crumissa. When the suitors knew she was staying there, they secured a ship and hastened to Crumissa. To deceive them, Neptune changed Theophane into a very beautiful ewe, himself into a ram, and the citizens of Curmissa into cattle. When the suitors came there and found no human beings, they began to slaughter the herds and use them for food. Neptunus saw that the men who had been changed to cattle were being destroyed, and changed the suitors into wolves. He himself, in ram form, lay with Theophane, and from this union was born the golden-fleeced ram which carried Phrixus to Colchis, and whose fleece, hung in the grove of Mars, Jason took away.
Procris was the daughter of Pandion. Cephalus, son of Deion, had her to wife, and since they were bound by mutual love, they promised each other never to be untrue. However, when Cephalus, who was fond of hunting, had gone to the mountain in the warly morning, Aurora, wife of Tithonus, fell passionately in love with him, and begged for his embrace. He refused, since he had given his promise to Procris. Then Aurora said: “I don’t want you to break faith, unless she has done so before you.” And so she changed his form into that of a stranger, and gave him beautiful gifts to give to Procris. When Cephalus had come in his changed form, he gave the gifts to Procris and lay with her. Then Aurora took away his new appearance. When Procris saw Cephalus, she knew she had been deceived by Aurora, and fled to the island of Crete, where Diana used to hunt. When Diana saw her, she said to her: “virgins hunt with me, but you are not a virgin, leave my company.” Procris revealed to her her misfortune and told her that she had been deceived by Aurora. Diana, moved by pity, gave her a javelin which no one could avoid, and the dog Laelaps which no wild beast could escape, and bade her go contend with Cephalus. With her hair cut, and in young man’s attire, by the will of Diana, she came to Cephalus and challenged him, and surpassed him in the hunt. When Cephalus saw that javelin and Dog were so irresistible, he asked the stranger to sell them to him, not knowing she was his wife. She refused. He promised her also a share in his kingdom; she still refused. “But if,” she said, “you really continue to want this, grant me what boys are won to grant.” Inflamed by desire for the javelin and the Dog, he promised he would. When they had come into the bed-chamber, Procris took off her tunic and showed that she was a woman and his wife. Cephalus took the gifts and came again into her favor. Neverthless out of fear of Auora she followed him to watch him in the early morning, and hid among the bushes. When Cephalus saw the bushes stir, he hurled the unavoidable javelin, and killed his wife, Procris. By her Cephalus had a son Arcesius, whose son was Laertes, Ulysses’ father.
The prophet Thestor had a son Calchas, and daughters Leucippe and Theonoe. When Theonoe was playing, pirates from the sea stole her and took her to Caria, where King Icarus bought her for a concubine. Thestor, however, went in search of his lost daughter, and as a result of shipwreck, came to the land of Caria, and was cast into chains at the place where Theone was staying. Leucippe, now that her father and sister were lost, asked Delphi whether she should search for them. Then Apollo replied: “Go throughout the earth as my priest, and you will find them.” Lecuippe, on hearing this response, cut her hair, and as a youthful priest went from country to country to find them. When she had come to Caria, Theonoe saw her, and thinking she was a priest, fell in love with “him,” and bade “him” be brought that she lie with “him.” But she, because she was a woman, said it could not be done. Then Theonoe in anger gave orders that the priest be shut in a room and that someone from the servants’ quarters come to kill him. The old man Thestor was sent unknowingly to his daughter to do the slaying. Theonoe did not recognize him and gave him a sword, bidding him kill the priest. When he had entered, sword in hand, he said his name was Thestor; he had lost his two daughters, Leucippe and Theonoe, and had come to this pitch of misfortune, that he had been ordered to commit a crime. When he had turned the weapon (?) and was about to kill himself, Leucippe, hearing her father’s name, wrested the sword from him. In order to go and kill the queen, she called on her father Thestor to aid her. Theonoe, when she heard her father’s name, gave proof she was his daughter. Then Icarus the king, after this recognition, sent him back into his country with gifts.
Midas, Mygdonian king, son of the Mother goddess from Timolus . . . was taken [as judge] at the time when Apollo contested with Marsyas, or Pan, on the pipes. When Timolus gave the victory to Apollo, Midas said it should rather have been given to Marsyas. Then Apollo angrily said to Midas: “You will have ears to match the mind you have in judging”, and with these words he caused him to have ass’s ears.
At the time when Father Liber was leading his army into India, Silenus wandered away; Midas entertained him generously, and gave him a guide to conduct him to Liber’s company. Because of this favour, Father Liber gave Midas the privilege of asking him for whatever he wanted. Midas asked that whatever he touched should become gold. When he had been granted the wish, and came to his palace, whatever he touched became gold. When now he was being tortured with hunger, he begged Liber to take away the splendid gift. Liber bade him bathe in the River Pactolus, and when his body touched the water it became a golden colour. The river in Lydia is now called Chrysorrhoas.
Atlas by Pleione or an Oceanid had twelve daughters, and a son, Hyas. The son was killed b y a wild boar or a lion, and the sisters, grieving for him, died of this grief. The five of them first put among the stars have their place between the horns of the bull – Phaesyla, Ambrosia, Coronis, Eudora, Polyxo – and are called, from their brother’s name, Hyades. In Latin they are called Suculae. Some say that since they are arranged in the form of the letter Upsilon they are called Hyades; some, they are so called because they bring rain when they rise, for “to rain” is hyein in Greek. There are those who think they are among the stars because they were the nurses of Father Liber whom Lycurgus drove out from the island Naxos.
The rest of the sisters, later dying from grief, were made stars, and because they were many, were called Pleiades. Some think they were so named because they are joined together, that is, plesion, for they are so close together that they can scarcely be counted, nor can anyone be sure whether they are six or seven in number. Their names are as follows: Electra, Alcyone, Celaeno, Merope, Sterope, Taygeta, and Maia. Of these, they say Electra does not appear, because of the death of Dardanus and the loss of Troy. Others think that Merope appears to blush because she had a mortal as husband, though the others had gods. Driven from the band of her sisters because of this, she wears her hair long in grief, and is called a comet, or longodes because she trails out for a long distance, or xiphias because she shows the shape of a sword-point. This star, too, portends grief
Harpalycus, a Thracian, King of the Amymnei, had a daughter Harpalyce. When her mother died, he fed her from the teats of cows and mares, and as she grew, trained her in arms, intending to have her later as successor to his kingdom. And the girl did not fail her father’s hopes, for she proved to be such a good warrior as to bring safety to her parent. For when Neoptolemus, returning from Troy, attacked Harpalycus and wounded him severely, she saved her father from death by making an attack and putting the enemy to flight. But after Harpalycus was killed in an insurrection of the citizens, Harpalyce, taking her father’s death to heart, betook herself to the woods, and there because she plundered the herds of cattle, she perished at length in an attack by the herdsmen.
Since Arion of Methymna was very skilful in playing the lyre, King Pyranthus of Corinth was fond of him. When he had gained permission from the king to make known his art throughout the state and had acquired a great fortune, his servants, together with the sailors, plotted to kill him. Apollo appeared to him in a dream and bade him sing in his poet’s garland crown, and surrender himself to those who would come to aid him. When the servants and sailors were about to kill him, he asked to be allowed to sing first. But when the sound of the lyre and his voice were heard, dolphins came about the ship, and at sight of them he threw himself into the sea. They raised him up and bore him to Corinth to King Pyranthus. When he reached land, being eager for his journey, he failed to push the dolphin into the sea and it perished there. After he had told his misfortunes to Pyranthus, the King ordered the dolphin to be buried, and monument raised to it. Shortly after, word came to Pyranthus that the ship in which Arion had sailed had been brought to Corinth by a storm. He ordered the crew to be led before him, and inquired about Arion, but they replied that he had died and that they had buried him. The King replied: “Tomorrow you will swear to that at the Dolphin’s Monument.” Because of this he ordered them to be kept under guard, and instructed Arion to hide in the monument of the dolphin the next morning, attired as he was when he threw himself into the sea. When the King had brought them there, and ordered them to swear by the departed spirit of the dolphin that Arion was dead, Arion came out of the monument. In amazement, wondering by what divinity he had been saved, they were silent. The King ordered them to be crucified at the monument of the dolphin, but Apollo, because of Arion’s skill with the cithara, placed him and the dolphin among the stars.
Jove, Neptune, and Mercury came as guests to King Hyrieus in Thrace. Since they were received hospitably by him, they promised him whatever he should ask for. He asked for children. Mercury brought out the hide of the bull which Hyrieus had sacrificed to them; they urinated in it, and buried it in the earth, and from it Orion was born. When he tried to violate Diana, she killed him. Later he was placed by Jove among the stars, and called Orion.
When the god in Egypt feared the monster Typhon, Pan bade them transform themselves into wild beasts the more easily to deceive him. Jove later killed him with a thunderbolt. By the will of the gods, since by his warning they had avoided Typhon’s violence, Pan was put among the number of the stars, Since at that time he had changed himself into a goat, he was called Aeocerus. We call him Capricorn.
Into the Euphrates River an egg of wonderful size is said to have fallen, which the fish rolled to the bank. Doves sat on it, and when it was heated, it hatched out Venus, who was later called the Syrian goddess. Since she excelled the rest in justice and uprightness, by a favour granted by Jove, the fish were put among the number of the stars, and because of this the Syrians do not eat fish or doves, considering them as gods.
Nisus, son of Mars, or as others say, of Deion, and king of the Megarians, is said to have had a purple lock of hair on his head. An oracle had told him that he would rule as long as he preserved that lock. When Minos, son of Jove, had come to attack him, Scylla, daughter of Nisus, fell in love with him at the instigation of Venus. To make him the victor, she cut the fatal lock from her sleeping father, and so Nisus was conquered by Minos. He said that holy Crete would not receive such a criminal. She threw herself into the sea to avoid pursuit [?]. Nisus, however, in pursuit of his daughter, was changed into a halliaetos, that is, a sea-eagle. Scylla, his daughter, was changed into a fish which they call the ciris, and today, if ever that bird sees the fish swimming, he dives into the water, seizes it, and rends it with his claws.
Scylla, daughter of the River Crataeis, is said to have been a most beautiful maiden. Glaucus loved her, but Circe, daughter of Sol, loved Glaucus. Since Scylla was accustomed to bathe in the sea, Circe, daughter of Sol, out of jealousy poisoned the water with drugs, and when Scylla went down into it, dogs sprang from her thighs, and she was made a monster. She avenged her injuries, for as Ulysses sailed by, she robbed him of his companions.