HAIDES was the King of the Underworld, the god of death and the dead.
This page first describes the possessions and attributes of the god, followed by a section on his sacred plants and animals, and ending with descriptions of his divine attendants.
|(1) THE TREASURES OF HAIDES
|CHARIOT & HORSES OF HAIDES Haides drove a golden chariot drawn by a team of four immorta, sable-black horses.
|HELM OF HAIDES The magical helm of Haides was crafted for the god by the elder Kyklopes to use as a weapon in the Titan-War. It bestowed complete invisibility upon the wearer (making him indiscernable even to gods).
|SCEPTRE OF HAIDES Haides wielded a royal sceptre, a magical death-dealing staff which could sunder the earth, creating a passage between the world of the living and the world of the dead.
|PALACE OF HAIDES The golden palace of Haides lay in the dark, dank realms of the Underworld.
|THRONE OF HAIDES Haides sat dispensing fate upon the newly dead, from a golden throne in the hall of his palace, surrounded by the three Judges.
|KEYS OF HAIDES The Gates of Haides were securely locked to prevent the escape of souls. Haides (or his doorman Aiakos) held the golden keys.
|HOUND OF HAIDES The gate of the house of Haides was guarded by the ferocious three-headed, monster-dog Kerberos. [See KERBEROS]
|ORCHARDS OF HAIDES Near the palace of Haides lay the god's famed orchard of pomegranate trees. From one of these came the fruit which trapped Persephone in the Underworld (permanently but for a special dispensation from Zeus which allowed her to return to the world of the living for part of the year).
|CATTLE OF HAIDES King Haides possessed a herd of immortal, sable-black cattle which roamed the asphodel fields of Haides under the care of the daimon herdsman Menoetes.
|(2) SACRED PLANTS & ANIMALS
|CYPRESS: SACRED TREE The cypress tree was regarded as the tree of mourning and so sacred to the god Haides.
|MINT: SACRED HERB The mint plant was sacred to Haides, the metamorphosed form of his lover the Nymphe Minthe.
|WHITE POPLAR: SACRED TREE The white poplar tree was sacred to Haides, it was the metamorphosed form of Leuke, a Nymphe who the god carried off to Elysium.
|ASPHODEL: SACRED PLANT The grey asphodel plant was probably also held to be sacred to Haides.
|SCREECH-OWL: SACRED BIRD The screech-owl, a bird of ill-omen was sacred to the god Haides. It was the metamorphosed form of his orchardist Askalaphos.
|(3) ATTENDANTS OF HAIDES
|ASKALAPHOS The Daimon orchardist of Haides was transformed into a screech-owl by the goddess Demeter for reporting that Persephone had tasted the pomegranate seed. He probably became the animal familiar of the god after this transformation.
|ERINYES, THE The Goddesses of Vengeance who oversaw the Dungeons of the Damned and the tortures of its inmates. They were also despatched by Haides to accompany angry ghosts in their quest for revenge.
|JUDGES UNDERWORLD, THE Minos, Aiakos and Rhadamanthys were the three judges of the underworld who sat seated around the throne of Haides, offering good council to Haides in the judgement of the souls of the newly dead and the allotting of their fates in death. Aiakos was sometimes also described as the doorman of Haides who held the keys of the royal palace.
|KERES, THE The vicious demons of violent death were attendants of the throne of Haides.
|KHARON The Ferryman of Haides who debarred from entering Haides those souls who had not received the proper burial rites.
|MENOITES The Herdsman of Haides who tended the god's herd of sable-black cattle.
|ONEIROI, THE Haides was sometimes called the master of the dream-demons (the Oneiroi).
|RIVERS UNDERWORLD, THE The Gods of the Rivers of the Underworld were said to sit in the court of Haides.
|THANATOS The Demon of Death was a minister of Haides.
CHARIOT & HORSES OF HAIDES
"The wide-pathed earth yawned there in the plain of Nysa, and the lord [Haides], Polydegmon (Host of Many), with his immortal horses sprang out upon her - the Son of Kronos, Polyonomos (He who has many names) ...
He caught her [Persephone] up reluctant on his golden car and bare her away ... So he, that Son of Kronos, of many names, Polysemantor (Ruler of Many), Polydegmon (Host of Many), was bearing her away by leave of Zeus on his immortal chariot." - Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter
"Aidoneus Polysemantor (the Ruler of Many) openly got ready his deathless horses beneath the golden chariot [when commanded by Zeus to return Persephone to her mother]. And she mounted on the chariot, and the strong Argeiphontes [Hermes] took reins and whip in his dear hands and drove forth from the hall, the horses speeding readily. Swiftly they traversed their long course, and neither the sea nor river-waters nor grassy glens nor mountain-peaks checked the career of the immortal horses, but they cleft the deep air above them as they went." - Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter
"A narcissus the wide earth caused to grow yellow as a crocus. That I plucked in my joy; but the earth parted beneath, and there the strong lord [Haides] Polydegmon (Host of Many) sprang forth and in his golden chariot he bore me away, all unwilling, beneath the earth." - Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter
"[Persephone] captive, through grassy plains, drawn in a four-yoked car with loosened reins, rapt over the deep." - Orphic Hymn 18 to Pluton
"Some are of opinion that ... here [near Olympia in Elis] the earth gaped (khanein) for the chariot of Hades and then closed up (mysai) once more." - Pausanias, Guide to Greece 6.21.1
"[In the meadows of Enna, in Sikelia is] a huge grotto which contains a chasm which leads down into the earth and opens to the north, and through it, the myth relates, Plouton [Haides], coming out with his chariot, effected the Rape of Kore ... The myth relates that it was near Syrakousa that Plouton effected the Rape of Kore and took her away in his chariot, and that after cleaving the earth asunder he himself descended into Haides, taking along with him the bride whom he had seized, and that he caused the fountain named Kyane to gush forth." - Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5.2.3-5.5.1
"While Proserpina [Persephone] was gathering flowers ... Pluto [Haides] came in his four-horse chariot, and seized her." - Hyginus, Fabulae 146
"Tyrannus [Haides] had left his dark domains to and fro, drawn in his chariot and sable steeds, inspected the foundations of the isle [of Sikelia, wrent by the burried giant Typhoeus]. His survey done, and no point found to fail, he put his fears aside ... Proserpina [Persephone] was playing in a glade [nearby] ... when, in a trice, Dis [Haides] saw her, loved her, carried her away ... Away the chariot sped; her captor urged each horse by name and shook the dark-dyed reins on mane and neck. On through deep lakes he drove, on through Palici’s sulphurous pools ... [to the spring of] Cyane ... [where the Naiad Kyane attempted to bar his way]. But Saturnius [Hades] restrained his wrath no longer. Urging on his steeds, his terrible steeds, and brandishing aloft his royal sceptre in his strong right arm, he hurled it to the bottom of the pool. The smitten earth opened a way to Hell and down the deep abyss the chariot plunged." - Ovid, Metamorphoses 5.354
"[Hades] sees her [Persephone picking flowers in Sicily] and swiftly abducts what he sees, and bears her to his realm on black horses. She screamed ... Meanwhile a path gapes open for Dis; his horses barely endure the foreign daylight." - Ovid, Fasti 4.443
HELM OF HAIDES
"Upon the head of the hero [Perseus] lay the dread cap of Haides which had the awful gloom of night [ie the power of invisibility]." - Hesiod, Shield of Heracles 126
"After ten years of fighting [the Gods against the Titanes] Ge prophesied a victory for Zeus if he were to secure the prisoners [the three Kyklopes] down in Tartaros as his allies ... [he did so and] the Kyklopes gave Zeus thunder, lightning, and a thunderbolt, as well as a helmet for Plouton [Haides] and a trident for Poseidon. Armed with these the three gods overpowered the Titanes, confined them in Tartaros." - Apollodorus, The Library 1.6-7
Plato, Republic 612b (trans. Shorey) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"The ring of Gyges or the helmet of Haides.” [I.e. two magical items reputed to make the wearer invisible.]
"Perseus ... when sent by Polydectes, son of Magnes, to the Gorgones, he received from Mercurius [Hermes], who is thought to have loved him, talaria (winged sandals) and petasus (cap), and, in addition, a helmet which kept its wearer from being seen by an enemy. So the Greeks have called it the helmet of Hades (the Unseen One), though Perseus did not, as some ignorant people interpret it, wear the helmet of Orcus himself, for no educated person could believe that." - Hyginus, Astronomica 2.12
"Aidos kune (helmet of Hades): A proverb [applied] to those concealing themselves with certain devices. For such was the helmet of Haides, which Perseus used when he killed the Gorgon." - Suidas "Aidos kune"
SCEPTRE OF HAIDES
"By the walls of Pylos ... Hades [in defence of the town] spared not to ply him [Herakles] with that sceptred staff, which takes our mortal bodies down along the buried road to the dead world." - Pindar, Odes Olympian 9 str2
"The myth relates that it was near Syrakousa that Plouton [Haides] effected the Rape of Kore and took her away in his chariot, and that after cleaving the earth asunder he himself descended into Haides, taking along with him the bride whom he had seized, and that he caused the fountain named Kyane to gush forth." - Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5.2.3-5.5.1
"[The Sikelian Naiad Kyane] held out her arms outstretched to bar his [Haides'] way [as he was carrying off Persephone]. But Saturnius [Haides] restrained his wrath no longer. Urging on his steeds, his terrible steeds, and brandishing aloft his royal sceptre in his strong right arm, he hurled it to the bottom of the pool. The smitten earth opened a way to Hell and down the deep abyss the chariot plunged." - Ovid, Metamorphoses 5.354
"What time thou [Herakles] wast making war on Pylos, Nestor’s land, [Haides] brought to combat with thee his plague-dealing hands, brandishing his three-forked spear." - Seneca, Hercules Furens 559
PALACE OF HAIDES
"There, in front [at the ends of the earth], stand the echoing halls of the god of the lower-world, strong Hades, and of awful Persephone. A fearful hound guards the house in front ... keeps watch and devours whomsoever he catches going out of the gates of strong Hades and awful Persephone." - Hesiod, Theogony 767
"The shadowy place of the dead and passed the black gates which hold back the souls of the dead, for all their protestations." - Greek Elegaic Theognis, Frag 1.703
"The Stygian city and the cruel court of swarthy Dis [Haides]. Countless broad entrances that city has and portals everywhere open ... There the Umbrae (Shades) wander without flesh or blood or bones; some gather in the central square; some throng the courts of Tyrannus Imus (Hell’s King) [Haides]." - Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.437
"What of him who holds sway over the dark realm? Where sits he, governing his flitting tribes?
There is a place in dark recess of Tartarus [i.e. in Haides], which with a heavy pall dense mists enshroud. Hence flow from a single source two streams, unlike: one, a placid river (by this do the gods sear), with silent current bears on the sacred Styx; the other with mighty roar rushes fiercely on, rolling down rocks in its flood, Acheron, that cannot be recrossed. The royal hall of Dis [Haides] stands opposite, girt by a double moat, and the huge house is hid by an o’ershadowing grove. Here in a spacious cavern the tyrant’s doors overhang; this is the road for spirits, this is the kingdom’s gate. A plain lies round about this where sits the god, where with haughty mien his awful majesty assorts the new-arriving souls. Lowering is his brow, yet such as wears the aspect of his brothers and his high race; his countenance is that of Jove, but Jove the thunderer; chief part of that realm’s grimness is its own lord, whose aspect whate’er is dreaded dreads." - Seneca, Hercules Furens 707
"Beneath our pole [the earth] cut off from the things of the upper world, deep down lies the palace of the Tartarean Father [Haides]; never would it share the fate of the toppling sky, even if the mass were sent rolling ... wide-mouthed Chaos lies, so huge that it would swallow all matter, wearied with its own burden, and the falling universe. Here are the twin doors of the Shades below; one [the gate of Haides], by stern law ever open, receives nations and kinds ... by the left gate, how many monstrous creatures stand upon the threshold." - Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1.830
"The lord of Erebus [Haides], enthroned in the midst of the fortress of his dolorous realm." - Statius, Thebaid 8.21
"Himself [lord Haides] I behold, all pale upon the throne, with Stygian Eumenides [Erinyes] ministering to his fell deeds about him, and the remorseless chambers and gloomy couch of Stygian Juno [Persephone]." - Statius, Thebaid 4.520
THRONE OF HAIDES
"Hermes ... sprang down with speed to the hidden places of the earth. And he found the lord Aides in his house seated upon a couch, and his shy mate [the newly wed Persephone] with him." - Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter
"Thy [Haides'] throne is fixed in Haides’ dismal plains, distant, unknown to the rest, where darkness reigns." - Orphic Hymn 18 to Pluton
"Himself [lord Haides] I behold, all pale upon the throne." - Statius, Thebaid 4.520
KEYS OF HAIDES
"Aiakos, even after death, is honoured in the company of Plouton [Haides], and has charge of the keys of Hades’ realm." - Apollodorus, The Library 3.159
"[Depicted on table made by Kolotes at Olympia] On the other are Plouton [Hades], Dionysos, Persephone and Nymphai ... As to the key (Plouton holds a key) they say that what is called Haides has been locked up by Plouton, and that nobody will return back again there from." - Pausanias, Guide to Greece 5.20.2-3
"Earth’s keys to thee, illustrious king [Haides], belong, its secret gates unlocking, deep and strong." - Orphic Hymn 18 to Pluton
HOUND OF HAIDES
The house or realm of Haides was guarded by a gigantic, three-headed, serpent-maned dog named Kerberos.
For MORE information on the hound of Haides see KERBEROS
ORCHARDS OF HAIDES
"He [Haides[ on his part secretly gave her [Persephone] sweet pomegranate seed to eat, taking care for himself that she might not remain continually with [her mother in the upper world] grave, dark-robed Demeter ...
[Demeter to Persephone upon her return:] 'If you have tasted food, you must fo back again beneath the secret places of the earth, there to dwell a third part of the seasons every year: yet for the two parts you shall be with me and the other deathless gods.' ...
[Persephone to Demeter:] 'He [Haides] secretly put in my mouth sweet food, a pomegranate seed, and forced me to taste against my will." - Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter
"When Zeus commanded Plouton [Hades] to send Kore [Persephone] back up, Plouton gave her a pomegranate seed to eat, as assurance that she would not remain long with her mother. With no foreknowledge of the outcome of her act, she consumed it. Askalaphos [the orchard-keeper], the son of Akheron and Gorgyra, bore witness against her, in punishment for which Demeter pinned him down with a heavy rock in Haides’ realm. But Persephone was obliged to spend a third of each year with Plouton, and the remainder of the year among the gods." - Apollodorus, The Library 1.33
"[Zeus to Demeter:] 'Proserpina [Persephone] shall reach the sky again on one condition, that in Hell her lips have touched no food; such is the rule forestablished by the three Parcae [the Moirai].’ So Jove [Zeus] replied; but Ceres [Demeter] was resolved to win her daughter back. Not so fate permitted, for the girl had broken her fast and wandering, childlike, through the orchard trees from a low branch had picked a pomegranate and peeled the yellow rind and found the seeds and nibbled seven. The only one who saw was Orphne's son, Ascalaphus ... He saw and told, in spite, and by his tale stole her return away ...
[But] Juppiter [Zeus], to hold the balance fair between his brother and his sister in her grief, portioned the rolling years in equal parts. Now Proserpine, of two empires alike great deity, spends with her mother half the year’s twelve months and with her husband half." - Ovid, Metamorphoses 5.520
"The winged Herald [Hermes] visits Tartarus [Haides] as ordered, returns ... tells what he witnessed. ‘The ravished girl [Persephone],’ he said, ‘broke her fast with three seeds buried in a pomegranate’s tough rind.’
The grieving mother wept, as if the loss were new. At length she recovered, but not easily. She said: ‘Heaven is not my home either; order the Taenarian dell [Haides] to admit me, too.’ And she would have done this, if Jove [Zeus] had not arranged that the daughter spend six months in heaven." - Ovid, Fasti 4.443
CATTLE OF HAIDES
"Desiring to supply the soul [of a dead prophet] with blood, he [Herakles] slaughtered one of Haides’ cattle [on his journey through the Underworld]. Their keeper Menoetes, son of Keuthonymos, challenged Herakles to a wrestling match. Herakles hugged his torso and broke his ribs, but set him down at the request of Persephone." - Apollodorus, The Library 2.125
SACRED BIRDS & ANIMALS
I) SCREECH-OWL: SACRED BIRD
The screech-owl was a bird of ill omen, regarded as a messenger of Haides and the infernal deities. It was the metamorphosed form of Haides' orchardist Askalaphos, who was transformed into the bird by Demeter for revealing to Haides that she had tasted the pomegranate seed.
For MORE information on the orchardist of Haides see ASKALAPHOS
SACRED PLANTS & FLOWERS
I) WHITE POPLAR: SACRED TREE
The white poplar tree was sacred to Haides, being the metamorphosed form of Leuke, a Nymphe whom the god had carried off to Elysium (source: Servius). The cypress (a tree of mourning) was also sacred to the god.
For MORE information on the Nymphe Leuke see LEUKE
II) SACRED HERB: MINT
"Near Pylos, towards the east, is a mountain named after Minthe, who, according to myth, became the concubine of Haides, was trampled under foot by Kore [Persephone], and was transformed into garden-mint, the plant which some call Hedyosmos. Furthermore, near the mountain is a precinct sacred to Haides." - Strabo, Geography 8.3.14
"Mint, men say, was once a maid beneath the earth, a Nymphe of Kokytos, and she lay in the bed of Aidoneus [Haides]." - Oppian, Halieutica 3.485
For MORE information on the Nymphe Minthe see MINTHE
III) CYPRESS: SACRED TREE
The hard wood of the cypress tree was used for making coffins, and so came to be associated with the god Haides.
"Beneath the gloom of an ancient cypress ,squalid and ghastly with darksome hue [sacrifices were made to Haides in a necromantic ritual]." - Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1.730
"He [the seer Teiresias] prepares the rites of Lethe [nekromankia ], and makes ... [an altar] for thee, lord of Avernus [Haides], a heap of pinewood though sunk into the ground yet towers high into the air; next to this an altar of lesser bulk is raised to Ceres of the Underworld [Persephone]; in front and on every side the cypress of lamentation intertwines them." - Statius, Thebaid 4.410
IV) SACRED PLANT: ASPHODEL
The realm of Haides was also known as the Asphodel Fields, after this grey-coloured plant. It was regarded as sacred to the underworld gods, and the statues of Persephone and Hekate were crowned with its fronds on the isle of Rhodes.
HAIDES ATTENDANTS: ROYAL COURT
Haides was enthroned in Erebos surrounded by a court consisting of the three Judges of the Dead, the Erinyes (Chthonian Vengeance Demons), the Moirai (Fates), the Keres (Death-Demons) and Thanatos (Death), as well as the personified underworld Rivers.
"The lord of Erebus [Haides], enthroned in the midst of the fortress of his dolorous realm, was demanding of his subjects the misdoings of their lives, pitying nought human but wroth against all the Manes (Shades). Around him stand the Furiae [Erinyes] and various Mortes (Deaths) [Thanatoi or Keres] in order due, and savage Poena (Vengeance) thrusts forth her coils of jangling chains; the Fatae (Fates) [Moirai] bring the Animas (Souls) and with one gesture [literally “thumb” as in the amphitheatre] damn them; too heavy grows the work. Hard by, Minos with his dread brother [Rhadamanthys] in kindly mood counsels a milder justice, and restrains the bloodthirsty king; Cocytus and Phelgethon, swollen with tears and fire, aid in the judgement, and Styx accuses the gods of perjury." - Statius, Thebaid 8.21
"Himself [lord Haides] I behold, all pale upon the throne, with Stygian Eumenides [Erinyes] ministering to his fell deeds about him, and the remorseless chambers and gloomy couch of Stygian Juno [Persephone]. Black Mors [Thanatos god of death] sits upon an eminence, and numbers the silent peoples for their lord; yet the greater part of the troop remains. The Gortynian judge [Minos] shakes them [the ghosts of the dead] in his inexorable urn, demanding the truth with threats, and constrains them to speak out their whole lives’ story and at last confess their extorted gains." - Statius, Thebaid 4.520
HAIDES ATTENDANTS: THE ERINYES
The Erinyes were the jailors of the Dungeons of the Damned in Haides, and the goddesses who avenged the ghosts of the dead. They attended throne of Haides and Persephone.
"The lord of Erebus [Haides], enthroned in the midst of the fortress of his dolorous realm ... Around him stand the Furiae [Erinyes] and various Mortes (Deaths)." - Statius, Thebaid 8.21
"Himself [lord Haides] I behold, all pale upon the throne, with Stygian Eumenides [Erinyes] ministering to his fell deeds about him." - Statius, Thebaid 4.520
"Persephone was arming her Erinyes ... Then at the grim nod of Khthonion Zeus [Haides], the Eumenides [Erinyes] assailed the palace of Pentheus [driving him to madness]." - Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44.198
For MORE information on these goddesses see THE ERINYES
HAIDES ATTENDANTS: THE JUDGES
The three Judges of the Dead, Minos, Rhadamanthys, and Aiakos were seated beside the throne of Haides.
"The lord of Erebus [Haides], enthroned in the midst of the fortress of his dolorous realm ... Hard by, Minos with his dread brother [Rhadamanthys] in kindly mood counsels a milder justice, and restrains the bloodthirsty king." - Statius, Thebaid 8.21
"Himself [lord Haides] I behold, all pale upon the throne ... Black Mors [Thanatos god of death] sits upon an eminence, and numbers the silent peoples for their lord; yet the greater part of the troop remains. The Gortynian judge [Minos] shakes them [the ghosts of the dead] in his inexorable urn, demanding the truth with threats, and constrains them to speak out their whole lives’ story and at last confess their extorted gains." - Statius, Thebaid 4.520
HAIDES ATTENDANTS: AIAKOS
Aiakos was the doorkeeper of Haides and one of the judges of the dead.
"Aiakos, even after death, is honoured in the company of Plouton [Haides], and has charge of the keys of Hades’ realm." - Apollodorus, The Library 3.159
"[Comedy play in which Dionysos travels to the underworld to bring back the great tragic poets. Here Aiakos is depicted as the doorman of Hades:]
Dionysos: What's the right way to knock [on the gates of Haides]? I wonder how the natives here are wont to knock at doors ...
Dionysos (knocking): Boy! boy!
(The door opens. Aiakos appears.)
Aiakos: Who's there?" - Aristophanes, Frogs 466
For MORE information on this demi-god see AIAKOS
HAIDES ATTENDANTS: KHARON
Kharon was the ferryman of the dead.
For MORE information on this Daimon see KHARON
HAIDES ATTENDANTS: MENOITES
Menoites was the cattle-herder of Haides.
"Menoites ... tending the cattle of Haides." - Apollodorus, The Library 2.108
"Haides' cattle. Their keeper Menoites, son of Keuthonymos." - Apollodorus, The Library 2.125
For MORE information on this Daimon see MENOITES
HAIDES ATTENDANTS: ASKALAPHOS
Askalaphos was the orchardist of Haides.
For MORE information on this Daimon see ASKALAPHOS
HAIDES ATTENDANTS: THE ONEIROI
Haides was the master of the Oneiroi or Dream Daimones which issued forth from the underworld at night, sometimes carrying the messages of the dead.
"So did these ghosts travel on together squeaking, while easeful Hermes led them down through the ways of dankness. They passed the streams of Okeanos, the White Rock, the Gates of the Sun and the Land of Dreams (Demos Oneiroi), and soon they came to the field of asphodel, where the souls (psykhai), the phantoms (eidola) of the dead have their habitation." - Homer, Odyssey 24.12
"Plouton [Hades], master of the black-winged Oneiroi (Dreams) [the dream spirits issued forth from Haides at night]." - Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments 963 (from Demetrius, On Style)
- Homer, The Iliad - Greek Epic C9th-8th BC
- Homer, The Odyssey - Greek Epic C9th-8th BC
- Hesiod, Theogony - Greek Epic C8th-7th BC
- Hesiod, Works & Days - Greek Epic C8th-7th BC
- Hesiod, Shield of Heracles - Greek Epic C8th-7th BC
- The Homeric Hymns - Greek Epic C8th-4th BC
- Pindar, Odes - Greek Lyric C5th BC
- Greek Lyric I Sappho, Fragments - Greek Lyric C6th BC
- Greek Lyric II Anacreon, Fragments - Greek Lyric BC
- Greek Lyric III Stesichorus, Fragments - Greek Lyric C7th-6th BC
- Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments - Greek Lyric BC
- Greek Elegaic Theognis, Fragments – Greek Elegaic C6th BC
- Plato, Republic - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
- Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd BC
- Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica - Greek Epic C3rd BC
- Aristophanes, Frogs - Greek Comedy C5th-4th BC
- The Orphic Hymns - Greek Hymns BC
- Callimachus, Fragments - Greek C3rd BC
- Strabo, Geography - Greek Geography C1st BC - C1st AD
- Pausanias, Guide to Greece - Greek Geography C2nd AD
- Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History - Greek History C1st BC
- Plutarch, Lives - Greek Historian C1st-2nd AD
- Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses - Greek Mythography C2nd AD
- Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd AD
- Hyginus, Astronomica - Latin Mythography C2nd AD
- Ovid, Metamorphoses - Latin Epic C1st BC - C1st AD
- Ovid, Fasti - Latin Epic C1st BC - C1st AD
- Propertius, Elegies - Latin Elegy C1st BC
- Seneca, Hercules Furens - Latin Tragedy C1st AD
- Valerius Flaccus, The Argonautica - Latin Epic C1st AD
- Statius, Thebaid - Latin Epic C1st AD
- Statius, Silvae - Latin Epic C1st AD
- Oppian, Halieutica - Greek Poetry C3rd AD
- Nonnos, Dionysiaca - Greek Epic C5th AD
- Suidas - Byzantine Lexicographer C10th AD