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Greek Mythology >> Greek Gods Cult >> Apollo Cult >> Titles & Epithets

APOLLON TITLES

Greek Name

Απολλων

Transliteration

Apollôn

Latin Spelling

Apollo

Roman Name

Apollo

APOLLON was the Olympian god of music, poetry, prophecy, youth, healing, and the aversion of plague and harm.

This page lists his many titles and epithets.


CULT TITLES & EPITHETS

The first of Apollon's cult titles refer to his various divine functions, as god of oracles, archery, music, healing, the averter of plague and evils, the protector from harm (from wolves, plagues of mice and locusts, mildew, protection of streets, entrances, embarkations, voyages, etc.), hunting:--

Greek Name

Θεαριος

Προοπσιος

Κληριος

Κληδωνες

Transliteration

Thearios

Proopsios

Klêrios

Klêdônes

Latin Spelling

Thearius

Proupsius

Clerius

Cledones

Translation

Of the Oracle

Foreseeing

Distributing by Lot

Omen in Words and Sounds

Greek Name

Ἑκατος

Αγραιος

Μουσηγετης

Ουλιος

Transliteration

Hekatos

Agraios

Mousêgetês

Oulios

Latin Spelling

Hecatus

Agraeus

Musagetes

Ulius

Translation

Shooter from Afar

Of the Hunt, Hunter

Leader of the Muses

Of Sound Health

Greek Name

Παιαν

Παιηον

Παιων

Ακεσιος

Transliteration

Paian

Paiêon

Paiôn

Akesios

Latin Spelling

Paean

Paeon

Paeon

Acesius

Translation

Healer

Healer

Healer

Of Healing

Greek Name

Αλεξικακος

Επικουριος

Βοηδρομιος

Λυκιος

Transliteration

Alexikakos

Epikourios

Boêdromios

Lykios

Latin Spelling

Alexicacus

Epicurius

Boedromius

Lycius

Translation

Averter of Evil, Harm

Succouring, Helping

Rescuer

Of the Wolves

Greek Name

Σμινθειος

Σμινθαιος

Παρνοπιος

Πορνοπιων

Ερυθιβιος

Transliteration

Smintheios

Sminthaios

Parnopios

Pornopiôn

Erythibios

Latin Spelling

Smintheus

Smintheus

Parnopius

Pornopion

Erythibius

Translation

Of the Mice

Of the Mice

Of the Locusts

Of the Locusts

Of Mildew

Greek Name

Δελφινιος

Ακτιος

Θεοξενιος

Επιβατηεριος

Transliteration

Delphinios

Aktios

Theoxenios

Epibatêrios

Latin Spelling

Delphinius

Actius

Theoxenius

Epibaterius

Translation

Of the Dolphin

Of the Foreshore

God of Foreigners

Of Sacrifices on Disembarkation

Greek Name

Κορυνθος

Ενθρυπτος

Αργυιευς

Προστατηριος

Transliteration

Korynthos

Enthryptos

Argyieus

Prostatêrios

Latin Spelling

Corynthus

Enthryptus

Argyeus

Prostaterius

Translation

Of the Corynthus-Cake *

Of the Enthryptos-Cake *

Of the Streets

Standing Before (the Entrance)

* The corynthus- and enthyptos-cakes were sacred cult foods.

Another set of cult titles derived from the towns and places where his shrines were located, as well as the names of cult-founders, and descriptions of their locale. Not all of these titles were confined to their "home-town", for example, Apollon Pythios (of Phthia) was worshipped throughout Greece.

Greek Name

Πυθιος

Δελφιος

Αμυκλαιος

Ονκαιατος

Transliteration

Pythios

Delphios

Amyklaios

Onkaiatos

Latin Spelling

Pythius

Delphius

Amyclaeus

Oncaeatus

Translation

Pythian (Delphi) *

Of Delphi (Phocis) *

Of Amyclae (Laconia)

Of Oncius (Arcadia)

Greek Name

Παρρασιος

Ισμηνιος

Πτωιος

Τιλφωσσιος

Transliteration

Parrhasios

Ismênios

Ptôios

Tilphôssios

Latin Spelling

Parrhasius

Ismenius

Ptoeus

Tilphossius

Translation

Of Parrhasia (Arcadia)

Of Ismenus R. (Boeotia)

Of Mt Ptoon (Boeotia)

Of Tilphusa (Boeotia)

Greek Name

Μαρμαρινος

Ακτιος

Φυλλιος

Λευκατας

Transliteration

Marmarinos

Aktios

Phyllios

Leukatas

Latin Spelling

Marmarinus

Actius

Phyllius

Leucatas

Translation

Of Marmarium (Euboea)

Of Actium (Acarnania)

Of Phyllus (Phthiotis)

Of Leucas (Adriatic)

Greek Name

Δηλιος

Τενεατος

Θυμβριος

Λυκειος

Transliteration

Dêlios

Teneatos

Thymbrios

Lykeios

Latin Spelling

Delius

Teneatus

Thymbrius

Lyceus

Translation

Of Delos (Aegean)

Of Tenos (Aegean)

Of Thymbra (Troad)

Of Lycia

Greek Name

Κλαριος

Γρυνειος

Γρυνευς

Λαρισαιος

Transliteration

Klarios

Gryneios

Gryneus

Larisaios

Latin Spelling

Clarius

Gryneus

Gryneus

Larisaeus

Translation

Of Clarus (Lydia) *

Of Gryneum (Lydia)

Of Gryneum (Lydia)

Of Larisa (Lydia)

Greek Name

Τριοπιος

Διδυμοις

Διδυμευς

Αιγυπτιος

Transliteration

Triopios

Didymois

Didymeus

Aigyptios

Latin Spelling

Triopius

Didymoïs

Didymeus

Aegyptus

Translation

Of Triopium (Caria)

Of Didyma (Caria) *

Of Didyma (Caria) *

Of Egypt

Greek Name

Λυκειος

Αμαζονιος

Ονκαιατος

Καρνειος

Transliteration

Lykeios

Amazonios

Onkaiatos

Karneios

Latin Spelling

Lyceus

Amazonius

Oncaeatus

Carneus

Translation

Of Lycus (Attic hero)

Of the Amazons

Of Oncius (Arcadian hero)

Of Carnus (Acarnanian hero)

Greek Name

Ισμηνιος

Κιλλαιος

Δειραδιωτης

Πλατανιστιος

Transliteration

Ismênios

Killaios

Deiradiôtês

Platanistios

Latin Spelling

Ismenius

Cillaeus

Diradiotes

Platanistius

Translation

Of Ismenus (Boeotian hero)

Of Cillus (Trojan hero)

Of the Ridge

Of the Plane-Trees

Greek Name

Μελιαι

Σποδιος

Ακταιος

Αρχηγετης

Transliteration

Meliai

Spodios

Aktaios

Arkhêgetês

Latin Spelling

Meliae

Spodius

Actaeus

Archegetes

Translation

Of the Ash-Trees

Of (Altar) Ashes

Of the Coast

Founder (of Megara's Walls)

Greek Name

Λατωιος

Πυθιος

Διονυσοδοτης

Πατρωιος

Transliteration

Latôios

Pythios

Dionysodotês

Patrôios

Latin Spelling

Latoeus

Pythius

Dionysodotes

Patroeus

Translation

Son of Leto

Of the Python

Bestower of Dionysus

Of the Fathers, Ancestral

Greek Name

Καρνειος

Θερμιος

Αιγλητος

Δεκατηφορος

Ὁριος

Transliteration

Karneios

Thermios

Aiglêtos

Dekatêphoros

Horios

Latin Spelling

Carneus

Thermius

Aegletus

Decatephorus

Horius

Translation

Of the Cornel-Tree

Of Lupine Flowers

Shining

Bringer of Tithes

Boundaries, Of Borders

* Delphi, Clarus and Didyma were the sites of oracles of the god.

The meaning of some of his titles remain obscure:--

Greek Name

Μαλεατος

Μαλοεις

Ακριτης

Καρινος

Transliteration

Maleatos

Maloeis

Akritês

Karinos

Latin Spelling

Maleatus

Maloeis

Acrites

Carinus

Translation

--

--

--

--

Greek Name

Θυρξευς

Αργεωτας

Κερεατας

Λαφριος

Transliteration

Thyrxeus

Argeôtas

Kereatas

Laphrios

Latin Spelling

Thyrxeus

Argeotas

Cereatas

Laphrius

Translation

--

--

--

--


CULT TERMS

Some general terms pertaining to the god's cult include:--

Greek Name

Απολλωνιον

Πυθιον

Δελφινιον

Δηλιον

Transliteration

Apollônion

Pythion

Delphinion

Dêlion

Latin Spelling

Apollonium

Pythium

Delphinium

Delium

Translation

Temple of Apollo

Temple of Pythian Apollo

Temple of Delphian Apollo

Temple of Delian Apollo

Greek Name

Αμυκλαιον

Λυκειον

Τριοπιον

Φυθια

Transliteration

Amyklaion

Lykeion

Triopion

Pythia

Latin Spelling

Amyclaeum

Lyceum

Triopium

Pythia

Translation

Temple of Amyclaean Apollo

Temple of Lycian Apollo

Temple of Triopian Apollo

Festival & Games of Pythian Apollo

Greek Name

Πτωια

Καρνεια

Ακτια

Ὑακινθια

Transliteration

Ptôia

Karneia

Aktia

Hyakinthia

Latin Spelling

Ptoea

Carneia

Actia

Hyacinthia

Translation

Festival of Apollo Ptous

Festival of Apollo Carneus

Festival of Apollo Actius

Festival of Hyacinthus

Greek Name

Δηλια

Γυμνοπαιδιαι

Θεοξενια

Ἑορτη Αργυιευς

Transliteration

Dêlia

Gymnopaidiai

Theoxenia

Heortê Argyieus

Latin Spelling

Delia

Gymnopaedeae

Theoxenia

Heorte Argyeus

Translation

Festival of Delian Apollon

Festival of Women

Festival of Apollo Theoxenius

Feast of Hunter Apollo

Months names after Apollon include:--

Greek Name

Καρνειος

Αρνειος

Θεοξενιος

Παρνοπιον

Transliteration

Karneios

Arneios

Theoxenios

Parnopion

Latin Spelling

Carneus

Arneus

Theoxenius

Parnopium

Translation

Month of Apollo Carneius (Sparta)

Month of Apollo Arneius (Argos)

Month of Apollo Theoxenius (Phocis)

Month of Apollo Parnopius (Aeolia)


ENCYCLOPEDIA APOLLO TITLES

ABAEUS (Abaios), a surname of Apollo derived from the town of Abae in Phocis, where the god had a rich temple. (Hesych. s. v. Abai; Herod. viii. 33; Paus. x. 35. § 1, &c.)

ACERSE′COMES (Akersekomês), a surname of Apollo expressive of his beautiful hair which was never cut or shorn. (Hom. Il. xx. 39; Pind. Pyth. iii. 26.)

ACE′SIUS (Akesios), a surname of Apollo, under which he was worshipped in Elis, where he had a splendid temple in the agora. This surname, which has the same meaning as akestôr and alexikakos, characterised the god as the averter of evil. (Paus. vi. 24. § 5.)

ACESTOR (Akestôr). A surname of Apollo which characterises him as the god of the healing art, or in general as the averter of evil, like akesios. (Eurip. Androm. 901.)

ACTIACUS, a surname of Apollo, derived from Actium, one of the principal places of his worship. (Ov. Met. xiii. 715; Strab. x. p. 451; compare Burmann, ad Propert. p. 434.)

AEGLE′TES (Aiglêtês), that is, the radiant god, a surname of Apollo. (Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1730; Apollod. i. 9. § 26; Hesych. s. v.)

AGE′TOR (Agêtôr), a surname given to several gods, for instance, to Zeus at Lacedaemon (Stob. Serm. 42): the name seems to describe Zeus as the leader and ruler of men; but others think, that it is synonymous with Agamemnon :-- to Apollo (Eurip. Med. 426) where however Elmsley and others prefer halêtôr :-- to Hermes, who conducts the souls of men to the lower world. Under this name Hermes had a statue at Megalopolis. (Paus. viii. 3. § 4.)

AGO′NIUS (Agônios), a surname or epithet of several gods. Aeschylus (Agam. 513) and Sophocles (Trach. 26) use it of Apollo and Zeus, and apparently in the sense of helpers in struggles and contests. (Comp. Eustath. ad Il. p. 1335.) But Agonius is more especially used as a surname of Hermes, who presides over all kinds of solemn contests. (Agônes, Paus. v. 14. § 7; Pind. Olymp. vi. 133, with the Schol.)

AGRAEUS (Agraios), the hunter, a surname of Apollo. After he had killed the lion of Cithaeron, a temple was erected to him by Alcathous at Megara under the name of Apollo Agraeus. (Paus. i. 41. § 4; Eustath. ad Il. p. 361.)

AGYIEUS (Aguieus), a surname of Apollo describing him as the protector of the streets and public places. As such he was worshipped at Acharnae (Paus. i. 31. § 3), Mycenae (ii. 19. § 7), and at Tegea. (viii. 53. § 1.) The origin of the worship of Apollo Agyieus in the last of these places is related by Pausanias. (Compare Hor. Carm. iv. 6. 28; Macrob. Sat. i. 9.)

ALEXI′CACUS (Alexikakos), the averter of evil, is a surname given by the Greeks to several deities, as -- Zeus (Orph. De Lapid. Prooem. i.), -- to Apollo, who was worshipped under this name by the Athenians, because he was believed to have stopped the plague which raged at Athens in the time of the Peloponnesian war (Paus. i. 3. § 3, viii. 41. § 5), -- and to Heracles. (Lactant. v. 3.)

AMAZO′NIUS (Amazonios), a surname of Apollo, under which he was worshipped, and had a temple at Pyrrhichus in Laconia. The name was derived either from the belief that the Amazons had penetrated into Peloponnesus as far as Pyrrhichus, or that they had founded the temple there. (Paus. iii. 25. § 2.)

AMYCLAEUS (Amuklaios), a surname of Apollo, derived from the town of Amyclae in Laconia, where he had a celebrated sanctuary. His colossal statue there is estimated by Pausanias (iii. 19. § 2) at thirty cubits in height. It appears to have been very ancient, for with the exception of the head, hands, and feet, the whole resembled more a brazen pillar than a statue. This figure of the god wore a helmet, and in his hands he held a spear and a bow. The women of Amyclae made every year a new chitôn for the god, and the place where they made it was also called the Chiton. (Paus. iii. 16. § 2.) The sanctuary of Apollo contained the throne of Amyclae, a work of Bathycles of Magnesia, which Pausanias saw. (iii. 18. § 6, &c.; comp. Welcker, Zeitschrift für Gesch. der alt. Kunst. i. 2, p. 280, &c.)

ARCHE′GETES (Archêgetês). A surname of Apollo, under which he was worshipped in several places, as at Naxos in Sicily (Thuc. vi. 3; Pind. Pyth. v.80), and at Megara. (Paus. i. 42. § 5.) The name has reference either to Apollo as the leader and protector of colonies, or as the founder of towns in general, in which case the import of the name is niearly the same as theos patroôs.

BOEDRO′MIUS (Boêdromios), the helper in distress, a surname of Apollo at Athens, the origin of which is explained in different ways. According to some, the god was thus called because he had assisted the Athenians in the war with the Amazons, who were defeated on the seventh of Boëdromion, the day on which the Boëdromia were afterwards celebrated. (Plut. Thes. 27.) According to others, the name arose from the circumstance, that in the war of Erechtheus and Ion against Eumolpus, Apollo had advised the Athenians to rush upon the enemy with a war-shout (Boê), if they would conquer. (Harpocrat., Suid., Etym. M. s.v. Boêdromios; Callim. Hymn.in Apoll. 69.)

CARNEIUS (Karneios), a surname of Apollo under which he was worshipped in various parts of Greece, especially in Peloponnesus, as at Sparta and Sicyon, and also in Thera, Cyrene, and Magna Graecia. (Paus. iii. 13. § 2, &c., ii. 10. § 2, 11. § 2; Pind. Pyth. v. 106; Plut. Sympos. viii. 1; Paus. iii. 24. § 5, iv. 31. § 1, 33. § 5.) The origin of the name is explained in different ways. Some derived it from Carnus, an Acarnanian soothsayer, whose murder by Hippotes provoked Apollo to send a plague into the army of Ilippotes while he was on his march to Peloponnesus. Apollo was afterwards propitiated by the introduction of the worship of Apollo Carneius. (Paus. iii. 13. § 3; Schol. ad Theocrit. v. 83.) Others believed that Apollo was thus called from his favourite Carnus or Carneius, a son of Zeus and Europa, whom Leto and Apollo had brought up. (Paus. l. c. ; Hesych. s. v. Karneios.) Several other attempts to explain the name are given in Pausanias and the Scholiast on Theocritus. It is evident, however, that the worship of the Carneian Apollo was very ancient, and was probably established in Peloponnesus even before the Dorian conquest. Respecting the festival of the Carneia see Dict. of Ant. s. v. Karneia.

CATAE′BATES ( Kataibatês), occurs as a surname of several gods . . . Of Apollo, who was invoked by this name to grant a happy return home (katabasis) to those who were travelling abroad. (Eurip. Bacch. 1358; Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 1416.)

CHRYSAOR (Chrusaôr). The god with the golden sword or arms. In this sense it is used as a surname or attribute of several divinities, such as Apollo (Hom. II. xv. 256), Artemis (Herod. viii. 77), and Demeter. (Hom. Hymn. in Cer. 4.)

CLA′RIUS (Klarios), a surname of Apollo, derived from his celebrated temple at Claros in Asia Minor, which had been founded by Manto, the daughter of Teiresias, who, after the conquest of her native city of Thebes, was made over to the Delphic god, and was then sent into the country, where subsequently Colophon was built by the Ionians. (Paus. vii. 3. § 1, ix. 33. § 1; Tacit. Ann. ii. 54; Strab. xiv. p. 642; Virg. Aen. iii. 360; comp. Muller, Dor. ii. 2. § 7.) Clarius also occurs as a surname of Zeus, describing him as the god who distributes things by lot (klaros or klêros, Aeschyl. Suppl. 360). A hill near Tegea was sacred to Zeus under this name. (Paus. viii. 53. § 4.)

CO′RYDUS (Korudos), a surname of Apollo, under which the god had a temple eighty stadia from Corone, on the sea-coast. (Paus. iv. 34. § 4, &c.)

CY′NTHIUS and CY′NTHIA (Kunthia and Kunthios, surnames respectively of Artemis and Apollo, which they derived from mount Cynthus in the island of Delos, their birthplace. (Callim. Hymn. in Del. 10; Hor. Carm. i. 21. 2, iii. 28. 12; Lucan, i. 218.)

DAPHNAEUS and DAPHNAEA (Daphnaia and Daphnaios), surnames of Artemis and Apollo respectively, derived from daphnê, a laurel, which was sacred to Apollo. In the case of Artemis it is uncertain why she bore that surname, and it was perhaps merely an allusion to her statue being made of laurel-wood (Paus. iii. 24. § 6; Strab. xvi. p. 750; Philostr. Vit. Apollon. i. 16; Eutrop. vi. 11; Justin. xv. 4.)

DECATE′PHORUS (Dekatêphoros), that is, the god to whom the tenth part of the booty is dedicated, was a surname of Apollo at Megara. Pausanias (i. 42. § 5) remarks, that the statues of Apollo Pythius and Decatephorus at Megara resembled Egyptian sculptures.

DE′LIUS and DE′LIA (Dêlios and Dêlia or Dêlias), surnames of Apollo and Artemis respectively, which are derived from the island of Delos the birthplace of those two divinities. (Virg. Aen. vi. 12, Eclog. vii. 29; Val. Flacc. i. 446; Orph. Hymn. 33. 8.) They are likewise applied, especially in the plural, to other divinities that were worshipped in Delos, viz. Demeter, Aphrodite, and the nymphs. (Aristoph. Thesm. 333; Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 169, Hymn. in Del. 323; Hom. Hymn. in Apoll. Del. 157.)

[DELPHINIUS and] DELPHI′NIA (Delphinia), a surname of Artemis at Athens. (Pollux, x. 119.) The masculine form Delphinius is used as a surname of Apollo, and is derived either from his slaying the dragon Delphine or Delphyne (usually called Python) who guarded the oracle at Pytho, or front his having shewn the Cretan colonists the way to Delphi, while riding on a dolphin or metamorphosing himself into a dolphin. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 208.) Under this name Apollo had temples at Athens, Cnossus in Crete, Didyma, and Massilia. (Paus. i. 19. § 1; Plut. Tiles. 14; Strab. iv. p. 179; Müller, Aeginet. p. 154.)

EPACTAEUS or EPA′CTIUS (Epaktaios or Epaktios), that is, the god worshipped on the coast, was used as a surname of Poseidon in Samos (Hesych. s. v.), and of Apollo. (Orph. Argon. 1296; Apollon. Rhod. i. 404.)

EPIBATE′RIUS (Epibatêrios), the god who conducts men on board a ship, a surname of Apollo, under which Diomedes on his return from Troy built him a temple at Troezene. (Paus. ii. 32. § 1.) In the same sense Apollo bore the surname of Embasios. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 404.)

EPICU′RIUS (Epikourios), the helper, a surname of Apollo, under which lie was worshipped at Bassae in Arcadia. Every year a wild boar was sacrificed to him in his temple on mount Lycaeus. He had received this surname because he had at one time delivered the country from a pestilence. (Paus. viii. 383. § 6, 41. § 5.)

EUTRESITES (Eutrêsitês), a surname of Apollo, derived from Eutresis, a place between Plataeae and Thespiae, where he had an ancient oracle. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Eutrêsis; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 268.)

GALA′XIUS (Galaxios), a surname of Apollo in Boeotia, derived from the stream Galaxius. (Procl. ap. Phot. p. 989; Müller, Orchom. p. 42, 2d edit.)

HEBDOMA′GETES (Hebdomagetês), a surname of Apollo, which was derived, according to some, from the fact of sacrifices being offered to him on the seventh of every month, the seventh of some month being looked upon as the god's birthday. Others connect the name with the fact that at the festivals of Apollo, the procession was led by seven boys and seven maidens. (Aeschyl. Sept. 804; Herod. vi. 57; Lobeck, Aglaoph. p. 434.)

HECAERGUS (Hekaergos), a surname of Apollo, of the same meaning as Hecaerge in the case of Artemis. (Hom. Il. i. 147.) Here too tradition has metamorphosed the attribute of the god into a distinct being, for Servius (ad Aen. xi. 532, 858) speaks of one Hacaergus as a teacher and priest of Apollo and Artemis.

HY′LATUS (Hulatos), a surname of Apollo derived from the town of Hyle in Crete, which was sacred to him. (Lycophr. 448, with Tzetzes' note; Steph. Byz. s. v. Hylê; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 596.)

INTONSUS, i.e. unshorn, a surname of Apollo and Bacchus, alluding to the eternal youth of these gods, as the Greek youths allowed their hair to grow until they attained the age of manhood, though in the case of Apollo it may also allude to his being the god of the sun, whence the long floating hair would indicate the rays of the sun. (Hom. Il. xx. 39, Hymn. in Apoll. 134; Horat. Epod. xv. 9; Tibull. i. 4. 34; Ov. Met. iii. 421, Amor. i. 14. 31; Martial, iv. 45.)

ISME′NIUS (Ismenios). A surname of Apollo at Thebes, who had a temple on the river Ismenus. (Paus. ii. 10. § 4, iv. 27. § 4, ix. 10. §§ 2, 5.) The sanctuary of the god, at which the Daphnephoria was celebrated, bore the name of Ismenium, and was situated outside the city.

ISO′DETES (Isodetês), from deô, the god who binds all equally, is used as a surname of Pluto, to express his impartiality (Hesych. s. v.), and of Apollo. (Bekker, Anecdot. p. 267.)

I′XIUS (Ixios), a surname of Apollo, derived from a district of the island of Rhodes which was called Ixiae or Ixia. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ixiai ; comp. Strab. xiv. p. 655.)

LAPHRAEUS (Laphraios), a surname of Apollo at Calydon. (Strab. x. p. 459, where, however, some read Lathrios.)

LEUCA′DIUS (Leukasios), a son of Icarius and Polycaste, and a brother of Penelope and Alyzeus. Leucas was believed to have derived its name from him. (Strab. x. pp. 452, 461.) Leucadius or Leucates also occurs as a surname of Apollo, which he derived from a temple in Leucas. (Strab. l. c.; Ov. Trist. iii. 1. 42; Propert. iii. 11. 69; comp. Thuc. iii. 94; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 274.)

LIBYSTI′NUS, that is, the Libyan, a surname under which Apollo was worshipped by the Sicilians, because he was believed to have destroyed by a pestilence a Libyan fleet which sailed against Sicily. (Macrob. Sat. i. 17.)

LOE′MIUS (Loimios), the deliverer from plague (Loimos), was a surname of Apollo at Lindus in Rhodes. (Macrob. Sat. i. 17.)

LO′XIAS (Loxias), a surname of Apollo, which is derived by some from his intricate and ambiguous oracles (loxa), but it is unquestionably connected with the verb Legein, and describes the god as the prophet or interpreter of Zeus. (Herod. i. 91, viii. 136; Aeschyl. Eum. 19; Aristoph. Plut. 8; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 794; Macrob. Sat. i. 17.)

LYCE′GENES (Lukêgenês), a surname of Apollo, describing him either as the god born in Lycia, or as the god born of light. (Hom. Il. iv. 101, 119 ;comp. LYCEIUS.)

LYCEIUS (Lukeios), a surname of Apollo, the meaning of which is not quite certain, for some derive it from lukos, a wolf, so that it would mean "the wolf-slayer;" others from lukê, light, according to which it would mean "the giver of light;" and others again from the country of Lycia. There are indeed passages in the ancient writers by which each of these three derivations may be satisfactorily proved. As for the derivation from Lycia, we know that he was worshipped at mount Cragus and Ida in Lycia; but he was also worshipped at Lycoreia on mount Parnassus, at Sicyon (Paus. ii. 9. § 7), Argos (ii. 19. § 3), and Athens (i. 19. § 4). In nearly all cases, moreover, where the god appears with this name, we find traditions concerning wolves. Thus the descendants of Deucalion, who founded Lycoreia, followed a wolf's roar; Latona came to Delos as a she-wolf, and she was conducted by wolves to the river Xanthus; wolves protected the treasures of Apollo; and near the great altar at Delphi there stood an iron wolf with inscriptions. (Paus. x. 14. § 4.) The attack of a wolf upon a herd of cattle occasioned the worship of Apollo Lyceius at Argos (Plut. Pyrrh. 32; comp. Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 124); and the Sicyonians are said to have been taught by Apollo in what manner they should get rid of wolves. (Paus. ii. 19. § 3.) In addition to all this, Apollo is called lukoktonos. (Soph. Elect. 7; Paus. ii. 9. § 7; Hesych. s. v.) Apollo, by the name of Lyceius, is therefore generally characterised as the destroyer. (Müller, Dor. ii. 6. § 8.)

LY′CIUS (Lukios), i. e. the Lycian, a surname of Apollo, who was worshipped in several places of Lycia, and had a sanctuary and oracle at Patara in Lycia. (Pind. Pyth. i. 39; Propert. iii. 1. 38; Virg. Aen. iv. 143, 346, 377.) It must, however, be observed, that Lycius is often used in the sense of Lyceius, and in allusion to his being the slayer of wolves. (Comp. Serv. ad Aen. iv. 377, who gives several other explanations of the name; Paus. ii. 9. § 7, 19. § 3; Philostr. Her. x. 4; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 354.)

LYCO′REUS (Lukôreus). A surname of Apollo, perhaps in the same sense as Lyceius; but he is usually so called with reference to Lycoreia, on Mount Parnassus. (Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1490; Callim. Hymn. in Apoll. 19; Orph. Hymn. 33. 1.)

MALEATES (Maleatês), a surname of Apollo, derived from cape Malea, in the south of Laconia. He had sanctuaries under this name at Sparta and on mount Cynortium. (Paus. iii. 12. § 7, ii. 27, in fin.)

MARMARINUS (Marmarinos), i.e. the god of marble, a surname of Apollo, who had a sanctuary in the marble quarries at Carystus. (Strab. x. p. 446; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 281.)

[MALLOEIS and] MELUS (Mêlos). A son of Manto, from whom the sanctuary of Apollo Malloeis in Lesbos was believed to have derived its name. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Malloeis.)

MOIRA′GETES (Moiragetês), the guide or leader of fate, occurs as a surname of Zeus and Apollo at Delphi. (Paus. x. 24. § 4.)

MUSA′GETES. [MUSAE.]

NO′MIUS (Noumios), a surname of divinities protecting the pastures and shepherds, such as Apollo, Pan. Hermes, and Aristaeus. (Aristoph. Thesmoph. 983; Anthol. Palat. ix. 217; Callim. Hymn. in Apoll. 47.)

ONCAEUS (Onkaios), a surname of Apollo, derived from Oncesium on the river Ladon in Arcadia, where he had a temple. (Paus. viii. 25. § 5, &c.)

PAEAN (Paian, Paiêôn or Paiôn), that is, "the healing," is according to Homer the designation of the physician of the Olympian gods, who heals, for example, the wounded Ares and Hades. (Il. v. 401, 899.) After the time of Homer and Hesiod, the word Paian becomes a surname of Asclepius, the god who had the power of healing. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1494; Virg. Aen. vii. 769.) The name was, however, used also in the more general sense of deliverer from any evil or calamity (Pind. Pyth. iv. 480), and was thus applied to Apollo and Thanatos, or Death, who are conceived as delivering men from the pains and sorrows of life. (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 154 ; Paus. i. 34. § 2 ; Eurip. Hippol. 1373.) With regard to Apollo and Thanatos however, the name may at the same time contain an allusion to paiein, to strike, since both are also regarded as destroyers. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 137.) From Apollo himself the name Paean was transferred to the song dedicated to him, that is, to hymns chanted to Apollo for the purpose of averting an evil, and to warlike songs, which were sung before or during a battle.

PAGASAEUS (Pagasaios), i. e. the Pagasaean, from Pegasus, or Pegasae, a town in Thessaly, is a surname of Apollo, who there had a sanctuary said to have been built by Trophonius (Hes. Scut. Herc. 70, with the Schol.), and of lason, because the ship Argo was said to have been built at Pagasus. (Ov. Het. vii. 1, Her. xvi. 345.)

PALATI′NUS, a surname of Apollo at Rome, where Augustus, in commemoration of the battle of Actium, dedicated a temple to the god on the Palatine hill, in which subsequently a library was established. (Dion Cass. liii. 1; Horat. Carm. i. 31, Epist. i. 3. 17; Propert. iv. 6. 11; Ov. Ars Am. iii. 389.)

PARNO′PIUS (Paruopios), i.e. the expeller of locusts (paruôps), a surname of Apollo, under which he had a statue on the acropolis at Athens. (Paus. i. 24. § 8.)

PARRHA′SIUS (Parrastos). A surname of Apollo, who had a sanctuary on Mount Lyceius, where an annual festival was celebrated to him as the epicurius, that is, the helper. (Paus. viii. 38. §§ 2, 6.)

PATAREUS (Patareus), a surname of Apollo, derived from the Lycian town of Patara, where he had an oracle, and where, according to Servius (ad Aen. iv. 143), the god used to spend the six winter months in every year. (Hor. Carm. iii. 4. 64; Lycoph. 920; Herod. i. 162; Strab. xiv. p. 665, &c.; Paus. ix. 41. § 1.)

PHILE′SIUS (Philêsios, a surname of Apollo at Didyma, where Branchus was said to have founded a sanctuary of the god, and to have introduced his worship. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8; comp. BRANCHUS.)

PHOEBUS (Phoibos), i.e. the shining, pure or bright, occurs both as an epithet and a name of Apollo, in his capacity of god of the sun. (Hom. Il. i. 43, 443; Virg. Aen. iii. 251; Horat. Carm. iii. 21, 24; Macrob. Sat. i. 17; comp. APOLLO, HELIOS.) Some ancients derived the name from Apollo's grandmother Phoebe. (Aeschyl. Eum. 8.)

PHY′XIUS (Phuzios), i. e., the god who protects fugitives, occurs as a surname of Zeus in Thessaly (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1147, iv. 699; Paus. ii. 21. § 3, iii. 17. § 8), and of Apollo. (Philostr. Her. x. 4.)

PY′THIUS (Puthios), the Pythian, from Pytho, the ancient name of Delphi, often occurs as a surname of Apollo, whose oracle was at Delphi. (Hom. Hymn. in Apoll. 373; Aeschyl. Agam. 521 ; Horat. Carm. i. 16. 6; Tac. Hist. iv. 83.)

SALGANEUS (Salganeus), a surname of Apollo, derived from the town of Salganeus in Boeotia. (Steph. Byz. s. v.; comp. Strab. ix. p. 403.)

[SARPEDONIUS and] SARPEDO′NIA (Sarpêdonia), a surname of Artemis, derived from cape Sarpedon in Cilicia, where she had a temple with an oracle. (Strab. xiv, p. 676.) The masculine Sarpedonius occurs as a surname of Apollo in Cilicia. (Zosim. i. 57.)

SMINTHEUS (Smintheus), a surname of Apollo, which is derived by some from sminthos, a mouse, and by others from the town of Sminthe in Troas (Horn. Il. i. 3.9; Ov. Fast. vi. 425, Met. xii. 585 ; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 34). The mouse was regarded by the ancients as inspired by the vapours arising from the earth, and as the symbol of prophetic power. In the temple of Apollo at Chryse there was a statue of the god by Scopas, with a mouse under its foot (Strab. xiii. p. 604, &c.; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 34), and on coins Apollo is represented carrying a mouse in his hands (Müller, Ancient Art and its Rem. § 361, note 5). Temples of Apollo Sminthens and festivals (Smintheia) existed in several parts of Greece, as at Tenedos, near Hamaxitos in Aeolis, near Parion, at Lindos in Rhodes, near Coressa, and in other places. (Strab. x. p 486, xiii. pp. 604, 605.)

SPO′DIUS (Spodios), a surname of Apollo at Thebes, derived from spodos, ashes, because his altar consisted of the ashes of the victims which had been sacrificed to him. (Paus. ix. 11. § 5.)

TEGYRE′IUS (Tegurêios), a surname of Apollo, derived from the town of Tegyra in Boeotia. where, according to some traditions, the god had been born. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Tegura ; Plut. Pelop. 8.)

TELMI′SSIUS (Telmissios), a surname of Apollo derived from the Lycian town of Telnissus or Telmessus. (Cic. de Div. i. 41; Steph. Byz. s. v. galeôtai; Strab. xv. p. 665.)

TEMENITES (Temenitês), a surname of Apollo, derived from his sacred temenus in the neighbourhood of Syracuse. (Steph. Byz. s. v. ; Sueton. Tib. 74; Thuc. vi. 75, 100.)

THEOXE′NIUS (Theoxenios), a surname of Apollo and Hermes. (Paus. vii. 27. § 2; Schol. ad Pind. Ol. ix. 146, Nem. x. 32.) Respecting the festival of the Theoxenia, see Dict. of Antiq. s. v.

THYMBRAEUS (Thumbraios). A surname of Apollo, derived from a place in Troas called Thymbra, where he had a temple in which Achilles was wounded, or from a neighboring hill of the same name. (Strab. xiii. p. 598; Steph. Byz. s. v. Thumbra; Eurip. Rhes. 224 ; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 85 ; Hom. Il. x. 430.)

[ZOSTERIUS and] ZOSTE′RIA (Zôstêria), a surname of Athena among the Epicnemidian Locrians. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Zôstêr; comp. Herod. viii. 107.) The masculine form Zosterius occurs as a surname of Apollo in Attica, on the slip of land stretching into the sea between Phaleron and Sunium. (Steph. Byz. l. c.)

Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.


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