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Greek Mythology >> Greek Gods Cult >> Dionysus Cult >> Titles & Epithets

DIONYSOS TITLES

Greek Name

Διονυσος

Transliteration

Dionysos

Latin Spelling

Dionysus

Roman Name

Liber, Bacchus

DIONYSOS was the Olympian god of wine and festivity.

This page lists his cult titles and poetic epithets.


CULT TITLES & EPITHETS

The first of Dionysos' cult titles refer to his various divine functions, as god of the Bacchic orgy, nocturnal revels, fertility, wine, feasts, freedom and salvation, tragedy plays, the underworld:--

Greek Name

Βακχος

Βακχειος

Ιοβακχος

Ιακχος

Transliteration

Bakkhos

Bakkheios

Iobakkhos

Iakkhos

Latin Spelling

Bacchus

Baccheus

Iobacchus

Iacchus

Translation

Of Bacchic Frenzy

Of Bacchic Frenzy

Of Ritual Bacchic-Cry

Of Ritual Iacchic-Cry

Greek Name

Ευαστηρ

Βρομιος

Λυαιος

Μαινολης

Transliteration

Euastêr

Bromios

Lyaios

Mainolês

Latin Spelling

Evaster

Bromius

Lyaeus

Maenoles

Translation

Of Ritual Euoi-Cry

Noisy, Boisterous

--

Mad, Raging

Greek Name

Νυκτελιος

Λαμπτηρος

Ἑστιως

Κωλωτης

Transliteration

Nyktelios

Lamptêros

Hestiôs

Kôlôtês

Latin Spelling

Nyctelius

Lampterus

Hestius

Colotes

Translation

Of the Night

Of the Torches

Of the Feast

Spotted Gecko

Greek Name

Αυξιτης

Φαλλην

Ανδρογυνος

Φλεων

Transliteration

Auxitês

Phallên

Androgynos

Phleôn

Latin Spelling

Auxites

Phallen

Androgynus

Phleon

Translation

Giver of Increase

Phallic, Of the Phallus

Androgynous (Sexually)

Luxuriant (Foliage)

Greek Name

Σταφυλιτης

Ομφακιτης

Ληναιος

Λιναιος

Transliteration

Staphylitês

Omphakitês

Lênaios

Lêinaios

Latin Spelling

Staphylites

Omphacites

Lenaeus

Linaeus

Translation

Of the Grape

Of the Unripe Grape

Of the Wine-Press

Of the Wine-Press

Greek Name

Θεοινος

Αγαθοσ Δαιμον

Προτρυγαιος

Οινοψ

Ακρατοφορος

Transliteration

Theoinos

Agathos Daimon

Protrygaios

Oinops

Akratophoros

Latin Spelling

Theoenus

Agathus Daemon

Protrygaeus

Oenops

Acratophorus

Translation

God of Wine

The Good Spirit

First of the Vintage

Wine-Dark

Bringer of Mixed Wine

Greek Name

Κισσιος

Κιττοφορος

Ανθιον

Κιστοφορος

Ερεβινθινος

Transliteration

Kissios

Kittophoros

Anthion

Kistophoros

Erebinthinos

Latin Spelling

Cisseus

Cittophorus

Anthion

Cistophorus

Erebinthinus

Translation

Of the Ivy

Ivy-Bearer

Of the Flowers

Basket-Bearer

Of the Chickpea

Greek Name

Διμητωρ

Ειραφιωτης

Αιγοβολος

Μελαναιγις

Transliteration

Dimêtôr

Eiraphiôtês

Aigobolos

Melanaigis

Latin Spelling

Dimetor

Iraphiotes

Aegobolus

Melanaegis

Translation

Twice-Born

Goat-Kid, Insewn

Goat-Slayer

Of the Black Goat-Skin, Dark Aegis

Greek Name

Ταυροφαγος

Βουφαγος

Μοσχοφαγος

Ανθροπορραιστος

Transliteration

Taurophagos

Bouphagos

Moskhophagos

Anthroporraistos

Latin Spelling

Taurophagus

Buphagus

Moschophagus

Anthroporraestus

Translation

Bull-Eater

Cow-Eater

Calf-Eater

Man-Slayer

Greek Name

Λυσιος

Ελευθερευς

Ψιλαξ

Σαωτης

Σωτηριος

Transliteration

Lysios

Eleuthereus

Psilax

Saôtês

Sôtêrios

Latin Spelling

Lysius

Eleuthereus

Psilax

Saotes

Soterius

Translation

Of Release, Releasing

Of Liberation, Freedom

(Uplifted on) Wings

Saviour

Saviour, Recovery (from Madness)

Greek Name

Πατρωιος

Αισυμνητης

Πολιτης

Αγυιευς

Transliteration

Patrôios

Aisymnêtês

Politês

Agyieus

Latin Spelling

Patroeus

Aesymnetes

Polites

Agyieus

Translation

Paternal, Ancestral (God)

Dictator

Citizen

(Protector) of the Street, the Ways

Greek Name

Μυστης

Χθονιος

Ζαγρευς

Σαβαζιος

Μελπομενος

Transliteration

Mystês

Khthonios

Zagreus

Zabazios

Melpomenos

Latin Spelling

Mystes

Chthonius

Zagreus

Zabazius

Melpomenus

Translation

Of the Mysteries

Of the Earth, Chthonic

(Orphic God)

(Phrygian God)

Singer, Minstrel, Of the Tragedy Play

Another set of cult titles come from locales of shrines and their founders:--

Greek Name

Ελευθερευς

Λευκυανιτης

Καλυδωνιος

Κρης

Transliteration

Eleuthereus

Leukyanitês

Kalydônios

Krês

Latin Spelling

Eleuthereus

Leucyanites

Calydonius

Cres

Translation

Of Eleutherae (Attica)

Of Leucyanias R. (Elis)

Of Calydon (Aetolia)

Of Crete (Aegean)

Greek Name

Καδμος

Κολωνατες

Λιμναιος

Transliteration

Kadmos

Kolônates

Limnaios

Latin Spelling

Cadmus

Colonates

Limnaeus

Translation

Of Cadmus (hero Thebes)

Of the Knoll

Of the Marsh

The meanings of some of his titles remain obscure:--

Greek Name

Δασυλλιος

Transliteration

Dasyllios

Latin Spelling

Dasyllius

Translation

--


CULT TERMS

Some general terms pertaining to the god's cult include:--

Greek Name

Διονυσιον

Ληναιον

Διονυσια

Ληναια

Transliteration

Dionysion

Lênaion

Dionysia

Lênaia

Latin Spelling

Dionysium

Lenaeum

Dionysia

Lenaea

Translation

Temple of Dionysus

Temple of Dionysus Lenaeus

Festival of Dionysus

Festival of the Wine-Press

Greek Name

Θεοινια

Ανθεστηρια

Απατουρια

Λαμπτηρια

Transliteration

Theoinia

Anthestêria

Apatouria

Lamptêria

Latin Spelling

Theoinia

Anthesteria

Apaturia

Lampteria

Translation

Wine-God Festival

Festival of the Flowers

Festival of Deception

Torch Festival

Greek Name

Ασκωλια

Σκιερεια

Φελλος

Αστυδρομια

Transliteration

Askôlia

Skiereia

Phellos

Astydromia

Latin Spelling

Ascolia

Sciria

Phellus

Astydromia

Translation

Wine-Skin Festival

Festival of the Shade

Festival of Rocky Land

Town-Running Festival

Greek Name

Βακχεια

Θυια

Τυρβη

Transliteration

Bakkheia

Thyia

Tyrbê

Latin Spelling

Baccheia

Thyia

Tyrbe

Translation

Bacchic Revelry

Festival of Wild Revels

Festival of Tumult

Months named after the god include:--

Greek Name

Ανθεστηριων

Transliteration

Anthestêriôn

Latin Spelling

Anthesterion

Translation

Month of Dionysus Anthesterius


POETIC TITLES & EPITHETS

This list has yet to be compiled.

I. Common Homeric titles of Dionysos.

II. Common Homeric epithets of Dionysos.


Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 3. 62. 5 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"Dionysos was named twice-born (dimetor) by the ancients, counting it as a single and first birth when the plant is set in the ground and begins to grow, and as a second birth when it becomes laden with fruit and ripens its grape-clusters--the god thus being considered as having been born once from the earth and again from the vine."

Aelian, Historical Miscellany 3. 41 (trans. Wilson) (Greek rhetorician C2nd to 3rd A.D.) :
"Note that the ancients used the word phlyein (to luxuriate) of an abundant yield of fruit. So they called Dionysos Phleon (the Luxuriant), Protrygaios (the First at the Vintage), Staphylites (the God of the Grape), Omphakites (the god of the unripe grape), and various other epithets."

Suidas s.v. Athenaion (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Apollonion is short for the temple of Apollon . . . and Dionysion [for Dionysos]."

Suidas s.v. Dionysos :
"Dionysos : The son of Semele. [So named] from accomplishing (dianuein) for each of those who live the wild life; or from providing (dianoein) everything for those who live the wild life."
[N.B. This etymological explanation is somewhat unusual.]

Suidas s.v. Zagreus :
"Zagreus : Dionysos in poets. For Zeus, it seems, had intercourse with Persephone, and she gave birth to Dionysos Khthonios (of the earth, underworld)."

Suidas s.v. Saboi (quoting Demosthenes 18. 260) :
"Saboi: Demosthenes [in the speech] On Behalf of Ktesiphon [mentions them]. Some say that Saboi is the term for those who are dedicated to Sabazios, that is to Dionysos, just as those [dedicated] to Bakkhos [are] Bakkhoi. They say that Sabazios and Dionysos are the same. Thus some also say that the Greeks call the Bakkhoi Saboi. But Mnaseas of Patrai [C3rd B.C.] says that Sabazios is the son of Dionysos."

Suidas s.v. Bromios :
"Bromios : Dionysos, the birth-maker of fruits. From bora (food) comes borimos, and by metathesis bromios." [N.B.This etymological explanation is unusual, bromios means noisy or boisterous.]

Suidas s.v. Iobakkhos :
"Iobakkhos : A proper name."

Suidas s.v. Iakkhos :
"Iakkhos : Dionysos; or a hymn to Dionysos."

Suidas s.v. Euaster (quoting Leonidas of Tarentum, Greek Anthology 6. 154) :
"Euastêr (who cries Euoi!) : Epithet of Dionysos. From the ecstatic cry Euoi! In the Epigrams: ‘These things of the open country Arkadian Biton, when an old man, dedicated to Pan and Lyaios who cries Eoi!, that is to Lyaios and the Nymphai.’"

Suidas s.v. Mainoles :
"Mainolês (frenzied) : Mad. Raging."

Suidas s.v. Lenaios :
"Lênaios : A name of Dionysos."

Suidas s.v. Linaios :
"Linaios : [A title of] Dionysos."

Suidas s.v. Dimetor :
"Dimêtôr (twice-born) : Dionysos."

Suidas s.v. Eiraphiotes :
"Eiraphiôtês : Dionysos, from the fact that he was sewn up (erraphthai) in the thigh of Zeus." [N.B. This is one of seven etymologies proffered by the ancients; others include connection with eriphos, goat-kid.]

Suidas s.v. Kistophoros :
"Kistophoros (basket-bearer, ivy-bearer) : It seems that baskets were sacred to Dionysos and the Two Goddesses [Demeter and Persephone]." [N.B. Derived from Harpocration s.v. kittophoros, the ivy-bearer.]

Suidas s.v. Protrygaios :
"Protrygaios (vintage-presider) : An epithet of Dionysos."

Suidas s.v. Oinops (quoting Greek Anthology 6. 44. 5 and 7. 20. 2) :
"Oinops (wine-dark) : ‘To wine-dark [so-and-so],’ to black [so-and-so]. In the Epigrams: ‘. . . from which we poured libations, as much [as is] right, to wine-dark Bakkhos and the Satyroi.’ But ruddy (oinôpos) [means] wine-coloured, bright or black. ‘Feeding on the ruddy grape-cluster of Bakkhos.’"

Suidas s.v. Androgynos :
"Androgynos (androgynous) : [A word applied to] Dionysos, as one doing both active, male things and passive, female ones [specifically sexual intercourse]."

Suidas s.v. Melanaigis Dionysos :
"Melanaigis Dionysos : Dionysos of the Black Aigis (Goat-skin)."

Suidas s.v. Taurophagon (quoting Sophocles, Fragment 668 and Aristophanes, Frogs 355) :
"Taurophagon (bull-eating) : Dionysos. Sophokles in Tyros [calls him so]. [Used] instead of bouphagos (cow-eater) because an ox was given to Dionysos by the winners of the dithyrambic [competition]. Alternatively the eater of raw flesh. From which Aristophanes has even applied the name, metaphorically, to Kratinos: ‘Who [...] has neither seen or danced the orgia of the noble Mousai, nor been initiated in the Bakkhic rites of the tongue of bull-eating Kratinos.’ . . .
What the passage from the Tyros of Sophokles says [is]: ‘of Dionysus the bull-eater.’ And because he [Kratinos] loved wine; and because of this, they give this epithet of Dionysos to him. Some apply the word, even more curiously, to the mother of Kratinos, who had been initiated in the Bakkhic rites, which are those of Dionysos Moskhophagos (the calf-eater).
Alternatively rash (tolmera), from the Bakkhoi."

Suidas s.v. Kolotes :
"Kôlôtês (Gecko) : Spotted lizard . . . Also Kolotes, [an epithet of] Dionysos."

Suidas s.v. Erebinthinos Dionysos (from Zenobius 3. 83) :
"Erebinthinos Dionysos (chickpea Dionysos) : [A proverb] applied to worthless people/things."


ENCYCLOPEDIA DIONYSUS TITLES

ACRATO′PHORUS (Akratophoros), a surname of Dionysus, by which he was designated as the giver of unmixed wine, and worshipped at Phigaleia in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 39. § 4.)

ACROEITES (Akrôreitês), a surname of Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at Sicyon, and which is synonymous with Eriphius, under which name he was worshipped at Metapontum in southern Italy. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Akrôreia.)

ADO′NEUS (Adôneus). 1. A surname of Bacchus, signifies the Ruler. (Auson. Epigr. xxix. 6.) 2. Adoneus is sometimes used by Latin poets for Adonis. (Plaut. Menaech. i. 2. 35; Catull. xxix. 9.)

AEGO′BOLUS (Aigobolos), the goat-killer, a surname of Dionysus, at Potniae in Boeotia. (Paus. ix. 8. § 1.)

AESYMNE′TES (Aisumnêtês), a surname of Dionysus, which signifies the Lord, or Ruler, and under which he was worshipped at Aroë in Achaia. The story about the introduction of his worship there is as follows: There was at Troy an ancient image of Dionysus, the work of Hephaestus, which Zeus had once given as a present to Dardanus. It was kept in a chest, and Cassandra, or, according to others, Aeneas, left this chest behind when she quitted the city, because she knew that it would do injury to him who possessed it. When the Greeks divided the spoils of Troy among themselves, this chest fell to the share of the Thessallian Eurypylus, who on opening it suddenly fell into a state of madness. The oracle of Delphi, when consulted about his recovery, answered, "Where thou shalt see men performing a strange sacrifice, there shalt thou dedicate the chest, and there shalt thou settle." When Eurypylus came to Aroë in Achaia, it was just the season at which its inhabitants offered every year to Artemis Triclaria a human sacrifice, consisting of the fairest youth and the fairest maiden of the place. This sacrifice was offered as an atonement for a crime which had once been committed in the temple of the goddess. But an oracle had declared to them, that they should be released from the necessity of making this sacrifice, if a foreign divinity should be brought to them by a foreign king. This oracle was now fulfilled. Eurypylus on seeing the victims led to the altar was cured of his madness and perceived that this was the place pointed out to him by the oracle; and the Aroëans also, on seeing the god in the chest, remembered the old prophecy, stopped the sacrifice, and instituted a festival of Dionysus Aesymnetes, for this was the name of the god in the chest. Nine men and nine women were appointed to attend to his worship. During one night of this festival a priest carried the chest outside the town, and all the children of the place, adorned, as formerly the victims used to be, with garlands of corn-ears, went down to the banks of the river Meilichius, which had before been called Ameilichius, hung up their garlands, purified themselves, and then put on other garlands of ivy, after which they returned to the sanctuary of Dionysus Aesymnetes. (Paus. vii. 19 and 20.) This tradition, though otherwise very obscure, evidently points to a time when human sacrifices were abolished at Aroë by the introduction of a new worship. At Patrae in Achaia there was likewise a temple dedicated to Dionysus Aesymnetes. (Paus. vii. 21. § 12.)

AGRI′ONIUS (Agriônios), a surname of Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at Orchomenus in Boeotia, and from which his festival Agrionia in that place derived its name. (Dict. of Ant. p. 30; Müller, Orchom. p. 166, &c.)

AMPHI′ETES or AMPHIE′TERUS (Amphietês), a surname of Dionysus. (Orph. Hymn. 52. 1, 51. 10.) It is believed that at Athens, where the Dionysiac festivals were held annually, the name signified yearly, while at Thebes, where they were celebrated every third year, it was interpretated to be synonymous with trietês.

ANTHEUS (Antheus), the blooming, a surname of Dionysus. (Paus. vii. 21. § 2.) Anthius, a surname which Dionysus bore at Athens, is probably only a different form for Antheus. (Paus. i. 31. § 2.)

BACCHUS. [DIONYSUS.]

BA′SSAREUS (Bassareus), a surname of Dionysus (Hor. Carm. i. 18. 11; Macrob. Sat. i. 18), which, according to the explanations of the Greeks, is derived from bassara or bassaris, the long robe which the god himself and the Maenads used to wear in Thrace, and whence the Maenads themselves are often called bassarae or bassarides. The name of this garment again seems to be connected with, or rather the same as, bassaris, a fox (Hesych. s. v. bassarai), probably because it was originally made of fox-skins. Others derive the name Bassareus from a Hebrew word, according to which its meaning would be the same as the Greek protrugês, that is, the precursor of the vintage. On some of the vases discovered in southern Italy Dionysus is represented in a long garment which is commonly considered to be the Thracian bassara.

BRISAEUS (Brisaios), a surname of Dionysus, derived from mount Brisa in Lesbos (Steph. Byz. s. v. Brisa), or from a nymph Brisa, who was said to have brought up the god. (Schol. ad Pers. Sat. i. 76.)

BRO′MIUS (Bromios), a surname of Dionysus, which some explain by saying, that he was born during a storm of thunder and lightning (Diod. iv. 5; Dion Chrys. Or. 27); others derive it from the nymph Brome, or from the noise of the Bacchantic processions, whence the verb bromeazesthai, to rage like a Bacchant (Ov. Met. iv. 11; Orph. Lith. xviii. 77.) There is also a my thical personage of this name. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5.)

CALYDO′NIUS (Kaludônios), a surname of Dionysus, whose image was carried from Calydon to Patrae (Paus. vii. 21. § 1), and of Meleager, the hero in the Calydonian hunt. (Ov. Met. viii. 231.)

CRE′SIUS (Krêsios), a surname of Dionysus at Argos, where he had a temple in which Ariadne was said to be buried. (Paus. ii. 23. § 7.)

DENDRI′TES (Dendritês), the god of the tree, a surname of Dionysus, which has the same import as Dasyllius, the giver of foliage. (Plut. Sympos. 5; Paus. i. 43. § 5.)

ELEUTHEREUS (Eleuthereus), a surname of Dionysus, which he derived either from Eleuther, or the Boeotian town of Eleutherae; but it may also be regarded as equivalent to the Latin Liber, and thus describes Dionysus as the deliverer of man from care and sorrow. (Paus. i. 20. § 2, 38. § 8; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 101.) The form Eleutherius is certainly used in the sense of the deliverer, and occurs also as the surname of Zeus. (Plut. Sympos. vii. in fin.; Pind. Ol. xii. 1; Strab. ix. p. 412; Tacit. Ann. xv. 64.)

ENORCHES (Enorchês), a son of Thyestes by his sister Daeta, was born out of an egg, and built a temple to Dionysus, who was hence called Dionysus Enorches, though Enorches may also describe the god as the dancer. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 212 ; Hesych. s. v.)

ENYA′LIUS (Enualios), the warlike, frequently occurs in the Iliad (never in the Odyssey) either as an epithet of Ares . . . Dionysus, too, is said to have been surnamed Enyalius. (Macrob. Sat. i. 19.)

EUBU′LEUS (Eubouleus). Eubuleus occurs also as a surname of several divinities, and describes them as gods of good counsel, such as Hades and Dionysus. (Schol. ad Nicand. Alex. 14; Orph. Hymn. 71. 3; Macrob. Sat. i. 18; Plut. Sympos. vii. 9.)

HYES (Huês), the moist or fertilising god, occurs like Hyetius, as a surname of Zeus, as the sender of rain. (Hesych. s. v. huês.) . . . Hyes was also a surname of Dionysus, or rather of the Phrygian Sabazius, who was identified sometimes with Dionysus, and sometimes with Zeus. (Hesych. l.c.; Strab. p. 471.)

INTONSUS, i.e. unshorn, a surname of Apollo and Bacchus, alluding to the eternal youth of these gods, as the Greek youths allowed their hair to grow until they attained the age of manhood, though in the case of Apollo it may also allude to his being the god of the sun, whence the long floating hair would indicate the rays of the sun. (Hom. Il. xx. 39, Hymn. in Apoll. 134; Horat. Epod. xv. 9; Tibull. i. 4. 34; Ov. Met. iii. 421, Amor. i. 14. 31; Martial, iv. 45.)

ISODAETES (Isodaitês), from daiô, i.e. the god who distributes his gifts equally to all, occurs as a surname of Dionysus Zagreus. (Plut. de Ei. ap. Delph. 9.)

LAMPTER (Lamptêr), i.e. the shining or torch-bearer, a surname of Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at Pellene in Achaia, where a festival called lamptêria was celebrated in his honour. (Paus. vii. 27. § 2.)

LAPHY′STIUS (Laphustios). A surname of Dionysus, from the Boeotian mountain Laphystius, whence the female Bacchantes were called, in the Macedonian dialect, Laphystiae. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 1236; Miiller, Orchom. p. 168, 2d edit.)

LARISSAEUS (Larissaios, surnames of Zeus and Apollo, derived from the arx Larissa at Argos (Paus. ii. 24. § 4; Strab. ix. p. 440, xiv. 649; Steph. Byz. s. v. Larissa).

LENAEUS (Lhnaios), a surname of Dionysus, derived from lênos, the wine-press or the vintage. (Hesych. s. v.; Virg. Georg. ii. 4. 529; Dict. of Ant. s. v. Lenaea.)

LIMNE′GENES, LIMNAEA, LIMNE′TES (Limnaia os, Limnêtês is, Limnêgenês), i.e. inhabiting or born in a lake or marsh, is a surname of several divinities who were believed either to have sprung from a lake, or had their temples near a lake. Instances are, Dionysus at Athens (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 871; Callim. Fragm. 280, Bentl.; Thuc. ii. 15; Aristoph. Ran. 216; Athen. x. p. 437, xi. p. 465), and Artemis.

LYAEUS (Luaios), the god who frees men from care and anxiety, a surname of Bacchus. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 108; Virg. Georg. ii. 229.)

LY′SIUS (Lusios), i.e. the Deliverer, a surname of Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at Corinth, where there was a carved image of the god, the whole figure of which was gilt, while the face was painted red. (Paus. ii. 2. § 5.) He was also worshipped at Sicyon, where the Theban Phanes was said to have introduced the god (ii. 7. § 6), and at Thebes. In the last-mentioned place he had a sanctuary near one of the gates, and there was a story that the god had received the surname from the fact of his once having delivered Theban prisoners from the hands of the Thracians in the neighbourhood of Haliartus (ix. 16. § 4; Orph. Hymn. 49, 2, &c.)

MEILI′CHIUS (Meilichios), i. e. the god that can be propitiated, or the gracious, is used as a surname of several divinities. 1. Of Zeus, as the protector of those who honoured him with propitiatory sacrifice . . . 2. Of Dionysus in the island of Naxos. (Athen. iii. p. 78.)

MELANAEGIS (Melanaigis), i.e. armed or clad with a black aegis, occurred as a surname of Dionysus at Eleutherae (Suid. s. v. Eleutheros ; Paus. i. 38. § 8), and at Athens (Suid. s. v. Apatouria; Conon, Narrat. 39; Paus. ii. 35. § 1), and of the Erinnys. (Aeschy. Sept. 700.)

MELPO′MENUS (Melpomenos), or the singer, was a surname of Dionysus at Athens, and in the Attic demos of Acharne. (Paus. i. 2. § 4, 31. § 3.)

MESATEUS (Mesteus), a surname of Dionysus, derived from the town of Mesatis, where, according to a tradition at Patrae, he had been educated. (Paus. vii. 18. § 3, 21. § 2.)

METHYMNAEUS (Mêthumnaios), a surname of Dionysus, derived, according to some, from Methymna, rich in vines. (Hesych. s. v. ; Virg. Georg. ii. 20.) Others derived it from methe (sweet or wine), as Plutarch (Sympos. iii. 2) and Athenaeus (viii. p. 363)

NYSAEUS, NY′SIUS, NYSEUS, or NYSI′GENA (Nusêïos), a surname of Dionysus, derived from Nysa, a mountain or city, either in Thrace, Arabia, or India, where he was said to have been brought up by nymphs. According to some, it was derived from Nisus, who is said to have been his father, or at least to have educated him. (Hom. Il. vi. 133, Hymn. xxv. 5; Apollon. Rhod. ii. 905, iv. 431; Diod. i. 15, iii. 68; Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23; Virg. Aen. vi. 806; Ov. Met. iv. 13.)

OMA′DIUS (Ômadios), that is, the flesh-eater, a surname of Dionysus, to whom human sacrifices were offered in Chios and Tenedos. (Orph. Hymn. 51. 7; Porphyr. de Abstin. ii. 55.)

PHLEON (Phleôn), i. e. the giver of plenty, is a surname of Dionysus, describing the god as promoting the fertility of plants and trees. (Aelian, V.H. iii. 41.) A similar surname of the god is Phlyus (from phluen; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 115.)

PSILAS (Psilas), i.e. "the giver of wings," or "the unbearded," a surname of Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at Amyclae. (Paus. iii. 19. § 6; Lobeck ad Phrynich. p. 435.)

SOTER (Sôtêr), i. e. "the Saviour" (Lat. Servator or Sospes), occurs as the surname of several divinities :-- 1. of Zeus . . . 2. Of Helios (Paus. viii. 31. § 4), and 3. of Bacchus. (Lycoph. 206.)

TAUROCE′PHALUS (Taurokephalos, also Taurokranos, Taurometôpos, &c.), a surname of Dionysus in the Orphic mysteries. (Orph. Hymn. 51. 2.) It also occurs as a surname of rivers and the ocean, who were symbolically represented as bulls, to indicate their fertilising effect upon countries. (Eurip. Iphig. Aul. 275, Orest. 1378 ; Aelian, V. H. ii. 33; Horat. Carm. iv. 14, 25.)

TAURUS (Tauros), a bull, occurs as a surname of Dionysus. (Eurip. Bacch. 918 ; Athen. xi. p. 476; Plut. Quaest. Graec. 36 ; Lycoph. Cass. 209.)

THYO′NEUS (Thuôneus). A surname of Dionysus which has the same meaning as Thyone, both being formed from thuein, "to be inspired." (Ov. Met. iv. 13; Horat. Carm. i. 17. 23; Oppian, Cyneg. 27 ; Hesych. s. v. Thuônidês.)

ZAGREUS (Zagreus), a surname of the mystic Dionysus (Dionusos chthonios), whom Zeus, in the form of a dragon, is said to have begotten by Persephone, previously to her being carried off by Pluto (Callim. Fragm. 171, ed. Bentl.; Etym. Magn. s. v. ; Orph. Hymn. 29 ; Ov. Met. vi. 114 ; Nonnus, Dionys. vi. 264). He was torn to pieces by the Titans, though he defended himself bravely, and assumed various forms; and Athena carried his heart to Zeus. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 355 ; Lobeck, Aglaopham. p. 547, &c.)

Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.


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