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Greek Mythology >> Greek Gods Cult >> Zeus Cult >> Titles & Epithets

ZEUS TITLES

Greek Name

Ζευς

Transliteration

Zeus

Latin Spelling

Zeus

Roman Name

Jupiter

ZEUS was the Olympian king of the gods and the god of sky, weather, fate, law, justice and moral conduct.

This page lists the cult titles of the god.


CULT TITLES & EPITHETS

Many of Zeus' cult titles were derived from his divine functions, as god of weather, governance, the king of the gods, god of fate, giver of plenty, god of marriage, hospitality, protector of strangers and suppliants, protector and deliver from evils, purification, protector of freedom, defence in war:--

Greek Name

Ομβριος

Ὑετιος

Αφεσιος

Σκοτιτας

Transliteration

Ombrios

Hyetios

Aphesios

Skotitas

Latin Spelling

Ombrius

Hyetius

Aphesius

Scotitas

Translation

Of the Rain

Of the Rain

Releasing (Rain)

Dark, Murky

Greek Name

Κεραυνιος

Αστραπαιος

Καταιβατης

Λαβρανδευς

Transliteration

Keraunios

Astrapaios

Kataibatês

Labrandeus

Latin Spelling

Ceraunius

Astrapaeus

Cataebates

Labrandeus

Translation

Of the Thunderbolt

Of the Lightning

Descending

Furious, Raging

Greek Name

Ικμαιος

Κονιος

Μαιμακτης

Ευηνεμος

Λιμενοσκοπος

Transliteration

Ikmaios

Konios

Maimaktês

Euênemos

Limenoskopos

Latin Spelling

Icmaeus

Conius

Maemactes

Evenemus

Limenoscopus

Translation

Of Moisture

Of the Dust

Boisterous

Of Fair Winds

Watcher of Sea-Havens

Greek Name

Βασιλευς

Ὑπατος

Ὑπσιστος

Κορυφαιος

Transliteration

Basileus

Hypatos

Hypsistos

Koryphaios

Latin Spelling

Basileus

Hypatus

Hypsistus

Coryphaeus

Translation

King, Chief, Ruler

Supreme, Most High

Supreme, Most High

Chief, Leader

Greek Name

Κτησιος

Ἑρκειος

Βουλαιος

Αμβουλιος

Transliteration

Ktêsios

Herkeios

Boulaios

Amboulios

Latin Spelling

Ctesius

Herceius

Bulaeus

Ambulius

Translation

Of the House, Property

Of the Courtyard

Of the Council

Counsellor

Greek Name

Τελειος

Μοιραγετης

Κλαριος

Σημαλεος

Transliteration

Teleios

Moiragetês

Klarios

Sêmaleos

Latin Spelling

Teleus

Moiragetes

Clarius

Semaleus

Translation

Of Marriage Rites

Leader of the Fates

Of the Lots

Giver of Signs

Greek Name

Μηχανευς

Κοσμητης

Θεος Αγαθος

Επιδωτης

Πλουσιος

Transliteration

Mêkhaneus

Kosmêtês

Theos Agathos

Epidôtês

Plousios

Latin Spelling

Mechaneus

Cosmetes

Theus Agathus

Epidotes

Plusius

Translation

Contriver

Orderer

The Good God

Giver of Good

Of Wealth

Greek Name

Φιλιος

Ξενιος

Ἱκεσιος

Φυξιος

Transliteration

Philios

Xenios

Hikesios

Phyxios

Latin Spelling

Philius

Xenius

Hicesius

Phyxius

Translation

Of Friendship

Of Hospitality, Strangers

Of Suppliants

Of Refuge

Greek Name

Παλαμναιος

Καθαρσιος

Προστροπαιος

Απημιος

Transliteration

Palamnaios

Katharsios

Prostropaios

Apêmios

Latin Spelling

Palamnaeus

Catharsius

Prostropaeus

Apemius

Translation

(Punisher) of Murderers

Of Ritual Purification

Turner of Pollution

Averter of Ills

Greek Name

Σωτηρ

Μειλιχιος

Πανελληνιος

Λαοιτης

Transliteration

Sôtêr

Meilikhios

Panellênios

Laoitês

Latin Spelling

Soter

Milichius

Panhellenios

Laoites

Translation

Saviour, Deliverer

Gracious, Merciful

Of All the Greeks

Of the People

Greek Name

Πολειυς

Σωσιπολις

Ελευθεριος

Χρυσαορευς

Transliteration

Poleius

Sôsipolis

Eleutherios

Khrysaoreus

Latin Spelling

Poleius

Sosipolis

Eleuthereus

Chrysaoreus

Translation

Of the City-State

City-Saviour

Of Freedom

Of the Golden Sword

Greek Name

Στρατιος

Αρειος

Σθενιος

Τροπαιος

Φυξιος

Transliteration

Stratios

Areios

Sthenios

Tropaios

Phyxios

Latin Spelling

Stratius

Areius

Sthenius

Tropaeus

Phyxius

Translation

Of War, Warlike

Of War, Warlike

Of Strength, Strong

Turns to Flight, Defeats

Puts to Flight, Banishes

Another set of cult titles derived from the towns, mountains and other locales where his shrines were located, as well as the names of cult-founders, and descriptions of their locale. Not all of these titles were confined to their "home-town", for example, Zeus Olympios (of Olympia) was worshipped throughout Greece.

Greek Name

Ὑμηττιος

Παρνηθιος

Ανχεσμιος

Απεσαντιος

Transliteration

Hymêttios

Parnêthios

Ankhesmios

Apesantios

Latin Spelling

Hymettius

Parnethius

Anchesmius

Apesantius

Translation

Of Mt Hymettus (Attica)

Of Mt Parnes (Attica)

Of Mt Anchesmus (Attica)

Of Mt Apesas (Argolis)

Greek Name

Λαρισαιος

Νεμειος

Κροκεατος

Ιθωματος

Transliteration

Larisaios

Nemeios

Krokeatos

Ithômatos

Latin Spelling

Larisaeus

Nemeius

Croceatus

Ithomatus

Translation

Of Larisa (Argos acropolis)

Of Nemea (Argolis)

Of Croceae (Laconia)

Of Mt Ithome (Messenia)

Greek Name

Ολυμπιος

Λυκαιος

Κιθαιρωνιος

Λαφυστιος

Transliteration

Olympios

Lykaios

Kithairônios

Laphystios

Latin Spelling

Olympius

Lycaeus

Cithaeronius

Laphystius

Translation

Of Olympia (in Elis)

Of Mt Lycaeus (Arcadia)

Of Mt Cithaeron (Boeotia)

Of Mt Laphystius (Boeotia)

Greek Name

Κηναιος

Ολυμπιος

Δωδωναιος

Αινησιος

Transliteration

Kênaios

Olympios

Dôdônaios

Ainêsios

Latin Spelling

Cenaeus

Olympius

Dodonaeus

Aenesius

Translation

Of Cape Cenaeus (Euboea)

Of Mt Olympus (Thessaly)

Of Dodona (Thesprotia)

Of Mt Aenus (Cephallenia)

Greek Name

Πελασγιος

Πελασγικος

Δικταιος

Αταβυριος

Transliteration

Pelasgios

Pelasgikos

Diktaios

Atabyrios

Latin Spelling

Pelasgius

Pelasgicus

Dictaeus

Atabyrius

Translation

Of the Pelasgians (Tribe)

Of the Pelasgians (Tribe)

Of Mt Dicte (Crete)

Of Mt Atabyris (Rhodes)

Greek Name

Καριος

Λαβρανδευς

Λαβραυνδηνος

Καπετωλιον

Transliteration

Karios

Labrandeus

Labraundênos

Kapetôlion

Latin Spelling

Carius

Labrandeus

Labraundenus

Capitolium

Translation

Of Caria

Of Labranda (Caria)

Of Labranda (Caria)

Of the Capitol (Rome)

Greek Name

Βουλαιος

Αγοραιος

Σκοτιτας

Λευκαιος

Transliteration

Boulaios

Agoraios

Skotitas

Leukaios

Latin Spelling

Bulaeus

Agoraeus

Scotitas

Leucaeus

Translation

Of the Council-Hall

Of the Market-Place

Of the Dark (Oak-Forest)

Of the White-Poplar Grove

Greek Name

Λυκαιος

Απομυιος

Λεχεατης

Κλαριος

Transliteration

Lykaios

Apomyios

Lekheatês

Klarios

Latin Spelling

Lycaeus

Apomyius

Lecheates

Clarius

Translation

Of the Wolves

Averter of Flies

Of the Childbed

Of the Lots

Greek Name

Τελειος

Αρισταιος

Μεσσαπευς

Transliteration

Teleios

Aristaios

Messapeus

Latin Spelling

Teleius

Aristaeus

Messapeus

Translation

Full-Grown

Of Aristaeus (hero Ceos)

Of Messapeus (hero Sparta)

Zeus was also titled with the names of foreign gods with whom he was identified:--

Greek Name

Οσογωα

Αμμων

Transliteration

Osogôa

Ammôn

Latin Spelling

Osogoa

Ammon

Translation

(Carian God)

Amun (Egyptian God)

Some of his titles were obscure in meaning:--

Greek Name

Καππωτης

Χαρμων

Transliteration

Kappôtês

Kharmôn

Latin Spelling

Cappotes

Charmon

Translation

--

--


CULT TERMS

Some general terms pertaining to the god's cult include:--

Greek Name

Ολυμπιειον

Νεμειον

Λυκαιον

Χρυσαορεων

Transliteration

Olympeion

Nemeion

Lykaion

Khrysaoreôn

Latin Spelling

Olympeum

Nemeum

Lycaeum

Chrysaoreum

Translation

Temple of Olympian Zeus

Temple of Nemean Zeus

Temple of Zeus Lycaeus

Temple of Zeus Chrysaoreus

Greek Name

Ολυμπια

Ολυμπιεια

Νεμεα

Ιθωμαια

Transliteration

Olympia

Olympieia

Nemea

Ithômaia

Latin Spelling

Olympia

Olympia

Nemea

Ithomaea

Translation

Olympic Games & Festival

Olympic Games & Festival

Nemean Games & Festival

Festival of Zeus Ithomatus

Greek Name

Δαιδαλα

Λυκαια

Ελευθερια

Transliteration

Daidala

Lykaia

Eleutheria

Latin Spelling

Daedala

Lycaea

Eleutheria

Translation

Festival of (Zeus & Hera)

Festival & Games of Zeus Lycaeus

Festival & Games of Zeus Eleutherius

Months named after Zeus include:--

Greek Name

Μαιμακτηριων

Transliteration

Maimaktêriôn

Latin Spelling

Maemacterian

Translation

Month of Zeus Maemacterius


ENCYCLOPEDIA ZEUS TITLES

ABRETTE′NUS (Abrettênos), a surname of Zeus in Mysia. (Strab. xii. p. 574.)

ACRAEUS (Akraios). Acraea and Acraeus are also attributes given to various goddesses and gods whose temples were situated upon hills, such as Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Pallas, Artemis, and others. (Paus. i. 1. § 3, ii. 24. § 1; Apollod. i. 9. § 28; Vitruv. i. 7; Spanheim, ad Callim. Hymn in Jov. 82.)

AEGIDU′CHOS or AEGI′OCHOS (Aigidouchos or Aigiochos), a surname of Zeus, as the bearer of the Aegis with which he strikes terror into the impious and his enemies. (Hom. II. i. 202, ii. 157, 375, &c.; Pind. Isth. iv. 99; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 13.) Others derive the surname from aix and ochê, and take it as an allusion to Zeus being fed by a goat. (Spanh. ad Callim. hymn. in Jov. 49.)

AENE′IUS or AENE′SIUS (Ainêios or Ainêsios), a surname of Zeus, under which he was worshipped in the island of Cephalenia, where he had a temple on mount Aenos. (Hes. ap.. Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 297.)

AE′THIOPS (Aithiops), the Glowing or the Black. A surname of Zeus, under which he was worshipped in the island of Chios. (Lycophron, Cass. 537, with the note of Tzetzes.)

AETNAEUS (Aitnaios), an epithet given to several gods and mythical beings connected with Mount Aetna, such as Zeus, of whom there was a statue on mount Aetna, and to whom a festival was celebrated there, called Aetnaea (Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vi. 162).

AGAMEMNON (Agamemnôn). A surname of Zeus, under which he was worshipped at Sparta. (Lycophr. 335, with the Schol.; Eustath. ad Il. ii. 25.) Eustathius thinks that the god derived this name from the resemblance between him and Agamemnon; while others believe that it is a mere epithet signifying the Eternal, from agan and menôn.

AGATHODAEMON (Agathodaimôn or Agathos Deos), the "Good God," a divinity in honour of whom the Greeks drank a cup of unmixed wine at the end of every repast. A temple dedicated to him was situated on the road from Megalopolis to Maenalus in Arcadia. Pausanias (viii. 36. § 3) conjectures that the name is a mere epithet of Zeus. (Comp. Lobeck, ad Phrynich. p. 603.)

AGE′TOR (Agêtôr), a surname given to several gods, for instance, to Zeus at Lacedaemon (Stob. Serm. 42): the name seems to describe Zeus as the leader and ruler of men; but others think, that it is synonymous with Agamemnon :-- to Apollo (Eurip. Med. 426) where however Elmsley and others prefer halêtôr :-- to Hermes, who conducts the souls of men to the lower world. Under this name Hermes had a statue at Megalopolis. (Paus. viii. 3. § 4.)

AGO′NIUS (Agônios), a surname or epithet of several gods. Aeschylus (Agam. 513) and Sophocles (Trach. 26) use it of Apollo and Zeus, and apparently in the sense of helpers in struggles and contests. (Comp. Eustath. ad Il. p. 1335.) But Agonius is more especially used as a surname of Hermes, who presides over all kinds of solemn contests. (Agônes, Paus. v. 14. § 7; Pind. Olymp. vi. 133, with the Schol.)

AGORAEUS and AGORAEA (Agoraia and Agoraios), are epithets given to several divinities who were considered as the protectors of the assemblies of the people in the agora, such as Zeus (Paus. iii. 11. § 8, v. 15. § 3), Athena (iii. 11. § 8), Artemis (v. 15. § 3), and Hermes. (i. 15. § 1, ii. 9. § 7, ix. 17. § 1.)

ALASTOR (Alastôr). According to Hesychius and the Etymologicum M., a surname of Zeus, describing him as the avenger of evil deeds. But the name is also used, especially by the tragic writers, to designate any deity or demon who avenges wrongs committed by men. (Paus. viii. 24. § 4; Plut. De Def Orac. 13, &c.; Aeschyl. Agam. 1479, 1508, Pers. 343; Soph. Trach. 1092; Eurip. Phoen. 1550, &c.)

ALEXI′CACUS (Alexikakos), the averter of evil, is a surname given by the Greeks to several deities, as -- Zeus (Orph. De Lapid. Prooem. i.), -- to Apollo, who was worshipped under this name by the Athenians, because he was believed to have stopped the plague which raged at Athens in the time of the Peloponnesian war (Paus. i. 3. § 3, viii. 41. § 5), -- and to Heracles. (Lactant. v. 3.)

AMBU′LIUS, AMBU′LIA, and AMBU′LII (Amboulia, Amboulioi, and Amboulios), surnames under which the Spartans worshipped Athena, the Dioscuri, and Zeus. (Paus. iii. 13. § 4.) The meaning of the name is uncertain, but it has been supposed to be derived from anaballô, and to designate those divinities as the delayers of death.

ANCHE′SMIUS (Anchedmios), a surname of Zeus derived from the hill Anchesmus in Attica, on which, as on several Attic hills, there was a statue of the god. (Paus. i. 32. § 2.)

APE′MIUS (Apêmios), a surname of Zeus, under which he had an altar on mount Parnes in Attica, on which sacrifices were offered to him. (Paus. i. 32. § 2.)

APESA′NTIUS (Apesantios), a surname of Zeus, under which he had a temple on mount Apesas near Nemea, where Perseus was said to have first offered sacrifices to him. (Paus. ii. 15. § 3; Steph. Byz. s. v. Apesas.)

APOMYIUS (Apomuios) "driving away the flies," a surname of Zeus at Olympia. On one occasion, when Heracles was offering a sacrifice to Zeus at Olympia, he was annoyed by hosts of flies, and in order to get rid of them, he offered a sacrifice to Zeus Apomyius, whereupon the flies withdrew across the river Alpheius. From that time the Eleans sacrificed to Zeus under this name. (Paus. v. 14. § 2.)

A′RBIUS (Arbios), a surname of Zeus, derived from mount Arbias in Crete, where he was worshipped. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Apbis.)

AREIUS (Areios), a surname of Zeus, which may mean either the warlike or the propitiating and atoning god, as Areia in the case of Athena. Under this name, Oenomaus sacrificed to him as often as he entered upon a contest with the suitors of his daughter, whom he put to death as soon as they were conquered. (Paus. v. 14. § 5.)

ASBAMAEUS (Asbamaios), a surname of Zeus, the protector of the sanctity of oaths. It was derived from a well, Asbamaeon near Tyana, in Cappadocia, the water of which was said to be beneficial and pleasant to honest persons, but pestilential to those who were guilty of perjury. When perjured persons drank of the water, it produced a disease of the eyes, dropsy, and lameness, so that the guilty persons were unable to walk away from the well, and were obliged to own their crime. (Philostr. Vit. Apollon. i. 6.; Pseudo-Aristot. Mirab. Auscult. 163; Ammian. Marcellin. xxiii. 6.)

A′SIUS (Asios). A surname of Zeus, from the town of Asos or Oasos in Crete. (Virg. Aen. x. 123; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 355; Steph. Byz. s. v. Asos).

ATABY′RIUS (Ataburios), a surname of Zeus derived from mount Atabyris or Atabyrion in the island of Rhodes, where the Cretan Althaemenes was said to have built a temple to him. (Apollod. iii. 2. § 1; Appian, Mithrid. 26.) Upon this mountain there were, it is said, brazen bulls which roared when anything extraordinary was going to happen. (Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vii. 159.)

ATHO′US (Athôos), a surname of Zeus, derived from mount Athos, on which the god had a temple. (Hesych. s. v.; Aeschyl. Agam. 270.)

CA′RIUS (Karios), the Carian, a surname of Zeus, under which he had a temple at Mylassa in Caria, which belonged to the Carians, Lydians, and Mysians in common, as they were believed to be brother nations. (Herod. i. 171, v. 66; Strab. xiv. p. 659.) In Thessaly and Boeotia, Zeus was likewise worshipped under this name. (Phot. Lex. s. v.)

CA′SIUS (Kasios), a surname of Zeus, derived from amount Casion not far from Pelusium, on which the god had a temple. (Strab. xvi. p. 760; Plin. H. N. iv. 20, v. 14.)

CATAE′BATES ( Kataibatês), occurs as a surname of several gods. 1. Of Zeus, who is described by it as the god who descends in thunder and lightning. Under this name he had an altar at Olympia. (Paus. v. 14. § 8; Lycophr. 1370.) Places which had been struck by lightning, i. e. on which Zeus Cataelbates had descended, were sacred to him. (Poliux, ix. 41; Suid. and Hesych. s. v.)

CATHA′RSIUS (Katharsios), the purifyer or atoner, a surname of Zeus, under which he in conjunction with Nice had a temple at Olympia. (Paus. v. 14. § (6.)

CENAEUS (Kênaios), a surname of Zeus, derived from cape Cenaeum in Euboea, on which the god had a temple. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 7; Ov. Met. ix. 136.)

CHRYSAOR (Chrusaôr). The god with the golden sword or arms. In this sense it is used as a surname or attribute of several divinities, such as Apollo (Hom. II. xv. 256), Artemis (Herod. viii. 77), and Demeter. (Hom. Hymn. in Cer. 4.) We find Chrysaoreus as a surname of Zeus with the same meaning, under which he had a temple in Caria, which was a national sanctuary, and the place of meeting for the national assembly of the Carians. (Strab. xiv. p. 660; comp. Paus. v. 21. § 5; Steph. Byz. s. v. Chrusaoris.)

CLA′RIUS (Klarios). Clarius occurs as a surname of Zeus, describing him as the god who distributes things by lot (klaros or klêros, Aeschyl. Suppl. 360). A hill near Tegea was sacred to Zeus under this name. (Paus. viii. 53. § 4.)

CO′NIUS (Konios), the god who excites or makes dust, a surname of Zeus, who had an uncovered temple under this name in the arx of Megara. (Paus. i. 40. § 5.)

[CORYPHAEUS and] CORYPHAEA (Koruphaia), the goddess who inhabits the summit of the mountain, a surname of Artemis, under which she had a temple on mount Coryphaeon, near Epidaurus. (Paus. ii. 281. § 2.) It is also applied to designate the highest or supreme god, and is consequently given as an epithet to Zeus. (Paus. ii. 4. § 5.)

CROCE′ATAS (Krokeatas), a surname of Zeus, derived from a place, Croceae, near Gythium in Laconia. (Paus. iii. 21. § 4.)

CRO′NIDES or CRONI′ON (Kronidês or Kroniôn), a patronymic from Cronus, and very commonly given to Zeus, the son of Cronus. (Hom. Il. i. 528, ii. 111, &c.)

CTE′SIUS (Ktêsios), the protector of property, occurs as a surname of Zeus at Phlyus, and of Hermes. (Athen. xi. p. 473; Paus. i. 31. § 2.) Ctesius occurs also as a proper name. (Hom. Od. xv. 413.)

DICTAEUS (Diktaios), a surname of Zeus, derived from mount Dicte in the eastern part of Crete. Zeus Dictaeus had a temple at Prasus, on the banks of the river Pothereus. (Strab. x. p. 478.)

ELEUTHEREUS (Eleuthereus), the form Eleutherius is certainly used in the sense of the deliverer, and occurs also as the surname of Zeus. (Plut. Sympos. vii. in fin.; Pind. Ol. xii. 1; Strab. ix. p. 412; Tacit. Ann. xv. 64.)

EVA′NEMUS (Euanemos), the giver of favourable wind, was a surname of Zeus, under which the god had a sanctuary at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 13. § 5; comp. Theocrit. xxviii. 5.)

GAME′LII (Gamêlioi theoi), that is, the divinities protecting and presiding over marriage. (Pollux, i. 24; Maxim. Tyr. xxvi. 6.) Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 2) says, that those who married required (the protection of) five divinities, viz. Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Peitho, and Artemis. (Comp. Dion Chrys. Orat. vii. p. 568.) But these are not all, for the Moerae too are called theai gamêliai (Spanheim ad Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 23, in Del. 292, 297), and, in fact, nearly all the gods might be regarded as the protectors of marriage, though the five mentioned by Plutarch perhaps more particularly than others. The Athenians called their month of Gamelion after these divinities. Respecting the festival of the Gamelia see Dict. of Ant. s. v.

GENETAEUS (Genêtaios), a surname of Zeus, which he derived from Cape Genetus on the Euxine, where he was worshipped as euxeinos, i.e. " the hospitable," and where he had a sanctuary. (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 378, 1009; Val. Flacc. v. 148; Strab. xii. p. 548.)

HETAEREIUS (Hetaireios), the protector of companies or associations of friends, a surname of Zeus, to whom Jason was believed to have offered the first sacrifices, when the Argonauts were assembled for their expedition. (Athen. xiii. p. 572.)

HOMAGY′RIUS (Homagurios), i.e. the god of the assembly or league, a surname of Zeus, under which he was worshipped at Aegium, on the northwestern coast of Peloponnesus, where Agamemnon was believed to have assembled the Greek chiefs, to deliberate on the war against Troy. Under this name Zeus was also worshipped, as the protector of the Achaean league. (Paus. vii. 24. § 1.)

HO′RCIUS (Horkios), the god who watches over oaths, or is invoked in oaths, and punishes their violation, occurs chiefly as a surname of Zeus, under which the god had a statue at Olympia. (Paus. v. 24. § 2; Eurip. Hippol. 1025.)

HYES (Huês), the moist or fertilising god, occurs like Hyetius, as a surname of Zeus, as the sender of rain. (Hesych. s. v. huês.) Under the name of Hyetius, the god had an altar at Argos, and a statue in the grove of Trophonius, near Lebadeia. (Paus. ii. 19. § 7, ix. 39, S 3.) Hyes was also a surname of Dionysus, or rather of the Phrygian Sabazius, who was identified sometimes with Dionysus, and sometimes with Zeus. (Hesych. l.c.; Strab. p. 471.)

HYE′TIUS. [HYES.]

HY′PATUS (Hupatos), the most high, occurs not only as an epithet of Zeus in poetry (Hom. Il. viii. 31, xix. 258), but as a real surname of the god. An altar of Zeus Hypatus existed at Athens in front of the Erechtheium; and it was not allowed to offer up to him any thing alive or libations, but only cakes. (Paus. i. 26. § 6, viii. 2. § 1.) Zeus Hypatus was also worshipped at Sparta (iii. 17. § 3 ), and near Glisas in Boeotia. (ix. 19. § 3.)

IDAEUS (Idaios). The name Idaeus also occurs as a surname of Zeus (Hom. Il. xvi. 605), and of Heracles, as an Idaean Dactyl. (Paus. v. 8. § 1.)

ITHOMATAS (Ithômatas), a surname of Zeus derived from the Messenian hill of Ithome, where the god had a sanctuary, and where an annual festival, the Ithomaea, was celebrated in his honour. (Paus. iv. 33. § 2, &c.)

LABRANDEUS (Labrandeus), a surname of Zeus Stratius, which he derived from a temple he had at Labranda. (Herod. v. 119; Strab. xiv. p. 659; Plut. Quaest. Gr. 46.)

LAPE′RSIUS (Lapersios), a surname of Zeus, derived from the Attic demus of Lapersae. (Lycoph. 1369, with the Schol.)

LAPHY′STIUS (Laphustios). A surname of Zeus, which was derived either from Mount Laphystius in Boeotia, or from the verb laphussein, to flee, so that it would be synonymous with phuxios: a third opinion is, that it signified " the voracious," in reference to the human sacrifices which were offered to him in early time. (Paus. i. 24. § 2, ix. 34. § 4.)

LARISSAEUS (Larissaios), surnames of Zeus and Apollo, derived from the arx Larissa at Argos (Paus. ii. 24. § 4; Strab. ix. p. 440, xiv. 649; Steph. Byz. s. v. Larissa).

LECHEA′TES (Lecheatês) i.e. the protector of childbed, a surname of Zeus, who, as the father of Athena, was worshipped under this name at Aliphera. (Paus. viii. 26. § 4.)

LEUCAEUS (Leukaios), a surname of Zeus, under which he was worshipped at Lepreus, in Elis. (Paus. v. 5. § 4.)

LIMENO′SCOPUS, LIME′NIA, LIMENI′TES, LIMENI′TIS (Limenia, Limenitês, Limenitis, Limenodkopos), i. e. the protector or superintendent of the harbour, occurs as a surname of several divinities, such as Zeus (Callimach. Fragm. 114, 2ed. Bentl.), Artemis (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 259), Aphrodite (Paus. ii. 34. § 11; Serv. ad Aen. i. 724), Priapus (Anthol. Palat. x. 1, 7), and of Pan (Anthol. Palat. x. 10.)

LYCAEUS (Lukaios), sometimes also Lyceus, a surname of certain divinities worshipped on mount Lycaeum in Arcadia, as for instance Zeus, who had a sanctuary on it, in which the festival of the Lycaea was celebrated. No one was allowed to enter the temple, and if any one forced his way in, he was believed to stay within one year, and to lose his shadow (Paus. viii. 2. § 1, 38. § 4, &c.; Pind. Ol. xiii. 154). According to others those who entered it were stoned to death by the Arcadians, or were called stags, and obliged to take to flight to save their lives (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 39). Pan also was called the Lycaean, because he was born and had a sanctuary on mount Lycaeon (Paus. viii. 38. § 4; Strab. viii. p. 388; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 16; Virg. Aen. viii. 344). Lycaeus also occurs as a surname of Apollo.

MAEMACTES (Maimaktês), i. e. the stormy, a surname of Zeus, from which the name of the Attic month Maemacterion was derived. In that month the Maemacteria was celebrated at Athens. (Plut. de Ir. cohib. 9.)

MECHANEUS (Mêchaneus), skilled in inventing, was a surname of Zeus at Argos (Paus. ii. 22, § 3). The feminine form, Mechanitis (Mêchanitis), occurs as a surname of Aphrodite, at Megalopolis, and of Athena. in the same neighbourhood. (Paus. viii. 31, § 3, 36, § 3.)

MEILI′CHIUS (Meilichios), i. e. the god that can be propitiated, or the gracious, is used as a surname of several divinities. 1. Of Zeus, as the protector of those who honoured him with propitiatory sacrifices. At Athens cakes were offered to him every year at the festival of the Diasia. (Thuc. i. 126; Xenoph. Anab. vii. 7. § 4.) Altars were erected to Zeus Meilichius on the Cephissus (Paus. i. 37. § 3),at Sicyon (ii.9. § 6), and at Argos (ii. 20. § 1; Plut. De cohib. Ir. 9). 2. Of Dionysus in the island of Naxos. (Athen. iii. p. 78.) 3. Of Tyche or Fortune. (Orph. Hymn. 71. 2.)

MESSAPEUS (Messapeus), a surname of Zeus, under which he had a sanctuary between Amyclae and mount Taygetus. It was said to have been derived from a priest of the name of Messapeus. (Paus. iii. 20. § 3.)

MOIRA′GETES (Moiragetês), the guide or leader of fate, occurs as a surname of Zeus and Apollo at Delphi. (Paus. x. 24. § 4.)

MO′RIUS (Morios), that is, the protector of the sacred olive trees, occurs as a surname of Zeus. (Soph. Oed. Col. 705; comp. Liddell and Scott, Gr. Lex. s. v. Mopia.)

NEMEIUS (Nemeios), tile Nemeian, a surname of Zeus, under which he had a sanctuary at Argos, with a bronze statue, the work of Lysippus, and where games were celebrated in his honour. (Paus. ii. 20. § 3, 24. § 2.)

NOMOS (Nomos), a personification of law, described as the ruler of gods and men. (Pind. Fragm. 151, p. 640, ed. Böckh; Plat. Gorg. p. 484, b.; Orph. Hymn. 63.)

OGO′A (Ogôa), the Carian name of Zeus at Mysala, in whose temple a sea-wave was seen from time to time. (Paus. viii. 10. § 3.) Strabo (xiv. p. 659) calls the god of Mysala, in the Carian dialect, Osogo.

OLY′MPIUS (Olumpios), the Olympian, occurs as a surname of Zeus (Hom. Il. i. 353), Heracles (Herod. ii. 44), the Muses (Olympiades, Il. ii. 491), and in general of all the gods that were believed to live in Olympus.

O′MBRIUS (Ombrios), i.e. the rain-giver, a surname of Zeus, under which he had an altar on Mount Hymettus in Attica. (Paus. i. 32. § 3 ; comp. Hes. Op. et Di. 587, 620.)

PANHELLE′NIUS (Panellênios), i.e. the god common to, or worshipped by all the Hellenes or Greeks, occurs as a surname of the Dodonaean Zeus, whose worship had been transplanted by the Hellenes, in the emigration from Thessaly, to Aegina. Subsequently, when the name Hellenes was applied to all the Greeks, the meaning of the god's surname likewise became more extensive, and it was derived from the propitiatory sacrifice which Aeacus was said to have offered on behalf of all the Greeks, and by the command of the Delphic oracle, for the purpose of averting a famine (Paus. i. 44. § 13). On that occasion Aeacus designated Zeus as the national god of all the Greeks (Pind. Nem. v. 19; Herod. ix. 7; Aristoph. Equit. 1253; Plut. Lycurg. 6). In Aegina there was a sanctuary of Zeus Panhellenius, which was said to have been founded by Aeacus; and a festival, Panhellenia, was celebrated there. (Paus. i. 18. § 9; Müller, Aeginet. p. 18, &c. 155, &c.)

PARNE′THIUS (Parnêthios), a surname of Zeus, derived from Mount Parnes in Attica, on which there was a bronze statue of the god. (Paus. i. 32. § 2.)

PATROUS, PATROA (Patrôios, Patrôia), and in Latin, Patrii Dii, are, properly speaking, all the gods whose worship has been handed down in a nation or a family from the time of their fathers, whence in some instances they are the spirits of departed ancestors themselves. (Lucian, De Mort. Pereg. 36.) Zeus was thus theos patrôios at Athens (Paus. i. 3. § 3, 43. § 5), and among the Heracleidae, since the heroes of that race traced their origin to Zeus. (Apollod. ii. 8. § 4.)

PHY′XIUS (Phuzios), i. e., the god who protects fugitives, occurs as a surname of Zeus in Thessaly (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1147, iv. 699; Paus. ii. 21. § 3, iii. 17. § 8), and of Apollo. (Philostr. Her. x. 4.)

PI′STIUS (Pistios), i. e. the god of faith and fidelity, occurs as a surname of Zeus, and, according to some, answers to the Latin Fidius or Medius Fidius. (Dionys. ii. 49; Eurip. Med. 170.)

POLIEUS (Polieus), "the protector of the city;" a surname of Zeus, under which he had an altar on the acropolis at Athens. Upon this altar barley and wheat were strewed, which were consumed by the bull about to be sacrificed to the god. The priest who killed the victim, threw away the axe as soon as he had struck the fatal blow, and the axe was then brought before a court of justice. (Paus. i. 24. § 4, 28. § 11.)

SOTER (Sôtêr), i. e. "the Saviour" (Lat. Servator or Sospes), occurs as the surname of several divinities:-- 1. of Zeus in Argos (Paus. ii. 20. § 5), at Troezene (ii. 31. § 14), in Laconia (iii. 23. § 6), at Messene (iv. 31. § 5), at Mantineia (viii. 9. § l), at Megalopolis (viii. 30. § 5; comp. Aristoph. Ran. 1433 ; Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8). The sacrifices offered to him were called sôtêria. (Plut. Arat. 53.) 2. Of Helios (Paus. viii. 31. § 4), and 3. of Bacchus. (Lycoph. 206.)

STHE′NIUS (Sthenios), i.e. "the powerful," or " the strengthening," a surname of Zeus, under which he had an altar in a rock near Hermione, where Aegeus concealed his sword and his shoes, which were found there by Theseus after he had lifted up the rock. (Paus. ii. 32. § 7, 34. § 6.)

STRA′TIUS (Stratios). Stratios, i.e. the warlike, occurs also as a surname of Zeus and Ares. (Strab. xiv. p. 659 ; Herod. v. 119.)

[XENIUS and] XE′NIA (Xenia), and the masculine Xenios are epithets of Athena and Zeus, describing then as presiding over the laws of hospitality, and protecting strangers. (Lat. Hospitalis ; Paus. iii. 11, in fin.; Hom. Od. xiv. 389; Cic. ad Q. Frat. ii. 12.)

ZYGIUS and ZYGIA (Zugia and Zugios), are surnames of Hera and Zeus, describing them as presiding over marriage. (Hesych. s. v.)

Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.


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