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ARES GOD OF
 
Greek Name Transliteration Latin Spelling Roman Name
Αρης Arês Ares Mars
OTHER ARES PAGES

Ares Intro, Index & Gallery
Ares Myths Part 1, Part 2
Ares Wrath
Ares Favour
Ares Family
Ares Loves
Ares Estate & Attributes
Ares Attendants
Ares Cult & Titles
Ares Summary

ARES was the great Olympian god of war, battlelust, violence, rage and manliness. This page describes the divine role and function of the god, including sections on:

1. Ares God of War & Battle
2. Ares God of Civil Order & Rebellion
3. Ares God of Violence & Rage
4. Ares God of Courage & Fear
5. Ares & the Planet Mars
6. Identification with Foreign Gods


GOD OF WAR & BATTLE & WAR AVERTED

Ares was the god of war who presided over battlefields and armies. He was also in a sense the god of peace, in that if placated, he would keep away war.

I) GOD OF WAR & BATTLES

Ares was the god of the works of warfare - he presided over troop formation, the driving forward and rallying of troops, and the struggle of battle.

Homer, Iliad 5. 27 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"Ares, manslaughtering (brotoloigos), blood-stained (miaiphonos), stormer of strong walls (teikhesipletes)."

Homer, Iliad 5. 427 ff :
"[Zeus to Aphrodite:] ‘No my child, not for you are the works of warfare . . . this shall be left to Athene and sudden Ares.’"

Homer, Iliad 5. 699 ff :
"[Zeus to Ares:] ‘To me you are the most hateful of all the gods who hold Olympos. Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart, wars and battles.’"

Homer, Iliad 13. 127 ff :
"The Akhaians battalions formed in strength about the two Aiantes, battalions Ares could not find fault with, coming among them, nor Athene lady of storming armies."

Homer, Iliad 17. 398 ff :
"About him a savage struggle arose. Not Ares who rallies men (laossoos), not Athene, watching this fight could have scorned it, not even in some strong anger, such was the wicked work of battle for men and for horses."

Homer, Iliad 20. 358 ff :
"Not Ares, who is a god immortal, not even Athene could take the edge of such masses of men and fight a way through them."

Homeric Hymn 8 to Ares (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic B.C.) :
"Ares, exceeding in strength, chariot-rider, golden-helmed, doughty in heart, shield-bearer, Saviour of cities, harnessed in bronze, strong of arm, unwearying, mighty with the spear."

Aeschylus, Agamemnon 638 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"When a messenger with gloomy countenance reports to a people dire disaster of its army's routone common wound inflicted on the State, while from many a home many a victim is devoted to death by the two-handled whip beloved of Ares, destruction double-armed, a gory pair."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 41 ff :
"Seven warriors, fierce regiment-commanders, slaughtered a bull over a black shield [before the commencement of battle], and then touching the bull's gore with their hands they swore an oath by Ares, by Enyo, and by Phobos (Rout) who delights in blood, that either they will level the city and sack the Kadmeans' town by force, or will in death smear this soil with their blood."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 87 ff :
"Chorus [of Argive women pray at the onset of war]: Ah, ah, you gods (theoi) and goddesses (theai), raise your war cry over our walls to drive away the onrushing evil! . . . I see the clashit is not the clatter of a single spear. What will you do? Will you betray your own land, Ares, where you have dwelt since long ago? God of the golden helmet (khrysopêlêx), look, look upon the city that you once cherished!."

Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 630 ff :
"The wanton lord of war, insatiate of battle-cry, Ares, who reaps a human harvest in alien fields, destroy[s] this Pelasgian land by fire."

Plato, Cratylus 400d & 407d (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"[Plato constructs philosophical etymologies for the names of the gods :]
Sokrates : Ares, then, if you like, would be named for his virility and courage, or for his hard and unbending nature, which is called arraton; so Ares would be in every way a fitting name for the god of war."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 8. 260 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
"Who is of more avail for war than Ares, when he aideth men hard-fighting?"

Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 21 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"The small owl whose voice is heard at night [is sacred to Ares] . . . She is a portent of war and sedition for mankind."

Orphic Hymn 65 to Ares (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :
"Magnanimous, unconquered, boisterous Ares, in darts rejoicing, and in bloody wars; fierce and untamed, whose mighty power can make the strongest walls from their foundations shake: mortal-destroying king, defiled with gore, pleased with war's dreadful and tumultuous roar. Thee human blood, and swords, and spears delight, and the dire ruin of mad savage fight. Stay furious contests, and avenging strife, whose works with woe embitter human life."

Orphic Hymn 38 to the Curetes :
"Brass-beating Kouretes, ministers of Ares, who wear his arms the instruments of wars."

Oppian, Halieutica 2. 24 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) :
"The gifts of Ares are swords and brazen tunics to array the limbs and helmets and spears and whatsoever things Enyo delights in."

Ovid, Heroides 3. 87 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Seize up your armour [Akhilleus], O child of Aeacus . . . and with the favour of Mars [Ares] rout and overwhelm their ranks."

Ovid, Heroides 7. 160 ff :
"[On Aeneas and the Trojan refugees :] May those rise above fate whom savage Mars [Ares] has saved saving from out your race, so may that cruel war be the last of misfortunes to you."

Seneca, Phaedra 540 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
"Unholy passion for gain broke up this peaceful life [of the first ages of man], headlong wrath, and lust which sets men's hearts aflame. Next came cruel thirst for power; the weaker was made the stronger’s prey, and might took the place of right. At first men fought with naked fists and turned stones and rough clubs to the use of arms. As yet there was no light cornel-shaft, tipped with tapering iron; no long, sharp-pointed sword hung at the side; no helmets crested with plumes gleamed from afar; rage furnished arms. Warlike Mars [Ares] invented new modes of strife and a thousand forms of death. From this source streams of blood stained all lands and the sea grew red."

II) ARES ATTENDANT GOD OF THE BATTLEFIELD

Ares was described as personally attending the battlefield driving armies in the clash of war. He was usually accompanied by Eris (Strife and Hatred), Deimos (Terror) and Phobos (Fear).

Homer, Iliad 4. 436 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"The cry of the Trojans went up through the wide army. Since there was no speech nor language common to all of them [the Trojans had allies from many lands] but their talk was mixed, who were called there from many far places. Ares drove these on, and the Akhaians grey-eyed Athene, and Deimos (Terror) drove them, and Phobos (Fear), and Eris (Hate) whose wrath is relentless, she the sister and companion of murderous Ares."

Homer, Iliad 5. 27 ff :
"Now as the high-hearted Trojans watched the two [Trojan] sons of Dares, one running away, and one cut down by the side of his chariot [by the Greeks], the anger in all of them was stirred [by Ares]. But grey-eyed Athene took violent Ares by the hand [and removed him from the battle]."

Homer, Iliad 5. 454 ff :
"[Ares] urged onward the god-supported children of Priamos [the Trojans] . . . and stirred the sprits and the strength in each man."

Homer, Iliad 5. 506 ff :
"[The Trojans] drove the strength of their hands straight on, as violent (thouros) Ares defending the Trojans mantled in dark night the battle and passed everywhere . . . waking the heart in the Trojans."

Homer, Iliad 5. 518 ff :
"Their [the Trojans'] fighting work which . . . the silver-bow god [Apollon] woke, and manslaughtering (brotoloigos) Ares, and Eris (Hate), whose wrath is relentless."

Homer, Iliad 5. 592 ff :
"Hektor [the Trojan prince] . . . drove on against them [the Greeks] crying aloud, and with him followed the Trojan battalions in their strength; and Ares led them with the goddess Enyo, she carrying with her the turmoil of shameless hatred while Ares made play in his hands with spear gigantic and ranged now in front of Hektor and now behind him."

Homer, Iliad 5. 699 ff :
"The Argives under the strength of Ares and bronze-armoured Hektor did not ever turn their backs and make for their black ships nor yet stand up to them in fighting, but always backward gave way, as they saw how Ares went with the Trojans. Who then was the first and who the last that they slaughtered, Hektor, Priamos’ son, and Ares the brazen?"

Homer, Iliad 7. 208 ff :
"When he [Aias] had girt his body in all its armour, he strode on his way, as Ares the war god walks gigantic going into the fighting men whom [Zeus] the son of Kronos has driven to fight angrily in heart-perishing hatred."

Homer, Iliad 13. 299 ff :
"As manslaughtering (brotoloigos) Ares is when he strides into battle and Deimos (Terror) goes on beside him, his beloved son, the powerful and dauntless, who frightens even the patient-hearted warrior: these two come out of Thrake to encounter in arms the Ephyroi or the great-hearted Phlegyes [warlike tribes of Greek Epeiros and Thessalia], but the two will not listen to prayers from both sides, but give the glory to one side or the other."

Homer, Iliad 18. 516 ff :
"[Depicted on the shield of Akhilleus a city at war:] Their beloved wives and their little children stood on the rampart to hold it, and with them the men with age upon them, but meanwhile the others went out. And Ares led them, and Pallas Athene. These were gold, both, and golden raiment upon them, and they were beautiful and huge in their armour, being divinities, and conspicuous from afar, but the people around them were smaller."

Homer, Iliad 20. 38 ff :
"Ares in the likeness of a dark stormcloud bellowed, now from the peak of the citadel urging the Trojans sharply on, now running beside the sweet banks of Simoeis. So the blessed gods stirring on the opponents drove them together."

Hesiod, Theogony 934 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"[Aphrodite] to Ares, stabber of shields, bore Phobos (Panic) and Deimos (Terror), dreaded gods, who batter the dense battalions of men embattled in horrible war, they say with Ares, sacker of cities."

Hesiod, Works and Days 106 ff :
"They [the Bronze race of men] loved the lamentable works of Ares and deeds of violence . . . These were destroyed by their own hands."

Hesiod, The Shield of Heracles 191 ff :
"And [depicted] on the shield [of Herakles] stood the fleet-footed horses of grim Ares made gold, and deadly Ares the spoil-winner himself. He held a spear in his hands and was urging on the footmen: he was red with blood as if he were slaying living men, and he stood in his chariot. Beside him stood Deimos (Fear) and Phobos (Flight), eager to plunge amidst the fighting men."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 2. 600 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
"The deadly Keres hurling the charging lines together, in the unending wrestle locked of that grim conflict, where never ceased Ares from hideous slaughter, where the earth crimsoned all round with rushing streams of blood."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 7. 400 ff :
"Ares, to gory strife he speedeth, wroth with foes, when maddeneth his heart."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 8. 260 ff :
"With a shout he [Ares] cheered the Trojans on to face the foe. They heard, and marvelled at that wondrous cry, not seeing the God's immortal form."

Philostratus the Younger, Imagines 10 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :
"[From a description of a painting depicting a city at war :] Where, pray, are their fighting men? Yonder you may find them--the men who follow Ares and Athena. For this is what the work of art means, I believe, indicating by the use of gold and by great stature that the leaders are gods, and giving to the others their inferior rank by this device."

For MYTHS of Ares on the battlefield see:
(1) Ares & the Trojan War (supports the Trojans in the War)
(2) Ares Favour: the Pylians (supports the Pylians in a war with the Herakles)
(3) Ares Favour: the Brygoi (supports the Brygoi in a war with Odysseus)

III) PERSONIFICATION OF WAR AND BATTLE

The name of Ares was used as a synonym for war and battle.

Homer, Iliad 2. 385 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"All day long we may be in the division of hateful Ares [that is, engaged in battle]."

Homer, Iliad 2. 401 ff :
"Each man mad a sacrifice to some one of the immortal gods, in prayer to escape death and the grind of Ares [war]."

Homer, Iliad 2. 439 ff :
"Let us together as we go down to the wide host of the Akhaians, to stir more quickly the fierce War-God [war]."

Homer, Iliad 3. 128 ff :
"The numerous struggles of Trojans, breakers of horses, and bronze-armoured Akhaians, struggles that they endured for her [Helene's] sake at the hands of Ares (the War-God)."

Homer, Iliad 8. 531 ff :
"[We the Trojans] shall arm ourselves in our weapons and beside their hollow vessels waken sharp (oxus) Ares."

Homer, Iliad 14. 149 ff :
"They [the opponents in war] close in the hateful strife of Ares."

Homer, Iliad 16. 245 ff :
"I myself go into the grind of Ares."

Homer, Iliad 17. 721 ff :
"In times past [they] have stood fast beside each other in the face of sharp (oxus) Ares."

Homer, Iliad 18. 134 ff :
"Do not yet go into the grind of Ares."

Homer, Iliad 18. 209 ff :
"[A city] with enemies fighting about it who all day long are in the hateful division of Ares fighting from their own city."

Homer, Iliad 18. 264 ff :
"Akhaians and Trojans from either side sunder between them the wrath of Ares."

Homer, Iliad 18. 304 ff :
"We shall arm ourselves in our war gear and waken sharp Ares by the hollow vessels."

Homer, Iliad 18. 309 ff :
"Ares is impartial. Before now he has killed the killer."

Homer, Odyssey 11. 537 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"[Neoptolemos was] quite unscathed - not pierced by the hurling of keen bronze nor wounded by sword hand to hand, though that is the common way of war, since it is at random that Ares [war] rages."

Homeric Hymn 5 to Aphrodite 10 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) :
"[Athene] delights in the wars and in the work of Ares, in strifes and battles."

Pindar, Nemean Ode 9 str7-str8 (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
"Aidos (Honour), that bred within his heart the warrior mettle to fend of the havoc of Ares."

Aeschylus, Agamemnon 437 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"Ares [war personified] barters the bodies of men for gold [i.e. the combatants ransom the bodies of the slain to their enemies]; he holds his balance in the contest of the spear; and back from Ilion to their loved ones he sends a heavy dust passed through his burning, a dust cried over with plenteous tears, in place of men sending well made urns with ashes."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 62 ff :
"So you [the king], like the careful helmsman of a ship, secure the city before Ares' blasts storm down upon it [i.e. against the invading army]."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 111 ff :
"A torrent of men, their helmet plumes tossing, crashes around the city, sped on by the blasts of Ares."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 242 ff :
"If, then, you [the women of the town] hear that men are dying or wounded, do not seize on the news with loud wailing. For this is the food of Ares [i.e. of war], human blood."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 340 ff :
"Man drags off man, or kills, or sets fires; the whole city is defiled with smoke. Mad Ares storms, subduing the people and polluting reverence. Tumults swell through the town, and against it a towering net is advancing. Man falls before man beneath the spear. Sobs and wails over gore-covered babes, just nursed at their mothers' breasts, resound. Rape and pillage of those fleeing through the city are the deeds of one's own blood. Plunderer joins up with plunderer."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 945 ff :
"Ruthless, too, was Ares [i.e. war], the cruel divider of their property [brothers who fought a fratricidal war over the kingdom], who made their father's curses come true."

Aeschylus, Fragment 51 Europa (from Stobaeus, Anthology 4. 10. 24) (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"But Ares ever loves to pluck all the fairest flower of an armed host."

Callimachus, Hymn 4 to Delos 275 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"On thee [the island of Delos] treads not Enyo nor Hades nor the horses of Ares [that is, war and conflict never visit the holy island]."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 1. 720 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
"Loud clashed their glorious armour: in their souls a battle-fury like Ares' wrath maddened."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 13. 98 ff :
"In deadly mood then charged they on the foe. Ares and fell Enyo maddened there: Blood ran in torrents, drenched was all the earth."

Herodotus, Histories 7. 140. 1 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) :
"The Athenians had sent messages to Delphoi [during the Persian War] asking that an oracle be given them . . . [it] gave them this answer: ‘All is ruined, for fire and headlong Ares [war] speeding in a Syrian chariot will bring you low.’"

Herodotus, Histories 8. 77. 1 :
"[An oracle:] ‘Bronze will come together with bronze, and Ares [war] will redden the sea with blood.’"

Amyntas, Epigram (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 107 (2)) (Greek elegiac C2nd B.C.) :
"Lakedaimon, of old the dauntless, at whose single-handed might and warfare many a time and oft Ares (the War-God) shuddered."

Seneca, Troades 1056 (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
"What crime so savage, so grievous, has Mars [Ares, i.e. war] seen in ten long years [of the Trojan War]?"

Anonymous, Victory of a Roman General (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 144) (Greek poetry C5th A.D.) :
"Steeds neighed at the goad of the familiar Ares (God of War), and the ground was moist and purple with a stream of blood. Now the king, whom no foeman could endure, danced the fling of Enyalios the Killer of Men (androphonos)."

Suidas s.v. Ares (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Ares: Properly [it is] iron. ‘Having plunged Ares inside [your] hollow flanks.’ It also means war. From rhô ‘I speak,’ future rhêsô, [whence] rhês, and with the alpha privative [it is] Ares. For in war there is no need of words, but of actions. And Homer [writes]: ‘for the outcome of war [lies] in hands, [that] of words in counsel.’ The alpha [is] both long and short. Homer [writes]: ‘Ares, Ares, bane of men.’"

For MORE information on a related god (probably the same as Ares) see POLEMOS

IV) ARES PERSONIFICATION OF BATTLE-DEATH, BLOOD-LUST & WEAPONS

Men killed in battle were often described as being slain by Ares, and the blood of the dead was said to glut the god. In many cases Ares appears as little more than a personfication of the weapons of war - spear, sword and arrow. Indeed among the Thrakians and other tribes his cult idol often took the form of an upright sword.

Homer, Iliad 5. 289 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"I do not think that you two will go free until one or the other of you has fallen to glut with his blood Ares the god who fights under the shield’s guard (polemistes talaurinos)."

Homer, Iliad 5. 699 ff :
"Ares went with the Trojans. Who then was the first and who the last that they slaughtered, Hektor, Priamos' son, and Ares armed with brass (khalkokorustes)? Godlike Teuthras first, and next Orestes, driver of Horses, Trekhos the spearman of Aitolia and Oinomaos, Helenos son of Oinops and Oresbios of the shining guard . . . Hera spoke to Zeus, high son of Kronos, and asked him a question: ‘Father Zeus, are you not angry with Ares for his violent acts, for killing so many and such good Akhaian warriors for no reason.’"

Homer, Iliad 6. 203 ff :
"Isandros, his [Bellerophon's] son, Ares the insatiate of fighting (aatos polemoio) killed him [that is, he was slain in battle] in close battle against the glorious Solymoi."

Homer, Iliad 7. 330 ff :
"Many flowing-haired Akhaians have died here [at Troy], whose dark blood has been scattered beside the fair waters of Skamandros by fierce (oxus) Ares."

Homer, Iliad 13. 444 ff :
"[Idomeneus mortally wounded Trojan Alkathoos:] Then and there Ares the mighty (obrimos) [i.e. war and not the god himself] took his life away from him."

Homer, Iliad 16. 543 ff :
"Now brazen (khalkeos) Ares [meaning war and not the god himself] hast struck him [Sarpedon] down by the spear of Patroklos."

Homer, Iliad 20. 78 ff :
"Akhilleus was straining to plunge into the combat opposite Hektor, Priamos' son, since beyond all others his anger was driving him to glut with his blood Ares the god who fights under the shield's guard (polemistes talaurinos)."

Homer, Iliad 22. 267 ff :
"One or the other must fall before then to glut with his blood Ares the god who fights under the shield's guard (polemistes talaurinos)."

Homer, Iliad 24. 260 ff :
"All these Ares [i.e. the war] has killed."

Homer, Iliad 24. 498 ff :
"Fifty were my [Priamos'] sons . . . Violent Ares [the war] broke the strength in the knees of most of them."

Hesiod, The Shield of Heracles 56 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"Strong though Ares is, passion for battle is madness."

Homerica, Epigrams of Homer 10 (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"Iron that Ares loves."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 497 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"The warrior himself has raised the war-cry and, inspired by Ares he raves for battle like a Bakkhe (Bakkhante), with a look to inspire fear. We must put up a good defense against the assault of such a man, for already Phobos (Rout) is boasting of victory at the gate."

Aeschylus, Fragment 50 Europa (from Papyrus) (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"Ares’ warlike spirit hath laid hold of him."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 8. 260 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
"Spears plunged into men's flesh: dread Ares drank his fill of blood: struck down fell man on man, as Greek and Trojan fought."

Orphic Hymn 65 to Ares (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :
"Magnanimous, unconquered, boisterous Ares, in darts rejoicing, and in bloody wars; fierce and untamed . . . defiled with gore, pleased with war’s dreadful and tumultuous roar. Thee human blood, and swords, and spears delight, and the dire ruin of mad savage fight."

Aelian, Historical Miscellany 2. 44 (trans. Wilson) (Greek rhetorician C2nd to 3rd A.D.) :
"A painting of a hoplite coming to the rescue when the enemy suddenly invade and bring death and destruction to the land. The young man clearly looks as if he is about to do battle with great spirit; you would say he was inspired, as if he were possessed by Ares. His eyes have a fiery look."

Suidas s.v. Ares (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Ares: Properly [it is] iron. ‘Having plunged Ares inside [your] hollow flanks.’"

V) ARES GOD OF WAR AVERTED (PEACE)

Ares was in a sense the god of peace, in that, if placated, he would keep war from ravaging a nation.

Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 630 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"[A prayer to the gods:] Divinely-born gods! Hear now as I pour forth libations for blessings upon our kindred. Never may the wanton lord of war, insatiate of battle-cry, Ares, who reaps a human harvest in alien fields, destroy this Pelasgian land by fire; for they had compassion for us, and cast a vote in our favor, respecting our pitiable flock, suppliants in the name of Zeus . . . Therefore let there fly forth from our overshadowed lips a prayer of gratitude. Never may pestilence empty this city of its men nor strife stain the soil of the land with the blood of slain inhabitants. But may the flower of its youth be unplucked, and may Ares, the partner of Aphrodite's bed, he who makes havoc of men, not shear off their bloom . . . And let no murderous havoc come upon the realm to ravage it, by arming Aresfoe to the dance and lute, parent of tearsand the shout of civil strife."

Euphorion of Chalcis, Fragments (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 121 (2b)) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
"Ares allot them their wages in his scales, and rest again from chilling warfare, and send Eirene (Peace) with her prosperity to men!"

Orphic Hymn 65 to Ares (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :
"Magnanimous, unconquered, boisterous Ares . . . Stay furious contests, and avenging strife, whose works with woe embitter human life; to lovely Kypris [Aphrodite] and to Lyaios [Dionysos] yield, for arms exchange the labours of the field; encourage peace, to gentle works inclined, and give abundance, with benignant mind."

Ovid, Heroides 17. 253 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Your parts are better suited for Venus [Aphrodite] than for Mars [Ares]." [I.e. The man is better suited to love than war.]

Seneca, Medea 62 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
"Her [Aphrodite] who restrains the bloody hands of rough Mars [Ares], who brings peace to warring nations and holds plenty in her rich horn, mild goddess."


GOD OF THE SACK & DEFENCE OF CITIES

Ares was regarded as both the god sacker and the god defender of cities.

I) GOD OF THE SACK OF CITIES

Homer, Iliad 5. 27 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"Ares, manslaughtering, blood-stained, stormer of strong walls."

Orphic Hymn 65 to Ares (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :
"Ares . . . whose mighty power can make the strongest walls from their foundations shake."

II) GOD OF THE DEFENSE OF CITIES

Homeric Hymn 8 to Ares (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic B.C.) :
"Ares, exceeding in strength, chariot-rider, golden-helmed, doughty in heart, shield-bearer, Saviour of cities, harnessed in bronze, strong of arm, unwearying, mighty with the spear, O defender of Olympos."

Aeschylus, Eumenides 918 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"Ares, holds as a fortress of the gods, the bright ornament [i.e. Athens] that guards the altars of the gods of Hellas. I pray for the city, with favorable prophecy."

For MYTHS of Ares as the defender of cities and kings see:
(1) Ares Offered Human Sacrifices (in war to protect a city from invasion)
(2) Ares Favour: Nisos (a purple lock of hair secured the kingdom)
(3) Ares Favour: Aeetes (Golden Fleece in Ares' shrine secured the kingdom)


GOD OF REBELLION & CIVIL ORDER

Ares was the god of civil disturbance, riots, rebellions and uprisings. On the contrary he was also regarded as maintainer of civil order. As such he was the patron of ancient police forces and armed guards.

Homeric Hymn 8 to Ares (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic B.C.) :
"Ares . . . ally of Themis (civil order), stern governor of the rebellious."

Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 678 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"And let no murderous havoc come upon the realm to ravage it, by arming Aresfoe to the dance and lute, parent of tearsand the shout of civil strife."

Plato, Laws 670b (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"These shall incur as much disgrace as the man who disobeys the officers of Ares [i.e. the city wardens or police of Athens]."

Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 21 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"The small owl whose voice is heard at night [is sacred to Ares] . . . She is a portent of war and sedition for mankind."

Oppian, Halieutica 2. 654 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) :
"Not long since that first of goddesses [Dike goddess of Justice] had no throne even among men, but noisy riots and raging ruin of destroying War (Ares) and Strife (Eris), giver of pain, nurse of tearful wars, consumed the unhappy race of the creatures of a day."

For MYTHS of Ares as the policeman of the gods:
(1) Ares & the criminal Sisyphos (arrests the man who kidnaps Death)
(2) Ares & the criminal Ixion (arrests the man who tried to rape Hera)


GOD OF BRIGANDS & BANDITRY

Aeschylus, Fragment 282 (from Papyri Oxyrhynchus) (trans. Lloyd-Jones) :
"Hera has reared a violent son [Ares] whom she has borne to Zeus, a god irascible, hard to govern, an one whose mind knew no respect for others. He shot wayfarers with deadly arrows, and ruthless hacked . . (lacuna) with hooked spears . . he rejoiced and laughed . . evil . . scent of blood."

Apuleius, The Golden Ass 7. 10 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) :
"[Among a band of Thessalian brigands:] ‘So should we not address a prayer to Comrade Mars [Ares] . . . Appoint ten representatives to accompany me; that will suffice to attack the nearest village, and enable me to bring back a meal fit for Salian priests.’
So he set out; the rest laid a huge fire, and set up an altar to Mars on the green turf. A little later they arrived back carrying wine-skins and driving a whole flock of farm-animals before them. From it they selected a huge billy-goat, old and shaggy, and sacrificed it to Mars, Follower and Comrade."


GOD OF VIOLENCE, RAGE & ANGER CONTROLLED

Ares was the god who presided over the emotions that lead to violence: hatred and rage. He was also invoked by those who wished to control their violent impulses.

I) GOD OF VIOLENCE, ANGER & RAGE

Homer, Iliad 5. 563 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"[Menelaos] strode out among the champions, helmed in bright bronze, shaking his spear, and the fury of Ares drove him onward, minded that he might go down under the hands of [Trojan] Aineias."

Homer, Iliad 5. 699 ff :
"[Zeus to Ares:] ‘To me you are the most hateful of all the gods who hold Olympos. Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart, wars and battles . . . were you born of some other god and proved so ruinous long since you would have been dropped beneath the gods of the bright sky.’"

Homer, Iliad 5. 699 ff :
"Violent Ares, that thing of fury, evil-wrought."

Homer, Iliad 5. 27 ff :
"Now as the high-hearted Trojans watched [the death of two allies] . . . the anger in all of them was stirred [by Ares]."

Orphic Hymn 65 to Ares (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :
"Ares . . . stay furious contests, and avenging strife, whose works with woe embitter human life."

Plato, Phaedrus 255 (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"The attendants and companions of Ares [i.e. those possessing a violent nature], when under the influence of love (eros), if they fancy that they have been at all wronged, are ready to kill and put an end to themselves and their beloved."

II) GOD OF MURDER & MANSLAUGHTER

Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1505 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"That you [Klytaimestra who murdered her husband Agamemnon] are innocent of this murderwho will bear you witness? How could anyone do so? And yet the evil genius (alastôr) of his father [Atreus] might well be your accomplice. By force amid streams of kindred blood black Ares (Havoc) presses on to where he shall grant vengeance for the gore of children served for meat [i.e. the murder of Atreus' son Agamemnon in a sense avenges Atreus' murder of the sons of his brother Thyestes]."

Aeschylus, Libation Bearers 458 ff :
"Chorus: And let all our company blend our voices to echo the prayer [for the just slaying of Agamemnon's murderers]. Hear! Come to the light [his ghost]! Side with us against the foe!
Orestes: Ares [as manslaughter personified] will encounter Ares; Dike (Right) will encounter Dike (Right).
Elektra: O you gods, judge rightly the plea of right!"

Plato, Phaedrus 255 (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"The attendants and companions of Ares [that is, those possessing a violent nature], when under the influence of love (eros), if they fancy that they have been at all wronged, are ready to kill and put an end to themselves and their beloved."

Suidas s.v. Areios pagos (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Areios pagos (Areopagus, hill of Ares): A law court amongst the Athenians . . . It was given the name Areios pagos (Hill of Ares) . . . because it tries homicide cases; Ares [has a link] with homicides."

For MYTHS of Ares as the god of murder see Ares Wrath: Halirrhothios

III) GOD OF CONTROLLING ANGER

Homeric Hymn 8 to Ares (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic B.C.) :
"Ares . . . Restrain also the keen fury of my heart which provokes me to tread the ways of blood-curdling strife. Rather, O blessed one, give you me boldness to abide within the harmless laws of peace, avoiding strife and hatred and the violent fiends of death."


GOD OF COURAGE, MANLINESS, COWARDICE & FEAR

Ares was the god of manliness and courage and the opposite qualities: fear, terror and cowardice.

I) GOD OF COURAGE & MANLINESS, STRENGTH & ENDURANCE

Homer, Iliad 5. 454 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"[Ares] urged onward the god-supported children of Priamos [the Trojans] . . . and stirred the sprits and the strength in each man."

Homer, Iliad 5. 506 ff :
"Ares . . . woke the heart in the Trojans."

Homer, Iliad 17. 210 ff :
"The armour was fitted to Hektor's skin, and Ares Deinos the terrible (deinos) Enyalios the warlike (Enyalios) entered him, so that the inward body was packed full of force and fighting strength."

Homer, Odyssey 14. 216 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"Athene and Ares gave me courage, and strength to shatter the ranks of men when I chose out champions for ambuscade."

Homeric Hymn 8 to Ares (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic B.C.) :
"Ares, exceeding in strength, chariot-rider, golden-helmed, doughty in heart, shield-bearer . . . leader of the righteous men, sceptred King of manliness . . . Shed down a kindly ray from above upon my life, and strength of war, that I may be able to drive away bitter cowardice from my head and crush down the deceitful impulses of my soul."

Pindar,Pythian Ode 8 str3 (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
"Like Ares shall he be in strength of arm."

Aeschylus, Agamemnon 71 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"But we [the old men], incapable of service by reason of our aged frame, discarded from that martial mustering of long ago, wait here at home . . . For just as the vigor of youth, leaping up within the breast, is like that of old age, since Ares (the war-god) is not in his place; so extreme age, its leaves already withering, goes its way on triple feet."

Aeschylus, Libation Bearers 160 ff :
"Oh for a man mighty with the spear to deliver our house, an Ares [i.e. a man with the courage of Ares], brandishing in the fight the springing Scythian bow and wielding his hilted sword in close combat."

Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 749 ff :
"A woman abandoned to herself is nothing. There is no Ares [i.e. manly spirit or courage] in her."

Plato, Cratylus 400d & 407d (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"[Plato constructs philosophical etymologies for the names of the gods :]
Sokrates: Let us inquire what thought men had in giving them [the gods] their names . . . The first men who gave names [to the gods] were no ordinary persons, but high thinkers and great talkers . . .
Hermogenes: But surely you, as an Athenian, will not forget Athena, nor Hephaistos and Ares . . .
Sokrates: Ares, then, if you like, would be named for his virility and courage, or for his hard and unbending nature, which is called arraton; so Ares would be in every way a fitting name for the god of war."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 1. 618 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
"Amazones . . . all the toil of men do they endure; and therefore evermore the spirit of the War-god thrills them through . . . never faint their knees nor tremble."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 8. 260 ff :
"That was his [Ares] shout far-pealing, bidding us fight on against the Argives. Let your hearts be strong, O friends: let courage fill your breasts. No mightier battle-helper can draw nigh to Troy than he . . . Lo, to our help he cometh now! On to the fight! Cast to the winds your fears!"

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 11. 425 ff :
"Aeneas dashed to sudden fragments all that battle-wall moulded of adamant shields . . . because a God [Ares] gave more than human strength."

See also Ares God of War and Battles (this page)

II) PERSONIFICATION OF WARLIKE-SPIRIT, MANLINESS

Warriors were called henchmen or scions of Ares, and the foremost heroes were often compared favourably with the god.

"Fighting men and friends, o Danaans, henchmen of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 2.110
"Beloved Danaan [Greek] fighters, henchmen of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 6.67, 15.733, 19.78
"The two Aiantes, henchmen of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 8.79 & 10.228
"Henchmen of Ares both, Tydeus' son [Diomedes] the staunch in battle, and brilliant Odysseus." - Homer, Iliad 19.47
"The Danai, henchmen of Ares." - Homerica, The Little Iliad Frag 2
"The Danai [Greeks] henchmen of Ares." - Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Frag 99

"Elephenor, scion of Ares [i.e. he was warlike], son of Khalkodon." - Homer, Iliad 2.540
"Meges [of Doulikhion], a man like Ares, Phyleus’ son." - Homer, Iliad 2.627
"Likymnios [of Thebes], scion of Ares [he was warlike]." - Homer, Iliad 2.663
"Podarkes [of Phylake], scion of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 2.704
"Leonteus was with him, scion of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 2.745
"Hippothoos and Pylaios [of Larissa, Thessalia], scion of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 2.842
"Hiketaon [a Trojan lord], scion of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 3.147 & 20.238
"Leonteus [of the Lapithai], the scion of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 12.188 & 23.841
"Alkimos [of Phthia] scion of Ares." - Homer, Iliad 24.474
"Hippostratus, a scion of Ares." - Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Frag 50
"Nikostratos [son of Menelaos], a scion of Ares." - Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Frag 70
"Iphitos [of Oikhalia] a scion of Ares." - Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Frag 79
"Polydeukes [of Sparta], scion of Ares." - Homerica, The Cypria Frag 7

"Meriones [of Krete], a match for the the murderous Lord of Battles (Enyalios andreiphontes)." - Homer, Iliad 2.651
"Pylaimenes the equal of Ares, lord of the Paphlagonian men." - Homer, Iliad 5.576
"Meriones [of Krete] a match for Thoos swift (thoos) Ares." - Homer, Iliad 13.328
"Hektor, a match for swift (thoos) Ares." - Homer, Iliad 17.72

"Hektor the son of Priamos, a man like murderous (brotoloigos) Ares." - Homer, Iliad 11.295
"Leonteus [of the Lapithai] a man like murderous (brotoloigos) Ares." - Homer, Iliad 12.130
"Aineias and Idomeneus, both men like Ares, were straining with the pitiless bronze to tear at each other." - Homer, Iliad 13.500
"The swift-footed son of Peleus [Akhilleus], a man like murderous (brotoloigos) Ares." - Homer, Iliad 20.46
"Euryalos [of the Phaiakians] looking like Ares destroyer of men (brotoloigos)." - Homer, Odyssey 8.116

Homer, Iliad 2. 477 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"Powerful Agamemnos, with eyes and head like Zeus who delights in thunder, like Ares for girth, and with the chest of Poseidon."

Homer, Iliad 7. 208 ff :
"When he [Aias] had girt his body in all its armour, he strode on his way, as Ares the war god walks gigantic going into the fighting men."

Homer, Iliad 8. 349 ff :
"Hektor, wearing the stark eyes of a Gorgon, or murderous (brotoloigos) Ares , wheeled about at the edge his bright-maned horses."

Homer, Iliad 11. 603 ff :
"Patroklos, came out like Ares."

Homer, Iliad 15. 605 ff :
"Hektor without the god was in fury and raged, as when destructive fire or spear-shaking (enkhespelos) Ares rages among the mountains and dense places of the deep forest."

Homer, Iliad 16. 784 ff :
"He [Patroklos] charged in with the force of swift (thoos) Ares, screaming a terrible cry."

Homer, Iliad 17. 210 ff :
"The armour was fitted to Hektor's skin, and Ares Deinos the dangerous (deinos) Enyalios the warlike (Enyalios) entered him, so that the inward body was packed full of force and fighting strength."

Homer, Iliad 19. 189 ff :
"Akhilleus leans very hard toward the work of Ares."

Homer, Odyssey 8. 518 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"Odysseus strode like Ares himself."

Aeschylus, Fragment 37 Heracleidae (from Scholiast on Aristeides) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"[Geryon] wielded three spears in his (right) hands; in his left, extending three shields, and shaking his three crests, he advanced like unto Ares in his might."

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1205 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
"His [Aeetes] terrifying voice and powerful build might well be envied by Ares himself."

Seneca, Phaedra 804 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
"'Tis thine with manly strength to dare meet the rough and warlike gods and by the spread of thy huge body to overcome them; for even in youth thou dost match the muscles of a Hercules, art broader of chest than war-waging Mars [Ares]."

III) GOD OF COWARDICE, FEAR & TERROR

Ares was accompanied into battle by his sons Deimos (Terror) and Phobos (Fear).

Homer, Iliad 5. 859 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"Ares the brazen (khalkeos) bellowed with a sound as great as nine thousand men make, or ten thousand, when they cry as they carry in to the fighting the fury of the war god. And a shivering seized hold alike on Akhaians and Trojans in their feet at the bellowing of battle-insatiate (aatos polemoio) Ares."

Statius, Thebaid 7. 64 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
"Already Gradivus [Ares] with forward-straining steeds was trampling the Ephyrean shores . . . Then he orders Pavor (Panic) [Phobos], one of his fearful train, to go before the horses: none more skilled than he to insinuate grasping terror and to steal courage from the heart; voices and hands innumerable has the monster, and aspects to assume at will; all-persuasive is he, and his onslaughts drive cities mad with horror."

See also Ares God of War and Battles (this page)


GOD OF WAR-CHARIOT RACES

Callimachus, Aetia Fragment 2 (from Chronicon Paschale 3) (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"The equestrian contest with two-horse cars was invented by Enyalios [Ares], as Kallimakhos has written in the Aitia."


ANCESTRAL GOD, PROTECTOR OF THE FATHERLAND

The ancestral gods of a state were those which were traditionally honoured before all others. Ares was worshipped in this capacity by a number of ancient city states. In times of war these ancestral gods were called upon to come to the defence of the nation.

In the following passage from Aishkylos, the Theban women invoke Ares, along with Zeus, Athena, Poseidon, Aphrodite, Artemis, Apollon and Hera, as their ancestral gods. Here, Ares was a literal ancestor of the Theban race as well, both of their kings, through his daughter Harmonia, and of the noble houses through the five Spartoi, men sown from the teeth of the Dragon son of Ares.

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 87 ff (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"[The Theban women invoke all of their ancestral gods, including Artemis, when the hostile army of the Seven Against Thebes approaches their gates:] Ah, ah, you gods (theoi) and goddesses (theai), raise your war cry over our walls to drive away the onrushing evil! . . . You too, Ares pity us! guard the city named for Kadmos and make evident your closeness to us!  And Kypris [Aphrodite], you who are the first mother of our race, defend us who are sprung from your blood. We come to you, crying out in prayers for your divine ears. . . All-powerful divinities, you gods and goddesses who wield the power to guard the towers of our land, do not betray our city that now toils under the spear to an alien-tongued army. Hear us, hear, as is right, the prayers we maidens offer with outstretched hands."

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 407 ff :
"Now as for me, against Tydeus I will station the trusty son of Astakos . . . His race springs from the Spartoi [men sown of the dragon's teeth], from one of those whom Ares spared, and so Melanippos is truly born of our land. Ares will decide the outcome with a throw of the dice; but Dike (Justice), his [Ares'] kin by blood, indeed sends this man forth to keep the enemy spear from the mother [the earth] that gave him birth."

Aeschylus, Sevan Against Thebes 474 ff :
"[In the War of the Seven Against Thebes:] His [Eteoklos, one of the Seven's] shield is decorated in great style: an armored man climbs a ladder's rungs to mount an enemy tower that he wants to destroy. This one, too, shouts in syllables of written letters that even Ares could not hurl him from the battlements. Send a dependable opponent against this man, too, to keep the yoke of slavery from our city. I would send this man here, and with good fortune. Indeed, he has already been sent, his only boast in his hands, Megareus, Kreon's seed, of the race of the sown-men (genos spartôn)." [N.B. Eteoklos makes a vain boast against Ares, an ancestral god of Thebes, so appropriately one of the Spartoi, the god's descendants, is despatched to fight him.]


Z50.1C ARES
AS TUESDAY
     

GOD OF THE PLANET MARS

Homeric Hymn 8 to Ares (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic B.C.) :
"Ares . . . who whirl your fiery sphere [the star Mars] among the planets in their sevenfold courses through the aither wherein your blazing steeds ever bear you above the third firmament of heaven."

Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 42 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Planets. It remains for us to speak of the five stars which many have called wandering, and which the Greeks call Planeta . . . The third star is that of Mars [Ares], though others say it belongs to Hercules . . . Since she [Aphrodite] inflamed him violently with love, she called the star Pyroeis (the Fiery), indicating this fact."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5. 67 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"He [Kadmos founder of Thebes] dedicated the seven gates [of the new-founded city] to the seven planets . . . The fifth he gave to Ares [the planet Mars], the third to Aphrodite [the planet Venus]."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 339 ff :
"[Harmonia to Aphrodite:] ‘I have oracles of history on seven tablets, and the tablets bear the names of the seven planets . . . the fifth is called Ares [the planet Mars], red and fiery.’"


IDENTIFIED WITH FOREIGN GODS

Ares was identified with the Roman god Mars, the Egyptian god Anhuris-Onuris, and the war-god of the Scythians.

Ares was also one of the three major gods of Thrake, the others two being Sabazios (a god identified with Zeus and Dionysos) and Bendis (a goddess identified with Artemis, Selene and Hekate). Unlike these there was little apparent difference between the Greek and Thrakian Ares.

I) IDENTIFIED WITH THRAKIAN WAR-GOD

Herodotus, Histories 6. 7 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) :
"They [the Threikoi, Thracians] worship no gods but Ares, Dionysos, and Artemis [the Thrakian gods Ares, Sabazios and Bendis]. Their princes . . . worship Hermes [probably the Thracian god Zalmoxis] above all gods."

II) IDENTIFIED WITH SKYTHIAN WAR-GOD

Herodotus, Histories 4. 59. 1 :
"The only gods whom they [the Skythians] propitiate are these: . . . It is their practice to make images and altars and shrines for Ares, but for no other god."

III) IDENTIFIED WITH EGYPTIAN ONURIS

Herodotus, Histories 2. 59. 1 :
"The Egyptians hold solemn assemblies not once a year, but often. The principal one of these and the most enthusiastically celebrated is that in honor of Artemis at the town of Bubastis, and the next is that in honor of Isis at Busiris . . . and the sixth of Ares at Papremis."

Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 28 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"[The Greek gods] fled to Aigyptos (Egypt) . . . When they fled they had changed themselves in anticipation into animal forms . . . Ares became a fish, the lepidotus [the Egyptian god Onuris whose sacred fish was the lepidotus]."


Sources:

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  • Homer, The Odyssey - Greek Epic C9th-8th BC
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