HERA was the Queen of the gods, and goddess of the sky, women and marriage. This pages describes the wrath of the goddess, which in myth, was mostly directed against the mistresses of Zeus and his bastard sons. (N.B. Quotes for this section are still being compiled.)
HERA WRATH : THE THEBANS
LOCALE : Thebes, Boiotia (Central Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 52 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"While he [Kreon] was king, quite a scourge held Thebes in suppression, for Hera sent upon them the Sphinx."
For MORE information on this monster see THE SPHINX
HERA WRATH : SIDE
LOCALE : Hyria, Boiotia (Central Greece) ?
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 25 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"His [Orion's] first wife was Side, who for vying with Hera in shapeliness was thrown by her into Haides’ realm."
HERA WRATH : PROETIDES
LOCALE : Argos, Argolis (Southern Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 26 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"When these three [the daughters of Proitos] had grown up, they went mad . . . Akousilaos [Greek mythographer C6th B.C.] says that it was because they slighted the wooden image of Hera. In their maddened state they rambled over all of Argos."
HERA WRATH : POLYTECHNUS & AEDON
LOCALE : Kolophon, Lydia (Anatolia)
Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 11 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"One day they [Polytekhnos and Aedon of Kolophon in Lydia] blurted out the needless remark that they loved each other more than did Hera and Zeus. Hera found what was said to be insupportable and sent Eris (Discord) between them to create strife in their activities. Polytekhnos was on the point of finishing off a standing board for a chariot and Aedon of completing the web she was weaving. They agreed that whoever o the two would finish the task more quickly would hand over a female servant to the other.
Aedon was the quicker in finishing off her web--Hera had helped her in the task. Polytekhnos was infuriated by the victory of Aedon."
[N.B. The story concludes with Polytekhnos fetching Aedon’s sister Khelidon, raping her and bringing her back disguised as a slave for his wife. The pair discover each other's identities, murder Polytekhnos' son and feed the boy to his father. The entire family are then transformed into birds.]
HERA WRATH : GERANA
LOCALE : River Okeanos, Aithiopia (Africa)
Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 16 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Among the people we call Pygmaioi there was born a girl called Oinoe who was of flawless beauty but she was graceless by nature and overweening. She cared not a rap for Artemis and Hera . . . Hera found fault with Oinoe for not honouring her and turned her into a crane, elongated her neck, ordained that she should be a bird that flew high. She also caused war to arise between her and the Pygmaioi.
Yearning for her child Mopsos, Oinoe flew over houses and would not go away. But all the Pygmaioi armed themselves and chased her away. Because of this there arose a state of war then as well as now between the Pygmaioi and the cranes."
Aelian, On Animals 15. 29 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.) :
"A certain woman became queen and ruled over the Pygmaioi; her name was Gerana, and the Pygmaioi worshipped her as a god, paying her honours too august for a human being. The result was, they say, that she became so puffed up in her mind that she held the goddesses of no account. It was especially Hera, Athena, Artemis, and Aphrodite that, she said, came nowhere near her in beauty. But she was not destined to escape the evil consequences of her diseased imagination. For in consequence of the anger of Hera she changed her original form into that of a most hideous bird and became the crane of today and wages war on the Pygmaioi because with their excessive honours they drove her to madness and to her destruction."
Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 90 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"The Pygmy matron’s doom, her pitiable doom, when Juno [Hera] won the contest and transformed her to a crane and made her fight her folk, her kith and kin."
HERA WRATH : PELIAS
LOCALE : Iolkos, Thessalia (Northern Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 92 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"[Neleus & Pelias] found out that she [their step-mother Sidero] was mistreating [their mother] Tyro; yet when they set out to get her she eluded them and escaped into the temenos of Hera. But Pelias slaughtered her right on the altar, and from that time forth he continued to hold Hera in small esteem."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 108 :
"When Pelias asked an oracle about his kingdom, the god warned him against the ‘one-sandaled man.’ . . .
Iason (Jason) [headed to the city of Pelias] as he was crossing the river Anauros, he lost one of his sandals in the current, and so reached the sacrifice wearing only the other one. When Pelias saw this and interpreted the oracle, he went up to Iason and asked him what he as king would do, if an oracle had told him he was to be assassinated by one of the citizens. Iason’s reply was made either because he was taken by surprise or because of Hera, who in her wrath at Pelias for not honouring her, had planned Medeia as an evil for him. ‘The Golden-Fleece’, said Iason, ‘I would assign him the task of retrieving it.’ When Pelias heard this, he straightway commanded Iason to go after the fleece."
HERA WRATH : ECHO
LOCALE : Boiotia (Central Greece)
Ovid, Metamorphoses3. 350 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"A strange-voiced Nymphe observed . . . who must speak if any other speak an cannot speak unless another speak, resounding Echo. Echo was still a body, not a voice, but talkative as now, and with the same power of speaking, only to repeat, as best she could, the last of many words, Saturnia [Hera] had made her so; for many a time when the great goddess might have caught the Nymphae lying with Jove [Zeus] upon the mountainside, Echo discreetly kept her talking till the Nymphae had fled away; and when at last the goddess saw the truth, ‘Your tongue’, she said, ‘with which you tricked me, now its power shall lose, your voice avail but fro the briefest use.’ The event confirmed the threat: when speaking ends, all she can do is double each last word, and echo back again the voice she's heard."
For MORE information on this Nymph see EKHO
HERA WRATH : LETO
LOCALE : Throughout Greece
The marriage of Zeus and Hera was soured when the god began the first of his many affairs. The Titaness Leto was the first of these mistresses to feel the wrath of the goddess. Hera sent the Drakon Python to pursue her relentlesly during her pregnancy.
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 21 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Leto had relations with Zeus, for which she was hounded by Hera all over the earth. She finally reached Delos and gave birth to Artemis, who thereupon helped her deliver Apollon."
Callimachus, Hymn 4 to Delos 51 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"The anger of Hera, who murmured terrible against all child-bearing women that bare children to Zeus, but especially against Leto, for that she only was to bear to Zeus a son dearer even than Ares. Wherefore also she herself kept watch within the sky, angered in her heart greatly and beyond telling, and she prevented Leto who was holden in the pangs of child-birth. And she had two look-outs to keep watch upon the earth. The space of the continents did bold Ares watch, sitting armed on the high top of Thrakian Haimos, and his horses were stalled by the seven-chambered cave of Boreas. And the other kept watch over the far-flung islands, even Thaumantia [Iris] seated on Mimas, whither she had sped. There they sat and threatened all the cities which Leto approached and prevented them from receiving her. Fled Arkadia, fled Auge’s holy hill Parthenion, fled after her aged Pheneios, fled all the land of Pelops that lies beside the Isthmos, save only Aigialos and Argos. For on those ways she set not her feet, since Inakhos belonged unto Hera. Fled, too, Aonia [Boiotia] on the same course, and Dirke and Strophia, holding the hands of their sire, dark-pebbled Ismenos; far behind followed Asopos, heavy-kneed, for he was marred by a thunderbolt. And the earth-born nymphe Melia wheeled about thereat and ceased from the dance and her cheek paled as she panted for her coeval oak, when she saw the locks of Helikon tremble . . .
[The island] Asteria, lover of song . . . seeing the unhappy lady in the grievous pangs of birth: ‘Hera, do to me what thou wilt. For I heed not they threats. Cross, cross over, Leto, unto me.’
So didst thou speak, and she gladly ceased from her grievous wandering and sat by the stream of Inopos . . . And she loosed her girdle and leaned back her shoulders against the trunk of a palm-tree, oppressed by the grievous distress, and the sweat poured over her flesh like rain. And she spake in her weakness : ‘Why, child, dost thou weigh down thy mother? There, dear child, is thine island floating on the sea. Be born, be born, my child, and gently issue from the womb.’
O Spouse of Zeus, Lady of heavy anger, thou wert not to be for long without tidings thereof : so swift a messenger [i.e. the goddess Iris] hastened to thee. And, still breathing heavily, she spake--and her speech was mingled with fear : ‘Honoured Hera, of goddesses most excellent far . . . Leto is undoing her girdle within and island. All the others spurned her and received her not; but Asteria called her by name as she was passing by--Asteria that evil scum of the sea: thou knowest it thyself . . .’
And Hera was grievously angered and spake to her [Iris] : ‘So now, O shameful creatures of Zeus, may ye all wed in secret and bring forth in darkness, not even where the poor mill-women bring forth in difficult labour, but where the seals of the sea bring forth, amid the desolate rocks. But against Asteria am I no wise angered for this sin, nor can I do to her so unkindly as I should--for very wrongly has she done a favour to Leto. Howbeit I honour her exceedingly for that she did not desecrate my bed, but instead of Zeus preferred the sea.’" [N.B. Asteria leapt into the sea when Zeus pursued her and was transformed into the island of Delos.]
For MORE information on this goddess see LETO
HERA WRATH : IO
LOCALE : Argos, Argolis (Southern Greece) & Aigyptos or Egypt (North Africa)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 5 - 9 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Zeus seduced Io while she was a priestess of Hera. When Hera discovered them, Zeus touched the girl, changed her into a white cow, and swore that he had not had sex with her. For this reason, says Hesiod, oaths made in love do not incite divine anger.
Hera demanded the cow from Zeus, and assigned Argos Panoptes as its guard . . . Argos tied the cow to an olive tree in the grove of the Mykenaians. Zeus instructed Hermes to steal her, and Hermes . . . Killed Argos with a stone.
Hera then inflicted the cow with a gladfly, and she made her way [in a journey out of Greece] . . . until she finally reached Aigyptos (Egypt), where she regained her shape and gave birth beside the Neilos (Nile) to a son Epaphos. Hera asked the Kouretes to kidnap the child, which they did. When Zeus found this out, he slew the Kouretes, while Io set out to find their babe [and eventually located him in Syria]."
For MORE information on the nymph and her guardian see IO and ARGOS
HERA WRATH : CALLISTO
LOCALE : Mount Lykaios, Arkadia (Southern Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 101 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Zeus fell in love with her [Kallisto] and forced her into bed . . . Because he wanted to escape the attention of Hera, Zeus changed Kallisto into a bear. But Hera persuaded Artemis to shoot the girl with an arrow like a wild animal."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 3. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"Kallisto was loved by Zeus and mated with him. When Hera detected the intrigue she turned Kallisto into a bear, and Artemis to please Hera shot the bear."
Ovid, Fasti 2. 175 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"She [Kallisto] would have kept the pledge [to Artemis to remain a virgin] but for her prettiness. She shunned mortals, but Jupiter [Zeus] made her sin . . .
The moon’s horns had replenished its circle ten times: the supposed virgin was now a mother. Wounded Juno [Hera] rages, and changes the girl's shape. Why do this? She was Jove’s unwilling victim. When she sees her rival with a beast’s hideous face, Juno snarls, ‘Go, sleep with that, Jupiter!’ A shaggy bear loped across the scrubby hillsides, who recently was loved by supreme Jove . . .
[Many years later, Arkas, her son, not recognising Kallisto as a bear, would have killed her in the hunt] . . . But both were whisked to homes above. They glitter as adjacent stars: the one called Arctos leads; Arctophylax seems to follow behind. Saturnia [Hera] still fumes and asks white Tethys’s waters, not to bathe or touch Maenalian Arctos."
For MORE information on the Arcadian princess see Kallisto
HERA WRATH : AEGINA & AEACUS
LOCALE : Aigina (Southern Greece)
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 52 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"When Jupiter [Zeus] wished to lie with Aegina, the daughter of Asopus, he feared Juno [Hera], and took the girl to the island of Delos [error], and there made her pregnant. Aeacus was their son. When Juno found this out, she sent a serpent into the water which poisoned it, and if anyone drank from it, he paid the debt to nature. Since Aeacus, his allies lost, could not protect himself on accou t of the scarcity of men, as he gazed at some ants, he begged Jupiter to give him men for defense. Then Jupiter changed the ants into men."
For MORE information on this Nymph see AIGINA
FEAR OF HERA'S WRATH : ELARA
LOCALE : Phokis or Boiotia (Central Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 23 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"After Zeus had seduced Elare, in fear of Hera he hid her beneath the earth, where she gave birth to their enormous son Tityos."
FEAR OF HERA'S WRATH : OTHREIS
LOCALE : Mount Othrys, Malis (Northern Greece)
Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 13 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Zeus and the Nymphe Othreis had a child, Meliteus. In fear of Hera because of her own intercourse with Zeus, his mother exposed the child in a wood. By the will of Zeus the child was not lost to sight but was fed by bees and began to grow."
For MORE information on this Nymph see OTHREIS
HERA WRATH : IYNX
LOCALE : Unknown
Suidas s.v. Iynx (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Iynx bewitching Zeus with magics she was turned to stone for such things by Hera."
For MORE information on this Nymph see IYNX
HERA WRATH : APHRODITE
LOCALE : Lampsakos, Mysia (Anatolia)
Suidas s.v. Priapos (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Priapos: was conceived from Zeus and Aphrodite; but Hera in a jealous rage laid hands by a certain trickery on the belly of Aphrodite and readied a shapeless and ugly and over-meaty babe to be born."
HERA WRATH : SEMELE
LOCALE : Thebes, Boiotia (Southern Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 26 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Zeus fell in love with Semele and slept with her, promising her anything she wanted, and keeping it all from Hera. But Semele was deceived by Hera into asking Zeus to come to her as he came to Hera during their courtship. So Zeus, unable to refuse her, arrived in her bridal chamber in a chariot with lightning flashes and thunder, and sent a thunderbolt at her. Semele died of fright, and Zeus grabbed from the fire her six-month aborted baby [Dionysos], which he sowed into his thigh."
Plato, Republic 381d (trans. Shorey) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"[From Plato's critique of the portrayal of gods by the poets :] No poet then my good friend, must be allowed . . . in any tragedy or in other poems bring in Hera disguised as a priestess collecting alms ‘for the life-giving children of Inakhos, the Argive stream.’ [Quoting the lost Xantriae of Aeschylus.]" [N.B. The children of Inakhos are the Naiades. In the play Hera disguises herself as a priestess to trick Semele into asking Zeus to appear before her in his full glory.]
For MORE information on Semele see THYONE
HERA WRATH : ATHAMAS & INO
LOCALE : Athamantia, Boiotia (Southern Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 28 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Hermes took him [the infant Dionysos] to Ino and Athamas, and persuaded them to bring him up as a girl. Incensed, Hera inflicted madness on them, so that Athamas stalked and slew his elder son Learkhos on the conviction that he was a deer, while Ino threw Melikertes into a basin of boiling water, and then, carrying both the basin and the corpse of the boy, she jumped to the bottom of the sea. As for Zeus, he escaped Hera's anger by changing Dionysos into a baby goat. Hermes took him to the Nymphai of Asian Nysa."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 84 :
"Athamas later on lost his children by Ino as well, because of the wrath of Hera [angry that they had nursed the infant Dionysos]. For in a state of madness he killed Learkhos with an arrow, upon which Ino threw Melikertes and herself into the sea."
HERA WRATH : DIONYSOS
LOCALE : Aigyptos or Egypt (North Africa)
Plato, Laws 672b (trans. Bury) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"There is a secret stream of story and report to the effect that the god Dionysos was robbed of his soul's judgment by his stepmother Hera, and that in vengeance therefore he brought in Bakkhic rites and all the frenzied choristry, and with the same aim bestowed also the gift of wine."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 33 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Dionysos was the discoverer of the grape-vine. After Hera inflicted madness upon him, he wandered over Aigyptos (Egypt) and Syria."
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HERA WRATH : HERACLES
LOCALE : Thebes, Boiotia (Central Greece) & Various others
I) BIRTH OF HERAKLES
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 53 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"When Herakles was about to be born, Zeus told the gods that the coming descendant of Perseus would be king of Mykenai, so Hera in jealous spite persuaded Eileithyia to hold back Alkmene's labour, and then arranged to have Sthenelos’ son [his cousin] Eurystheus born in seven months."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 11. 3 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"The Pharmakeai (Witches) . . . were sent by Hera to hinder the birth-pangs of Alkmena. So these kept Alkmena from bringing forth her child [Herakles]. But Historis, the daughter of Teiresias, thought of a trick to deceive the Pharmakeai, and she uttered a loud cry of joy in their hearing, that Alkmena had been delivered. So the story goes that the Pharmakeai were deceived and went away, and Alkmena brought forth her child." [N.B. The Pharmakeai are the same as the Eileithyiai (Birth-Goddesses) who appear in other versions of this tale]."
II) INFANCY OF HERAKLES
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 62 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"When Herakles was eight months old, Hera sent two great serpents to his bed, for she wanted the infant destroyed. Alkmene cried out for Amphitryon, but Herakles woke up and squeezed the serpents to death."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 25. 2 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"There [in Thebes, Boiotia] is shown a place where according to the Thebans Hera was deceived by Zeus into giving the breast to Herakles when he was a baby."
Philostratus the Younger, Imagines 5 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :
"[From a description of an ancient Greek painting:] You are playing, Herakles, playing, and already laughing at your labour, though you are still in swaddling clothes; and taking the serpents sent by Hera one in each hand you pay no heed to your mother [Alkmena], who stands near by crazed with fear."
III) MADNESS OF HERAKLES
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 72 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"It fell to the lot of Herakles to go mad because of the jealousy of Hera. In his madness he threw into a fire his and Megara's children, as well as two belonging to Iphikles."
IV) LABOURS OF HERAKLES
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 101 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"[Herakles] was met by Hippolyte [queen of the Amazones], who wanted to know why he had come. She promised him the belt [he had come to fetch as one of his labours], but Hera in the guise of an Amazon woman went through the crowd saying that the new arrivals were kidnapping the queen. The women thereupon armed themselves and rode down to the ships on horses. When Herakles saw that they were armed, he smelled a trap, so he killed Hippolyte and took the belt."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 112 :
"As he [Herakles] came to the rivulets of the sea [i.e. the boundary of Greece, as he was returning with the cattle of Geryon] Hera inflicted a gladfly on the cattle, and they scattered into the foothills of the Thrakian mountains. Herakles chased and caught some of them . . . but those left behind turned wild . . . He returned [to Mykenai] and gave the cattle to Eurystheus, who sacrificed them to Hera."
Aelian, On Animals 12. 7 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.) :
"They say that the Lion of Nemea fell from the moon (selene). At any rate Epimenides also has these words : ‘For I am sprung from fair-tressed Selene the Moon, who in a fearful shudder shook off the savage lion in Nemea, and brought him forth at the bidding of Queen Hera.’"
Ovid, Heroides 9. 5 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"The man [Herakles] whom Juno's [Hera's] unending series of labours has never crushed, on him Iole has placed her yoke. This would please Eurystheus, and it would pleas the sister of the Thunderer; stepdame that she is, she would gladly know of the stain upon your life. More than Juno, Venus [Aphrodite] has been your bane. The one, by crushing you down, has raised you up; the other has your neck beneath her humbling foot [i.e. he is often conquered by desire]."
Ovid, Heroides 9. 24 ff :
"He [Herakles] whom not a thousand wild beasts, whom not the Stheneleian foe, whom not Juno [Hera] could overcome."
Ovid, Heroides 9. 35 ff :
"The acts of Eurystheus, the instrument of Juno’s [Hera's] unjust wrath, and the long-continued anger of the goddess."
V) HERAKLES POST-LABOURS
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 137 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"As Herakles was sailing away from Troy [after sacking the city], Hera sent raging storms upon him [and his ship was forced to land at Kos, where he was almost killed]. Zeus was angered by her act and hung her from Olympos."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 19 :
"Zeus threw him [Hephaistos] from the sky for helping Hera when she was in chains. Zeus had hung her from Olympos as punishment for setting a storm on Herakles as he was sailing back from his conquest of Troy. Hephaistos landed on Lemnos, cripped in both legs.”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 15. 9 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"Herakles founded the sanctuary [of Hera in Sparta] and was the first to sacrifice goats, because in his fight against Hippokoon and his children he met with no hindrance from Hera, although in his other adventures he thought that the goddess opposed him. He sacrificed goats, they say, because he lacked other kinds of victims."
Suidas s.v. O Herakleis ti mainei (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"O Heracles, why are you mad? They say that this was said by the Argonauts, when they were calling on Heracles who had been left behind by them in accordance with a wish of Hera."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 160 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"From the time he [Herakles] achieved immortality, Hera's enmity changed to friendship, he married her daughter Hebe."
- Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Plato, Laws - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
- Plato, Republic - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
- Callimachus, Hymns - Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
- Pausanias, Description of Greece - Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
- Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Aelian, On Animals - Greek Natural History C2nd-3rd A.D.
- Philostratus the Younger, Imagines - Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
- Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Ovid, Metamorphoses - Latin Epic C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
- Ovid, Fasti - Latin Poetry C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
- Ovid, Heroides - Latin Poetry C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
- Suidas - Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.