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Greek Mythology >> Greek Gods Cult >> Athena Cult >> Titles & Epithets

ATHENE TITLES

Greek Name

Αθηνη

Transliteration

Athênê

Latin Spelling

Athena

Roman Name

Minerva

ATHENA was the Olympian goddess of the defense of towns and the crafts of weaving, pottery and sculpture.

This page lists her many cult titles.


CULT TITLES & EPITHETS

The first of Athena's cult titles refer to her various divine functions, as goddess of war, defender of cities, goddess of work, crafts, healing and health, cunning and plans, refuge and hospitality, eyesight, and maidenhood:--

Greek Name

Νικη

Αρεια

Σαλπινξ

Λειτις

Transliteration

Nikê

Areia

Salpinx

Leitis

Latin Spelling

Nicé

Areia

Salpinx

Leïtis

Translation

Victory

Of War, Warlike

War-Trumpet

Distributor of War Booty

Greek Name

Ζωστηρια

Σθενιας

Πολεμηδοκος

Ἱππια

Transliteration

Zôstêria

Sthenias

Polemêdokos

Hippia

Latin Spelling

Zosteria

Sthenias

Polemodocus

Hippia

Translation

Girder in Armour

Of Strength, Strong

War-Sustaining

Of the Horses

Greek Name

Χαλινιτις

Ερυμα

Σωτειρα

Αλαλκομενηις

Transliteration

Khalinitis

Eryma

Sôteira

Alalkomenêis

Latin Spelling

Chalinitis

Eryma

Soteira

Alalcomeneis

Translation

Bridler (of Horses)

Defender

Saviour

Protectress

Greek Name

Πολιας

Πολιουχος

Πολιατις

Προμαχορμα

Transliteration

Polias

Polioukhos

Poliatis

Promakhorma

Latin Spelling

Polias

Poliuchus

Poliatis

Promachorma

Translation

Of the City

City-Protectress

Keeper of the City

Champion of the Anchorage

Greek Name

Εργανη

Παιωνια

Ὑγεια

Αλεα

Transliteration

Erganê

Paiônia

Hygeia

Alea

Latin Spelling

Ergane

Paeonia

Hygeia

Alea

Translation

Worker

Healer

Of Good Health

Escape (to Refuge)

Greek Name

Αμβουλια

Προνοια

Απατουρια

Μαχανιτις

Transliteration

Amboulia

Pronoia

Apatouria

Makhanitis

Latin Spelling

Ambulia

Pronoea

Apaturia

Machanitis

Translation

Counsellor, Of Counsel

Foresight

Of Deception, Deciever

Contriver (of Plans and Devices)

Greek Name

Οφθαλμιτις

Οξυδερκης

Κορυφασια

Κορυφαγενης

Transliteration

Ophthalmitis

Oxyderkês

Koryphasia

Koryphagenês

Latin Spelling

Ophthalmitis

Oxyderces

Coryphasia

Coryphagenes

Translation

Of the Eyes

Sharp-Sighted

Of the Head

Born of the Head

Greek Name

Παρθενος

Κοριη

Ξενια

Transliteration

Parthenos

Koriê

Xenia

Latin Spelling

Parthenus

Coria

Xenia

Translation

Virgin, Maiden

Maiden

Of Hospitality, Of the Foreigner

Another set of cult titles derived from the towns and places where her shrines were located, as well as the names of cult-founders, descriptions of their locale, and stories behind a cult:--

Greek Name

Σουνια

Σκιρας

Νεδουσια

Κυπαρισσια

Transliteration

Sounia

Skiras

Nedousia

Kyparissia

Latin Spelling

Sunia

Sciras

Nedusia

Cyparissia

Translation

Of Sunium (Attica)

Of Sciras (Salamis)

Of Nedon (Messenia)

Of Cyparissiae (Messenia)

Greek Name

Ἱππολαιτις

Σκιλλυντια

Λαρισαια

Παναχαια

Transliteration

Hippolaitis

Skillyntia

Larisaia

Panakhaia

Latin Spelling

Hippolaïtis

Scillyntia

Larisae

Panachaea

Translation

Of Hipplas (Laconia)

Of Scillus (Elis)

Of Larisus R. (Achaea)

Of All Achaea

Greek Name

Αλαλκομενηις

Αλαλκομενη

Τριτωνις

Ιτωνια

Transliteration

Alalkomenêis

Alalkomenê

Tritônis

Itônia

Latin Spelling

Alalcomeneïs

Alalcomene

Tritonis

Itonia

Translation

Of Alalcomenae (Boeotia)

Of Alalcomenae (Boeotia)

Of Tritonis R. (Boeotia)

Of Itonus (Thessaly)

Greek Name

Κυδωνια

Λινδια

Τελχινια

Ιλια

Transliteration

Kydônia

Lindia

Telkhinia

Ilia

Latin Spelling

Cydonia

Lindia

Telchinia

Ilia

Translation

Of Cydonia (Crete)

Of Lindos (Rhodes)

Of Telchinia (Cyprus)

Of Ilios (Troy)

Greek Name

Αιαντις

Σκιρας

Ναρκαια

Αλεα

Transliteration

Aiantis

Skiras

Narkaia

Alea

Latin Spelling

Ajantis

Sciras

Narcaea

Alea

Translation

Of Ajax (hero Salamis)

Of Sciron (hero Salamis)

Of Narcaeus (hero Elis)

Of Aleus (hero Arcadia)

Greek Name

Ιτωνια

Αγοραια

Χαλκιοικον

Αιθυια

Transliteration

Itônia

Agoraia

Khalkioikon

Aithyia

Latin Spelling

Itonia

Agoraea

Chalcioecon

Aethyia

Translation

Of Itonus (hero Boeotia)

Of the Market-Place

Of the Bronze House

Of the Gannet Colony

Greek Name

Προναια

Κισσαια

Κυπαρισσια

Κραναιης

Transliteration

Pronaia

Kissaia

Kyparissia

Kranaiês

Latin Spelling

Pronaea

Cissaea

Cyparissia

Cranaïs

Translation

Of the Fore-Temple

Of the Growing Ivy

Of the Cypress Grove

Of Cornel-Wood

Greek Name

Αξιοποινος

Ανεμωτις

Κελευθεια

Ασια

Transliteration

Axiopoinos

Anemôtis

Keleutheia

Asia

Latin Spelling

Axiopoenus

Anemotis

Celeuthia

Asia

Translation

Returning Vengeance

Of the Winds

Of the Road

Of Asia (Asia Minor)

Greek Name

Κολοκασια

Αλεκτορ

Μητηρ

Transliteration

Kolokasia

Alektor

Mêtêr

Latin Spelling

Colocasia

Alector

Mater

Translation

Of the Edible Tubers

Rooster

Mother

The meanings of some of her titles remain obscure:--

Greek Name

Τιθρωνη

Transliteration

Tithrônê

Latin Spelling

Tithrone

Translation

--

Athena was also named after several foreign godesses with whom she was identified, namely the Egyptian goddess Neith of the town of Saïs and the Phoenician goddess Onga:--

Greek Name

Σαις

Σαιτις

Ονγη

Transliteration

Sais

Saitis

Ongê

Latin Spelling

Saïs

Saïtis

Onga

Translation

Of Saïs (Egyptian)

Of Saïs (Egyptian)

(Phoenician goddess)


CULT TERMS

Some general terms pertaining to the goddess' cult include:--

Greek Name

Αθηναιον

Αθηναια

Παναθηναια

Χαλκεια

Transliteration

Athênaion

Athênaia

Panathênaia

Khalkeia

Latin Spelling

Athenaeum

Athenaea

Panathenaea

Chalceia

Translation

Temple of Athena

Festival of Athena

All Athenian Festival *

Festival of the Bronzes *

Greek Name

Προχαριστηρια

Πλυντηρια

Σκιρα

Προτελεια

Transliteration

Prokharistêria

Plyntêria

Skira

Proteleia

Latin Spelling

Procharisteria

Plynteria

Scira

Proteleia

Translation

Thanksgiving Festival *

Washing-Day Festival *

Parasol Festival *

Preliminary Sacrifices *

Greek Name

Αλεαια

Ἁλωτια

Πανβοιωτια

Ιτωνια

Transliteration

Aleaia

Hâlotia

Panboiôtia

Itônia

Latin Spelling

Aleaea

Halotia

Panboeotia

Itonia

Translation

Festival of Athena Alea **

Capture Festival **

All-Boeotian Festival ***

Festival of Athena Itonia ****

* Festivals of Athena in Athens.
** Festivals of Tegea in Arkadia.
*** Festival of Coronea in Boeotia.
**** Festival of Itonus in Thessaly.


POETIC TITLES & EPITHETS

This list has yet to be compiled.

I. Common Homeric titles of Athena. Including Pallas, Tritogeneia, etc

II. Common Homeric epithets of Athena.

III. Other poetic titles titles included:--

Greek Name

Γιγαντολετειρα

Γιγαντολετις

Γοργολαφας

Transliteration

Gigantoleteira

Gigantoletis

Gorgolaphas

Latin Spelling

Gigantoletira

Gigantoletis

Gorgolaphas

Translation

Destroyer of Giants

Destroyer of Giants

Gorgon-Crested


Suidas s.v. Pallas (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Pallas : A great virgin. It is an epithet of Athena; from brandishing (pallein) the spear, or from having killed Pallas, one of the Gigantes."

Suidas s.v. Gigantiai :
"[Titles of the gods :] Gigantoleteira, she who destroyed the Giants; also Gigantoletis, likewise feminine. Also Gigantoletor [Giant-destroyer]."

Suidas s.v. Gorgolophas :
"Gorgolophas (Gorgon-crested) : She who has a helmet of the head of the Gorgon, [that is] Athena."

Suidas s.v. Hippeia Athene :
"Hippeia Athene (Athena-of-Horses) : They say she is a daughter of Poseidon and Polyphe, daughter of Okeanos; she was the first to use a chariot and was called 'of-Horses' because of this."


ENCYCLOPEDIA ATHENA TITLES

ACHAEA (Achaia), a surname of Minerva worshipped at Luceria in Apulia where the donaria and the arms of Diomedes were preserved in her temple. (Aristot. Mirab. Narrat. 17.)

ACRAEA (Akraia). Acraea and Acraeus are also attributes given to various goddesses and gods whose temples were situated upon hills, such as Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Pallas, Artemis, and others. (Paus. i. 1. § 3, ii. 24. § 1; Apollod. i. 9. § 28; Vitruv. i. 7; Spanheim, ad Callim. Hymn in Jov. 82.)

AETHYIA (Aithuia), a surname of Athena, under which she was worshipped in Megaria. (Paus. i. 5. § 3; 41. § 6; Lycophr. Cass. 359.) The word aithuia signifies a diver, and figuratively a ship, so that the name must have reference to the goddess teaching the art of ship-building or navigation. (Tzetz. ad Lycophr. l. c.)

AGELEIA or AGELE′IS (Ageleia or Agelêïs), a surname of Athena, by which she is designated as the leader or protectress of the people. (Hom. Il. iv. 128, v. 765, vi. 269, xv. 213, Od. iii. 378, &c.)

AGORAEA and AGORAEUS (Agoraia and Agoraios), are epithets given to several divinities who were considered as the protectors of the assemblies of the people in the agora, such as Zeus (Paus. iii. 11. § 8, v. 15. § 3), Athena (iii. 11. § 8), Artemis (v. 15. § 3), and Hermes. (i. 15. § 1, ii. 9. § 7, ix. 17. § 1.)

ALALCOMENE′IS (Alalkomenêïs), a surname of Athena, derived from the hero Alalcomenes, or from the Boeotian village of Alalcomenae, where she was believed to have been born. Others derive the name from the verb alalkein, so that it would signify the "powerful defender." (Hom. Il. iv. 8; Steph. Byz. s. v. Alalkomenion ; Müller, Orchom. p. 213.)

ALCIS (Alkis), that is, the Strong. A surname of Athena, under which she was worshipped in Macedonia. (Liv. xlii. 51.)

A′LEA (Alea), a surname of Athena, under which she was worshipped at Alea, Mantineia. and Tegea. (Paus. viii. 23. § 1, 9. § 3, ii. 17. § 7.) The temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, which was the oldest, was said to have been built by Aleus, the son of Apheidas, from whom the goddess probably derived this surname. (Paus. viii. 4. § 5.) This temple was burnt down in B. C. 394, and a new one built by Scopas, which in size and splendour surpassed all other temples in Peloponnesus, and was surrounded by a triple row of columns of different orders. The statue of the goddess, which was made by Endoeus all of ivory, was subsequently carried to Rome by Augustus to adorn the Forum Augusti. (Paus. viii. 45. § 4, 46 § 1 and 2, 47. § 1.) The temple of Athena Alea at Tegea was an ancient and revered asylum, and the names of many persons are recorded who saved themselves by seeking refuge in it. (Paus. iii. 5. § 6, ii. 17. § 7, iii. 7. § 8.) The priestess of Athena Alea at Tegea was always a maiden, who held her office only until she reached the age of puberty. (Paus. viii. 47. § 2.) Respecting the architecture and the scultures of this temple, see Meyer, Gesch. der bildend. Künste, ii. p. 99, &c. On the road from Sparta to Therapne there was likewise a statue of Athena Alea. (Paus. iii. 19. § 7.)

AMBU′LIA, AMBU′LII, and AMBU′LIUS (Amboulia, Amboulioi, and Amboulios), surnames under which the Spartans worshipped Athena, the Dioscuri, and Zeus. (Paus. iii. 13. § 4.) The meaning of the name is uncertain, but it has been supposed to be derived from anaballô, and to designate those divinities as the delayers of death.

ANEMO′TIS (Anemôtis), the subduer of the winds, a surname of Athena under which she was worshipped and had a temple at Mothone in Messenia. It was believed to have been built by Diomedes, because in consequence of his prayers the goddess had subdued the storms which did injury to the country. (Paus. iv. 35. § 5.)

APATU′RIA (Apatouria or Apatouros), that is, the deceitful. A surname of Athena, which was given to her by Aethra. (Paus. ii. 33. § 1.)

AREIA (Areia), the warlike. A surname of Athena, under which she was worshipped at Athens. Her statue, together with those of Ares, Aphrodite, and Enyo, stood in the temple of Ares at Athens. (Paus. i. 8. § 4.) Her worship under this name was instituted by Orestes after he had been acquitted by the Areiopagus of the murder of his mother. (i. 28. § 5.) It was Athena Areia who gave her casting vote in cases where the Areiopagites were equally divided. (Aeschyl. Eum. 753.) From these circumstances, it has been inferred, that the name Areia ought not to be derived from Ares, but from ara, a prayer, or from areô or areskô, to propitiate or atone for.

A′SIA (Asia). A surname of Athena in Colchis. Her worship was believed to have been brought from thence by Castor and Polydeuces to Laconia, where a temple was built to her at Las. (Paus. iii. 24. § 5.)

ASSE′SIA (Assêsia), a surname of Athena, derived from the town of Assesus in Ionia, where she had a temple. (Herod. i. 19.)

AXIOPOENOS (Axiopoinos), the avenger, a surname of Athena. Under this name Heracles built a temple to the goddess at Sparta, after he had chastised Hippocoon and his sons for the murder of Oeonus. (Paus. iii. 15. § 4.)

CHALCIOECUS (Chalkioikos), "the goddess of the brazen house," a surname of Athena at Sparta, derived from the brazen temple which the goddess had in that city, and which also contained her statue in brass. This temple, which continued to exist in the time of Pausanias, was believed to have been commenced by Tyndareus, but was not completed till many years later by the Spartan artist Gitiadas. (Paus. iii. 17. § 3, x. 5. § 5; C. Nep. Paus. 5; Polyb. iv. 22.) Respecting the festival of the Chalcioecia celebrated at Sparta, see Dict. of Ant. s. v. Chalkioikia.

CHALINI′TIS (Chalinitis), the tamer of horses by means of the bridle (Chalinos), a surname of Athena, under which she had a temple at Corinth. In order to account for the name, it is related, that she tamed Pegasus and gave him to Bellerophontes, although the general character of the goddess is sufficient to explain the surname. (Paus. ii. 4. § 1.)

CORYPHA′SIA (Koruphasia), a surname of Athena, derived from the promontory of Coryphasion, on which she had a sanctuary. (Paus. iv. :3. § 2.)

CYDO′NIA (Kudônia), a surname of Athena, under which she had a temple at Phrixa in Elis, which was said to have been built by Clymenus of Cydonia. (Paus. vi. 21. § 5.)

E′RGANE (Erganê) or E′RGATIS, that is, the worker, a surname of Athena, who was believed to preside over and instruct man in all kinds of arts. (Paus. v. 14. § 5, i. 24. § 3; Plut. de Fort. p. 99, a.; Hesych. s. v.)

HELLO′TIA or HELLO′TIS (Ellôtia or Hellôtis), a surname of Athena at Corinth. According to the scholiast on Pindar (Ol. xiii. 56), the name was derived from the fertile marsh (helos) near Marathon, where Athena had a sanctuary; or from Hellotia, one of the daughters of Timander, who fled into the temple of Athena when Corinth was burnt down by the Dorians, and was destroyed in the temple with her sister Eurytione. Soon after, a plague broke out at Corinth, and the oracle declared that it should not cease until the souls of the maidens were propitiated, and a sanctuary should be erected to Athena Hellotis. Respecting the festival of the Hellotia, see Dict. of Ant. s. v. Hellotis was also a surname of Europe in Crete, where also a festival, Hellotia, was celebrated to her. (Dict. of Ant. s. v.)

HI′PPIA and HI′PPIUS (Hippia and Hippios, or Hippeios), in Latin Equester and Equestris, occur as surnames of several divinities, as of Hera (Paus. v. 15. § 4); of Athena at Athens, Tegea and Olympia (i. 30. § 4, 31. § 3, v. 15. § 4, viii. 47. § ); of Poseidon (vi. 20. § 8, i. 30. § 4; Liv. i. 9); of Ares (Paus. v. 15. § 4); and at Rome also of Fortuna and Venus. (Liv. xl. 40, xlii. 3; Serv. ad Aen. i. 724.)

HIPPOLAITIS (Hippolaitis), a surname of Athena at Hippola in Laconia. (Paus. iii. 25. § 6.)

IASO′NIA (Iasonia), a surname of Athena at Cyzicus. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 960; comp. Müller, Orchom. p. 282, 2d edit.)

ITO′NIA, ITO′NIAS, or ITO′NIS (Itônia, Itônias, or Itônis), a surname of Athena, derived from the town of Iton, in the south of Phthiotis. (Paus. i. 13. § 2; Plut. Pyrrh. 26; Polyb. iv. 25 ; Strab. ix. p. 435; Steph. Byz. s. v.; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 551, ad Callim. Hymn. in Cer. 75.) The goddess there had a celebrated sanctuary and festivals, and is hence also called incola Itoni. (Catull. Epithal. P. et Th. 228.) From Iton her worship spread into Boeotia and the country about lake Copais, where the Pamboeotia was celebrated, in the neighbourhood of a temple and grove of Athena. (Paus. ix. 34. § 1; iii. 9, in fin.; Plut. Amat. Narr. 4.) According to another tradition, Athena received the surname of Itonia from Itonus, a king or priest. (Paus. ix. 34. § 1; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 721.)

LA′PHRIA (Laphraia) Laphria was a surname of Athena. (Lycoph. 356.)

LARISSAEA (Larissaia), surname of Athena, who derived it from the river Larissus, between Elis and Achaia, where the goddess had a sanctuary. (Paus. vii. 17. §3.)

LI′NDIA (Lindia), a surname of Athena, derived from the town of Lindus, in the island of Rhodus, where she had a celebrated temple. (Diod. v. 58; Herod. ii. 182; Strab. xiv. p. 655).

LONGA′TIS (Longatis), a surname of Athena (Lycoph. 520, 1032), which according to Tzetzes (ad Lycoph. l. c.), she derived from her being worshipped in a Boeotian district called Longas, which however is unknown.

MAGA′RSIA (Magarsia or Magarsis). a surname of Athena, derived from Magarsos, a Cilician town near the mouth of the river Pyramus, where the goddess had a sanctuary. (Arrian, Anab. ii. 5.)

[MECHANITIS and] MECHANEUS (Mêchaneus), skilled in inventing, was a surname of Zeus at Argos (Paus. ii. 22, § 3). The feminine form, Mechanitis (Mêchanitis), occurs as a surname of Aphrodite, at Megalopolis, and of Athena. in the same neighbourhood. (Paus. viii. 31, § 3, 36, § 3.)

[NARCAEA and] NARCAEUS (Narkaios), a son of Dionysus and Narcaea, established a sanctuary of Athena Narcaea in Elis, and also introduced there the worship of Dionysus. (Paus. v. 16. § 5.)

NEDU′SIA (Nedousia), a surname of Athena, under which she had a sanctuary on the river Nedon (from which she derived the name), and another at Poieessa in the island of Cos. The latter was said to have been founded by Nestor on his return from Troy, and to have derived its name from Nedon, a place in Laconia. (Strab. viii. p. 360, x. p. 487; Steph. Byz. s. v. Nedôn.)

NICE (Nikê). Nice also occurs as a surname of Athena, under which the goddess had a sanctuary on the acropolis of Megara. (Paus. i. 42. § 4; Eurip. Ion, 1529.)

ONCA (Onka), a surname of Athena, which she derived from the town of Oncae in Boeotia, where she had a sanctuary. (Aeschyl. Sept. 166, 489; Paus. ix. 12. § 2; Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 1062.)

PAEO′NIA (Paiônia), i. e. the healing goddess, was a surname of Athena, under which she had a statue at Athens, and an altar in the temple of Amphiaraus at Oropus. (Paus. i. 2. § 4, 34. § 2.)

PALLA′NTIAS. Pallantias occurs as a variation for Pallas, the surname of Athena. (Anthol. Palat. vi. 247.)

PALLAS (Pallas), a surname of Athena. In Homer this name always appears united with the name Athena, as Pallas Athênê or Pallas Athênaiê ; but in later writers we also find Pallas alone instead of Athena. (Pind. Ol. v. 21.) Plato (Cratyl. p. 406) derives the surname from pallein, to brandish, in reference to the goddess brandishing the spear or aegis, whereas Apollodorus (i. 6. § 2) derives it from the giant Pallas, who was slain by Athena. But it is more probable that Pallas is the same word as pallax, i. e. a virgin or maiden. (Comp. Tzetz. ad Lyc. 355.) Another female Pallas, described as a daughter of Triton, is mentioned under Palladium.

PALLE′NIS (Pallênis), a surname of Athena, under which she had a temple between Athens and Marathon. (Herod. i. 62.)

PANACHAEA (Panachaia),that is, the goddess of all the Achaeans, occurs as a surname of Demeter, at Aegae, in Achaia (Paus. vii. 24. § 2), and of Athena at Laphiria (Paus. vii. 20. § 2).

PAREIA (Pareia), a surname of Athena, under which she had a statue in Laconia, perhaps so called only from its being made of Parian marble. (Paus. iii. 20. § 8.)

PA′RTHENOS (Parthenos), i. e. the virgin, a surname of Athena at Athens, where the famous temple Parthenon was dedicated to her. (Paus. i. 24, v. ii. § 5, viii. 41. § 5, x. 34, in fin.)

PHRY′GIA (Phrugia) Phrygia is also used . . . as a surname of Athena (Minerva) on account of the Palladium which was brought from Phrygia. (Ov. Met. xiii. 337; compare Apollod. iii. 12. § 3.)

PO′LIAS (Polias), i.e. "the goddess protecting the city," a surname of Athena at Athens, where she was especially worshipped as the protecting divinity of the acropolis. (Paus. i. 27. § I; Arnob. adv. Gent. vi. 193.)

POLIU′CHOS (Poliouchos), i.e. "protecting the city," occurs as a surname of several divinities, such as Athena Chalcioecus at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 17. § 2), and of Athena at Athens.

PROMACHORMA (Promachorma), i.e. "the protectress of the bay," was a surname of Athena, under which she had a sanctuary on mount Buporthmos near Hermione. (Paus. ii. 34. § 9.)

PRONAEA (Pronaia), a surname of Athena, under which she had a chapel at Delphi, in front of the temple of Apollo. (Herod. i. 92; Aeschyl. Eum. 21; Paus. ix. 10. § 2.) Pronaus also occurs as a surname of Hermes. (Paus. l. c.)

SAITIS (Saitis), a surname of Athena, under which she had a sanctuary on Mount Pontinus, near Lerna in Argolis. (Paus. ii. 36 in fin. ; comp. Herod. ii. 175; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 111.) The name was traced by the Greeks to the Egyptians, among whom Athena was said to have been called Sais.

SCIRAS (Skiras), a surname of Athena, under which she had a temple in the Attic port of Phaleron, and in the island of Salamis (Paus. i. 1. § 4; Herod. viii. 94). In the month of Scirophorion a festival was celebrated at Athens in honour of her, which was called Skiraphoria (Harpocr. s. v. Skiron). The foundation of the temple at Phaleron is ascribed by Pausanias to a soothsayer, Scirus of Dodona, who is said to have come to Attica at the time when the Eleusinians were at war with king Erechtheus. (Paus. i. 36. § 3 ; comp. Strab. ix. p. 393; Steph. Byz. s. v. Skiros.)

SOTEIRA (Sôteira), i. e. "the saving goddess' (Lat. Sospita), occurs as a surname of several female divinities in Greece, e. g. 1. of Artemis . . . 2. of Persephone in Laconia (iii. 13. § 2), in Arcadia (viii. 31. § 1) ; 3. of Athena (Schol. ad Plat. p. 90. ed. Ruhnken ; Aristot. Rhet. iii. 18); and 4. of Eunomia (Pind. Ol. ix. 25.)

TRITO or TRITOGENEIA (Tritô or Tritogeneia and Tritogenês), a surname of Athena (Hom. Il. iv. 515, Od. iii. 378; Hes. Theog. 924), which is explained in different ways. Some derive it from lake Tritonis in Libya, near which she is said to have been born (Eurip. Ion. 872 ; Apollod. i. 3. § 6; comp. Herod. iv. 150, 179); others from the stream Triton near Alalcomenae in Boeotia, where she was worshipped, and where according to some statements she was also born (Paus. ix. 33. § 4; comp. Horn. Il. iv. 8); the grammarians, lastly, derive the name from tritô which, in the dialect of the Athamanians, is said to signify "head," so that it would be the goddess born out of the head of her father. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1310; comp. Hom. Hymn. 28. 4 ; Hes. Theog. 924.)

TRITO′NIS (Tritônis). A surname of Athena, like Tritogeneia and Tritonia. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 72, 109; Virg. Aen. ii. 171.)

XE′NIA (Xenia), and the masculine Xenios are epithets of Athena and Zeus, describing then as presiding over the laws of hospitality, and protecting strangers. (Lat. Hospitalis ; Paus. iii. 11, in fin.; Hom. Od. xiv. 389; Cic. ad Q. Frat. ii. 12.)

ZOSTE′RIA (Zôstêria), a surname of Athena among the Epicnemidian Locrians. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Zôstêr; comp. Herod. viii. 107.) The masculine form Zosterius occurs as a surname of Apollo in Attica, on the slip of land stretching into the sea between Phaleron and Sunium. (Steph. Byz. l. c.)

Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.


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