TARTAROS (or Tartarus) was the protogenos (primordial god) of the great stormy Tartarean pit that lay beneath the earth.
The pit was imagined as the inverse of the dome of the sky, lying beneath the flat earth. The sky-dome and Tartarean pit together enclosed the entire cosmos in an egg-shaped or spherical shell.
For cosmographical descriptions of the Tartarean pit,
see the Pit of Tartaros.
TA′RTARUS (Tartaros), a son of Aether and Ge, and by his mother Ge the father of the Gigantes, Typhoeus and Echidna. (Hygin. Praef. p. 3, &c., Fab. 152 ; Hes. Theog. 821 ; Apollod. ii. 1. § 2.) In the Iliad Tartarus is a place far below the earth, as far below Hades as Heaven is above the earth, and closed by iron gates. (Hom. Il. viii. 13 &c., 481; comp. Hes. Theog. 807.) Later poets describe Tartarus as the place in the lower world in which the spirits of wicked men are punished for their crimes, and sometimes they use the name as synonymous with Hades or the lower world in general; and pater Tartarus is used for Pluto. (Val. Flacc. iv. 258.)
Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Hesiod, Theogony 116 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
"Verily at first Khaos (Air) came to be, but next wide-bosomed Gaia (Earth), the ever-sure foundation of al1 the deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy Olympos, and dim Tartaros (the Pit) in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth, and Eros (Love)."
Hesiod, Theogony 820 ff :
"But when Zeus had driven the Titanes from heaven, huge Gaia (Earth) bare her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartaros, by the aid of golden Aphrodite."
Bacchylides, Fragment 52 (from Tzetzes on Hesiod's Theogony) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) :
"The four famous Telkhines, Aktaios, Megalesios, Ormenos and Lykos, whom Bacchylides calls the children of Nemesis and Tartaros."
Aristophanes, Birds 685 ff (trans. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) :
"At the beginning there was only Khaos (Air), Nyx (Night), dark Erebos (Darkness), and deep Tartaros (Hell's Pit). Ge (Earth), Aer (Air) and Ouranos (Heaven) [at first] had no existence."
Aristophanes, Frogs 475 ff :
"[In Tartaros :] The hundred-headed ekhidna (serpent) [presumably Typhoeus] shall tear your entrails; your lungs will be attacked by the Myraina Tartesia (the Eel of Tartaros) [presumably Ekhidna]."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 39 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"The defeat of the Gigantes by the gods angered Ge (Earth) all the more, so she had intercourse with Tartaros and bore Typhoeus in Kilikia."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 4 :
"She [Ekhidna] was a daughter of Tartaros and Ge."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"From Aether [or Ouranos] and Terra [Gaia] [were born various Daimones] . . . Oceanus, Themis, Tartarus, Pontus; and Titanes." - Hyginus, Preface
Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface :
"From Terra [Gaia] and Tartarus [were born]: Gigantes Enceladus, Coeus, elentes, mophius, Astraeus, Pelorus, Pallas, Emphytus, Rhoecus, ienios, Agrius, alemone, Ephialtes, Eurytus, effracordon, Theomises, Theodamas, Otus, Typhon, Polybotes, meephriarus, abesus, colophonus, Iapetus."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 152 :
"Tartarus begat by Tartara, Typhon, a creature of immense size and fearful shape, who had a hundred Draco heads springing from his shoulders." [N.B. Tartara is presumably the Tartarean or downward facing siding of Gaia (the Earth).]
- Hesiod, Theogony - Greek Epic C8th-7th B.C.
- Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
- Aristophanes, Birds - Greek Comedy C5th-4th B.C.
- Aristophanes, Frogs - Greek Comedy C5th-4th B.C.
- Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.