Web Theoi
HYGEIA
 
Greek Name Transliteration Latin Name Translation
Ὑγεια Hygeia Salus Good Health (hygiês)
Hygeia | Athenian red-figure hydria C5th B.C. | British Museum, London
Hygeia, Athenian red-figure hydria
C5th B.C., British Museum, London

HYGEIA was the goddess of good health. She was a daughter and attendant of the medicine-god Asklepios, and a companion of the goddess Aphrodite. Her sisters included Panakeia (All-Cure) and Iaso (Remedy).

Hygeia's opposite number were the Nosoi (Spirits of Disease). The Romans named her Salus.

In classical sculpture she was represented as a woman holding a large serpent in her arms. The ancient cults of Hygeia are described on a seperate page.

PARENTS
[1.1] ASKLEPIOS & EPIONE (Greek Lyric V Anonymous Frag 939 Erythrae Inscription, Suidas s.v. Epione)
[1.2] ASKLEPIOS (Pausanias 1.23.5 & 5.20.2)
[2.1] EROS & PEITHO (Orphic Rhapsodies Frag)

ENCYCLOPEDIA

HYGIEIA (Hugieia), also called Hygea or Hygia, the goddess of health, and a daughter of Asclepius. (Paus. i. 23. § 5, 31. § 5.) In one of the Orphic hymns (66. 7) she is called the wife of Asclepius; and Proclus (ad Plat. Tim.) makes her a daughter of Eros and Peitho. She was usually worshipped in the same temples with her father, as at Argos, where the two divinities had a celebrated sanctuary (Paus. ii. 23. § 4, iii. 22.§ 9), at Athens (i. 23. § 5, 31, § 5), at Corinth (ii. 4. § 6), at Gortys (viii. 28. § 1), at Sicyon (ii. 11. § 6), at Oropus (i. 34. § 2). At Rome there was a statue of her in the temple of Concordia (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19). In works of art, of which a considerable number has come down to our time, she was represented as a virgin dressed in a long robe, with the expression of mildness and kindness, and either alone or grouped with her father and sisters, and either sitting or standing, and leaning on her father. Her ordinary attribute is a serpent, which she is feeding from a cup. Although she is originally the goddess of physical health, she is sometimes conceived as the giver or protectress of mental health, that is, she appears as mens sana, or huliea phrenôn (Aeschyl. Eum. 522), and was thus identified with Athena, surnamed Hygieia. (Paus. i. 23. § 5; comp. Lucian, pro Laps. 5.)

Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.


Hippocrates, The Hippocratic Oath (Greek physician C5th to C4th B.C.) :
"I swear by Apollo the physician, and Asklepios (Asclepius), and Hygeia, and Panakeia (Panacea), and all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this Oath and this stipulation . . ."

Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragment 939 (Inscription from Erythrai) (trans. Campbell) (Greek lyric B.C.) :
"Asklepios (Asclepius), the most famous god--ie Paian! By him were fathered Makhaon (Machaon) and Podaleirios (Podalirius) and Iaso (Healer)--ie Paian!--and fair-eyed Aigle (Aegle, Radiance) and Panakea (Panacea, Cure-all), children of Epione, along with Hygieia (Hygeia, Health), all-glorious, undefiled."

Licymnius, Fragment 769 (from Sextus Empiricus, Against the Ethicists) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric V) (Greek lyric C4th B.C.) :
"Bright-eyed mother, highest queen of Apollon's golden throne, desirable, gently-laughing Hygeia (Health)."

Ariphron, Fragment 813 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric V) :
"Hygeia (Health), most revered of the blessed ones among mortals, may I dwell with you for what is left of my life, and may you graciously keep company with me: for any joy in wealth or in children or in a king's godlike rule over men or in the desires which we hunt with the hidden nets of Aphrodite, any other delight or respite from toils that has been revealed by the gods to men, with you, blessed Hygeia, it flourishes and shines in the converse of the Kharites (Charites, Graces); and without you no man is happy."

Euenus, Fragment 6 (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C5th B.C.) :
"Drinking [moderately] is beneficial for body, mind and property. It is well suited to the deeds of Aphrodite and to sleep, a haven from toils, and to Hygeia (Health), most pleasing of the gods to mortals."

Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1001 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"Truly blooming health (hygeia) does not rest content within its due bounds; for disease (nosos) ever presses close against it, its neighbor with a common wall. So human fortune, when holding onward in straight course strikes upon a hidden reef."
[N.B. Health and Disease are constrasted in this passage, although not strongly personified.]

Orphic Hymn 68 to Hygeia (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :
"To Hygeia (Health), Fumigation from Manna. O much desired, prolific, general queen. Hear me, life-bearing Hygeia, of beauteous mien, mother of all; by thee diseases dire, of bliss destructive, from our life retire; and every house is flourishing and fair, if with rejoicing aspect thou art there. Each daidal art they vigorous force inspires, and all the world thy helping hand desires. Aides (Hades), life's bane, alone resists thy will, and ever hates thy all-preserving skill. O fertile queen, from thee for ever flows to mortal life from agony repose; and men without thy all-sustaining ease find nothing useful, nothing formed to please. Without thy aid, not Aides' self can thrive, nor man to much afflicted age arrive; for thou alone, of countenance serene, dost govern all things, universal queen. Assist thy mystics with propitious mind, and far avert disease of every kind."

Orphic Hymn 67 to Asclepius :
"[Asklepios] husband of blameless Hygeia (Health)."

Apuleius, The Golden Ass 10. 25 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) :
"He [the corrupt physician] made a pretence of dispending the celebrated potion called by more learned people ‘The Health Offering’ (Salus Sacra), a drug necessary for easing gastric pains and dissolving bile; but in its place he substituted another draught, ‘The Death Offering’ (Proserpina Sacra) [i.e. poison]."
[N.B. Salus is the Roman name for Hygeia. Prosperina is Persephone, the goddess of death.]

Suidas s.v. Epione (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Epione: wife of Asklepios (Asclepius), and daughters named Hygeia, Aigle (Aegle), Iaso, Akeso (Aceso), Panakeia (Panacea)."


Hygeia | Greek statue
S24.1 HYGEIA
Hygeia | Greek statue
S24.2 HYGEIA
Hygeia & Asclepius | Greek statue
S23.6 HYGEIA
Hygeia | Greek vase painting
K24.1 HYGEIA

Sources:

  • Greek Lyric V Licymnius, Fragments - Greek Lyric C4th B.C.
  • Greek Lyric V Ariphron, Fragments - Greek Lyric B.C.
  • Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments - Greek Lyric B.C.
  • Greek Elegaic Euenus, Fragments – Greek Elegaic C5th B.C.
  • Aeschylus, Agamemnon - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  • Hippocrates, The Hippocratic Oath - Greek Medicine C5th-4th B.C.
  • The Orphic Hymns - Greek Hymns B.C.
  • Apuleius, The Golden Ass - Latin Epic C2nd A.D.
  • Suidas - Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.

Other references not currently quoted here: Pliny Natural History 39.19