One of the Panes, Athenian red-figure krater
C5th B.C., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
THE PANEIDES were twelve young Panes, goat-legged rustic spirits, sons of the elder god Pan. They joined Dionysos in his war against the Indians.
|PAN (Nonnus Dionysiaca 14.67)
|KELAINEUS, AGRENNON, AIGIKOROS, EUGENEION, OMESTER, DAPHOINEUS, PHOBOS, PHILAMNOS, XANTHOS, GLAUKOS, ARGOS, PHORBAS (Nonnus Dionysiaca 14.67)
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 3. 13 (trans. Conybeare) (Greek biography C1st to C2nd A.D.) :
"Now [in India] the hill the summit of which is inhabited by the sages is, according to the account of our travellers, of about the same height as the Akropolis of Athens; and it rises: straight up from the plain, though its natural position equally secures it from attack for the rock surrounds it on all sides. On many parts of this rock you see traces of cloven feet and outlines of beards and of faces, and here and there impressions of backs as of persons who had slipt--and rolled down. For they say that Dionysos, when he was trying to storm the place together with Herakles, ordered the Panes to attack it, thinking that they would be strong enough to take it by assault; but they were thunderstruck by the sages and fell one, one way, and another, another; and the rocks as it were took the print of the various postures in which they fell and failed."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14. 67 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"[Rheia summons the rustic spirits to the army Dionysos for his war against the Indians:] The rockdwellers came also from their self-vaulted caves, bearing all the name of Pan their father the ranger of the wilderness, all armed to join the host; they have human form, and a shaggy goat's head upon it with horns. Twelve horned Panes there were, with this changeling shape and hornbearing head, who were begotten of the one ancestral Pan their mountainranging father. One they named Kelaineus (Blackie) as his looks bore witness, and one Argennos (Whitey) after his colour; Aigikoros (Goatgluts) was well dubbed, because he glutted himself with goat's-milk which he pressed from nannies udders in the flock. Another masterly Pan was called Eugeneios (Longbeard), from a throat and chin which was a thick meadow of hair. Daphoineus (the Bloody) came along with Omester (Eat-em-raw); Phobos (the Fright-away) with shaggy-legged Philamnos (the Lamb's Friend). Glaukos with Xanthos, Glaukos glaring like the bright sea, with a complexion to match. Xanthos had a mane of hair like a bayard, which gave that name to the horned frequenter of the rocks. Then there was bold Argos with a shock of hair as white as snow . . . Along with these came Phorbas (Fear) to join their march, savage and insatiate."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 17. 136 ff :
"[During Dionysos' war against the Indians:] The Panes madly made battle skipping with light foot over the peaks. One of them gript and enemy's neck tight with encircling hands, and ript him with his goat's-hooves, tearing through the flank and strong corselet together. Another caught a fugitive Indian and ran him through this middle where he stood, then lifting him on the curved points of his two longbranching antlers, sent him flying high through the airy ways, rolling over himself like a tumbler. Another waved in his hand the strawcutting sickle of sheafbearing Deo, and reaped the enemy crops with clawcurved blade, like cornears of conflict, like gavels of the battlefield. There was a revel for Ares, there was harvest-home for Dionysos, when the enemy's heads were cut! He offered the curved blade to watching Bakkhos (Bacchus), dabbled with human dew, and so poured a blood-libation to Dionysos, and made the Moirai (Fates) drunken with the battlecup he filled for them. Another man was standing, when one goatfoot Pan twined both hands interlacing about his neck, and struck his wellcorseted emeny with his horn, tearing his flank with the double point. Another met a fellow rushing on him with a blow from his cudgel, and smashed his forehead right between the ends of his eyebrows."
Nonnus, Dionsyiaca 18. 48 ff :
"The Panes [in Dionysos' army], high on their familiar rocks, danced in the dust with nimble feet, passing over the headlands of those untrodden precipices."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 21. 178 ff :
"[When the god Dionysos was driven into the sea by Lykourgos (Lycurgus):] The Satyros so full of energy showed a face unsmiling, and languished in sorrow strange to him. The Panes wandered wild through the woods with hillranging hoof, Panes in search of Dionysos, and heard no word of him . . . So they [the companions of Dionysos] were all restless and sad."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 22. 39 ff :
"The Panes then, roaming about the craggy ravines sped on nimble hooves through the trackless hills; in terrible places, where even that light traveller the bird would not dare to fly, or traverse with his pair of beating wings in his lofty course."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 23. 155 ff :
"[The Indian river Hydaspes tries to drown the troops of Dionysos as they cross his stream:] He curved his own stream, and leapt upon Bakkhos (Bacchus) with a volley of foaming surf . . . The syrinx of Pan was floating on the surface and rolling of itself on the waves, tossed about beside the double pipes."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 35 ff :
"Spare my reeds [set on fire], which . . . spare the harmonious tune of the pan-pipes which guides your [Dionysos's] own mystic song!"
Nonnus, Dionsyiaca 24. 100 ff :
"The Satyroi (Satyrs) attended his [Dionysos's] passage, and with them Bakkhante women and Panes passed through the water."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 123 ff :
"They [the Panes, Satyroi and Bakkhantes] leapt about dancing on the Indian drags, along the rocky paths; then they built shelters undisturbed in the dark forest, and spent the night among the trees. Some went deerhunting with dogs after the long-antlered stags."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 25 ff :
"[Deriades addresses his Indian troops:] ‘Kill me those Panes also with devastating steel. Or if they are gods, and it is not permitted to pierce the body of unwounded Pan with cutting steel, then I make prey of the mountainranging Panes, and they shall tend herds of elephants in the wilderness. Thee are plenty of wild beasts here also, with which I will join the wildbeast Kentauroi (Centaurs) and Panes of hillranging Dionysos; or I will make them a swarm of attendants for my daughter, and waiters upon the festal table of Morrheus.’"
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 29. 313 ff :
"[During the Indian war of Dionysos:] A friendly Pan fought with his goatsfeet : with a sharp stroke of his pointed hoof he tore all down the hollow flank of [the Indian] archer Melaneus and laid open his belly."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 34. 128 ff :
"[Dionysos is driven mad by Hera was absent from the war, demoralising the army of the god:] the Panes had drunk no hot blood fresh from the veins of a lioness of the wilds, and rushed not swift as the wind frenzied into the conflict, but they were mild with fear: hesitating they pawed the ground with gentle noiseless hooves, and ceased the terrible leaps of their highland dance."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 37. 10 ff :
"[During the Indian War of Dionysos:] When Dionysos saw friendly calm instead of war, early in the morning he sent out mules and their attendant men to bring dry wood from the mountains, that he might burn with fire the dead body of Opheltes.
Their leader into the forest of pines was Phaunos [Faunus] who was well practised in the secrets of the lonely thickets which he knew so well, for he had learnt about the highland haunts of Kirke (Circe) his mother. The woodman's ace cut down the trees in long rows. Many an elm was felled by the long edge of the axe, many an oak with leaves waving high struck down with a crash, many a pine lay all along, many a fir stooped its dry needles; as the trees were felled far and wide, little by little the rocks were bared. So many a Hamadryade Nymphe sought another home, and swiftly joined the unfamiliar maids of the brooks.
Parties coming up would often meet, men on the hills traversing different mountain-paths. One saw them up aloft, out in front, coming down, crossing over, with feet wandering in all directions. The sticks were packed in bundles with ropes well twisted and fastened tight and trim, and laid on the mules' backs; the animals set out in lines, and the hooves rang on the mountain-paths as they hurried along, the surface of the sandy dust was burdened by heavy logs dragged behind. Satyroi and Panes were busy; some cut wood with axes, some pulled it from tree after tree with their hands, or lifted trunks with untiring arms and rattled over the rocks with dancing feet."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 1 ff :
"The people retired into the recesses of the forest, and entered their huts. The rustic Panes housed themselves under shelter in the ravines, for they occupied at evening time the natural caverns of a lioness in the wilds. The Satyroi (Satyrs) dived into a bear's cave, and hollowed their little bed in the rock with sharp finger-nails in place of cutting steel; until the light-brining morning shone, and the brightness of Eos (the Dawn) newly risen showed itself peacefully to both Indians and Satyroi."
||Glutted on Goats
||Eater of Raw Flesh
||Friend of Lambs
||Of the Grazing
- Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana - Greek Biography C2nd A.D.
- Nonnos, Dionysiaca - Greek Epic C5th A.D.