EUENOS (Evenus) was a river-god of eastern Aitolia (Aetolia), in central Greece. The Aitolian prince Euenos threw himself into the river after failing to recover his abducted daughter Marpessa from the hero Idas. According to some he was then transformed into the god of the river. Others say the river, formerly known as the Lykormas, was simply renamed Euenos in his honour.
The Euenos River had its headwaters in the Pindus mountain range. It flowed south through Aitolia, emptying into the Gulf near the town of Kalydon (Calydon). The most important neighbouring rivers were the Akheloios (Achelous) to the west, and Pleistos in the east.
[1.1] MARPESSA (Homer Iliad 9.556, Apollodorus 1.60, Propertius Elegies 1.2)
[1.2] MARPESSA (by Alkippe) (Plutarch Parallel Stories 40)
CLASSICAL LITERATURE QUOTES
Homer, Iliad 9. 556 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"Kleopatra (Cleopatra) daughter of weet-stepping Marpessa, child of Euenos (Evenus) and Idas, who was the strongest of all men upon earth in his time; for he even took up the bow to face the King's onset, Phoibos (Phoebus) Apollon, for the sake of the sweet-stepping maiden; a girl her father and honoured mother had named in their palace Alkyone (Alcyone), sea-bird, as a by-name, since for her sake her mother with the sorrow-laden cry of a sea-bird wept because far-raching Phoibos had taken her."
Hesiod, Theogony 337 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"Tethys bore to Okeanos (Oceanus) the swirling Potamoi (Rivers) . . . Euenos (Evenus) and Ardeskos (Ardescus), and Skamandros (Scamander) [in a list of rivers]."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 60 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Demodike (Demodice) [an Aitolian princess] bore to Ares Euenos (Evenus), Molos, Pylos, and Thestios. Euenos fathered Marpessa. Apollon courted her, but Idas, the son of Aphareus, kidnapped her in a winged chariot given him by Poseidon. The father Euenos pursued him in his own chariot, but, when he had not overtaken him by the time he reached the Lykormas (Lycormas) river, he slew his horses and threw himself into the river, which is now called the Euenos after him."
Pseudo-Plutarch, Greek and Roman Parallel Stories 40 (trans. Babbitt) (Greek historian C2nd A.D.) :
"Euenos (Evenus), the son of Ares and Sterope, married Alkippe (Alcippe), the daughter of Oinomaos (Oenomaus), and begat a daughter Marpessa, whom he endeavoured to keep a virgin. Idas, the son of Aphareus, seized her from a band of dancers and fled. Her father gave chase; but, since he could not capture them, he hurled himself into the Lykormas (Lycormas) river and became immortal. So Dositheos in the first book of his Aetolian History."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 242 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Men who committed suicide. Evenus, son of Hercules [Heracles], threw himself into the river Lycormas, now called Chrysorrhoas (Golden-Flow)."
Propertius, Elegies 1. 2 ff (trans. Goold) (Roman elegy C1st B.C.) :
"On her father's banks the daughter [i.e. Marpessa] of Evenus once set Idas and ardent Phoebus [Apollon] at strife."
- Homer, The Iliad - Greek Epic C8th B.C.
- Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Plutarch, Parallel Stories - Greek Historian C1st - 2nd A.D.
- Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Propertius, Elegies - Latin Elegy C1st B.C.