ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTEMIS TITLES
ACRAEA (Akraia). Acraea and Acraeus are also attributes given to various goddesses and gods whose temples were situated upon hills, such as Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Pallas, Artemis, and others. (Paus. i. 1. § 3, ii. 24. § 1; Apollod. i. 9. § 28; Vitruv. i. 7; Spanheim, ad Callim. Hymn in Jov. 82.)
AEGINAEA (Aiginaia), a surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 14. § 3.) It means either the huntress of chamois, or the wielder of the javelin (aiganea).
AETO′LE (Aitôlê), a surname of Artemis, by which she was worshipped at Naupactus. In her temple in that town there was a statue of white marble representing her in the attitude of throwing a javelin. (Paus. x. 38. § 6.)
AGORAEA and AGORAEUS (Agoraia and Agoraios), are epithets given to several divinities who were considered as the protectors of the assemblies of the people in the agora, such as Zeus (Paus. iii. 11. § 8, v. 15. § 3), Athena (iii. 11. § 8), Artemis (v. 15. § 3), and Hermes. (i. 15. § 1, ii. 9. § 7, ix. 17. § 1.)
AGRO′TERA (Agrotera), the huntress, a surname of Artemis. (Hom. Il. xxi. 471.) At Agrae on the Ilissus, where she was believed to have first hunted after her arrival from Delos, Artemis Agrotera had a temple with a statue carrying a bow. (Paus. i. 19. § 7.) Under this name she was also worshipped at Aegeira. (vii. 26. § 2.) The name Agrotera is synonymous with Agraea, but Eustathius (ad Il. p. 361) derives it from the town of Agrae. Concerning the worship of Artemis Agrotera at Athens, see Dict. of Ant. s. v. Agroteras Dusia, p. 31.
ALPHAEA, ALPHEAEA, or ALPHEIU′SA (Alphaia, Alpheaia, or Alpheiousa, a surname of Artemis, which she derived from the river god Alpheius, who loved her, and under which she was worshipped at Letrini in Elis (Paus. vi. 22. § 5; Strab. viii. p. 343), and in Ortygia. (Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. ii. 12, Nem. i. 3.)
AMARYNTHUS (Amarunthos), a hunter of Artemis, from whom the town of Amarynthus in Euboea (Steph. Byz. says Euboea itself) was believed to have derived its name. (Strab. x. p. 448.) From this hero, or rather from the town of Amnarynthus, Artemis derived the surname Amarynthia or Amarysia, under which she was worshipped there and also in Attica. (Paus. i. 31. § 3, comp. Dict. of Ant. s. v. Amarunthia.)
A′NGELOS (Angelos). A surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped at Syracuse, and according to some accounts the original name of Hecate. (Hesych. s. v.; Schol. ad Theocrit. ii. 12.)
APANCHO′MENE (Apanchomenê), the strangled (goddess), a surname of Artemis, the origin of which is thus related by Pausanias. (viii. 23. § 5.) In the neighbourhood of the town of Caphyae in Areadia, in a place called Condylea, there was a sacred grove of Artemis Condyleatis. On one occasion when some boys were playing in this grove, they put a string round the goddess' statue, and said in their jokes they would strangle Artemis. Some of the inhabitants of Caphyae who found the boys thus engaged in their sport, stoned them to death. After this occurrence, all the women of Caphyae had premature births, and all the children were brought dead into the world. This calamity did not cease until the boys were honourably buried, and an annual sacrifice to their manes was instituted in accordance with the command of an oracle of Apollo. The surname of Condyleatis was then changed into Apanchomene.
ARICI′NA (Arikinê), a surname of Artemis, derived from the town of Aricia in Latium, where she was worshipped. A tradition of that place related that Hippolytus, after being restored to life by Asclepius, came to Italy, ruled over Aricia, and dedicated a grove to Artemis. (Paus. ii. 27. § 4.) This goddess was believed to be the Taurian Artemis, and her statue at Aricia was considered to be the same as the one which Orestes had brought with him from Tauris. (Serv. ad Aen. ii. 116; Strab. v. p. 239; Hygin. Fab. 261.) According to Strabo, the priest of the Arician Artemis was always a run-away slave, who obtained his office in the following manner: -- The sacred grove of Artemis contained one tree from which it was not allowed to break off a branch; but if a slave succeeded in effecting it, the priest was obliged to fight with him, and if he was conquered and killed, the victorious slave became his successor, and might in his turn be killed by another slave, who then succeeded him. Suetonius (Calig. 35) calls the priest rex nemorensis. Ovid (Fast. iii. 260, &c.), Suetonius, and Pausanias, speak of contests of slaves in the grove at Aricia, which seem to refer to the frequent fights between the priest and a slave who tried to obtain his office.
ARISTO (Aristô), the best, a surname of Artemis at Athens. (Paus. i. 29. § 2.)
ARISTOBU′LE (Aristobulê), the best adviser, a surname of Artemis, to whom Themistocles built a temple at Athens under this name; and in it he dedicated his own statue. (Plut. Themist. 22.)
ASTRATEIA (Astrateia), a surname of Artemis, under which she had a temple near Pyrrhichus in Laconia, because she was believed to have stopped there the progress of the Amazons. (Paus. iii. 25. § 2.)
BRAURO′NIA (Braurônia), a surname of Artemis, derived from the demos of Brauron in Attica. Under this name the goddess had a sanctuary on the Acropolis of Athens, which contained a statue of her made by Praxiteles. Her image at Brauron, however, was believed to be the most ancient, and the one which Orestes and Iphigeneia had brought with them from Tauris. (Paus. i. 23. § 8; Dict. of Ant. s. v. Braurônia.)
CALLISTE (Kallistê), a surname of Artemis, by which she was worshipped at Athens and Tegea. (Paus. i. 29. § 2, viii. 35. § 7.)
CARYA′TIS (Karuatis), a surname of Artemis, derived from the town of Caryae in Laconia. Here the statue of the goddess stood in the open air, and maidens celebrated a festival to her every year with dances. (Paus. iii. 10. § 8, iv. 16. § 5 ; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. viii. 30.)
CHITO′NE (Chitônê), a surname of Artemis, who was represented as a huntress with her chiton girt up. Others derived the name from the Attic village of Chitone, or from the circumstance of the clothes in which newly-born children were dressed being sacred to her. (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 225 ; Schol. ad Callim. Hymn. in Jov. 77.) Respecting the festival of the Chitonia celebrated to her at Chitone, see Dict. of Ant. s. v. Chitônla.
CHRYSAOR (Chrusaôr). The god with the golden sword or arms. In this sense it is used as a surname or attribute of several divinities, such as Apollo (Hom. II. xv. 256), Artemis (Herod. viii. 77), and Demeter. (Hom. Hymn. in Cer. 4.)
CNA′GIA (Knagia), a surname of Artemis, derived from Cnageus, a Laconian, who accompanied the Dioscuri in their war against Aphidna, and was made prisoner. He was sold as a slave, and carried to Crete, where he served in the temple of Artemis; but he escaped from thence with a priestess of the goddess, who carried her statue to Sparta. (Paus. iii. 18. § 3.)
COLAENIS (Kolainis), a surname of Artemis in the Attic demos of Myrrhinus, was derived from a mythical king, Colaenus, who was believed to have reigned even before the time of Cecrops. (Paus. i. 31. § 3.)
CORDACA (Kordaka), a surname of Artemis in Elis, derived from an indecent dance called ko/rdac, which the companions of Pelops are said to have performed in honour of the goddess after a victory which they had won. (Paus. vi. 22. § 1.)
CORYPHAEA (Koruphaia), the goddess who inhabits the summit of the mountain, a surname of Artemis, under which she had a temple on mount Coryphaeon, near Epidaurus. (Paus. ii. 281. § 2.)
CORYTHA′LLIA (Koruthallia), a surname of Artemis at Sparta, at whose festival of the Tithenidia the Spartan boys were carried into her sanctuary. (Athen. iv. p. 139.)
CRANAEA (Kranaia), a surname of Artemis, derived from a temple on a hill near Elateia in Phocis, in which the office of priest was always held by youths below the age of puberty, and for the space of five years by each youth. (Paus. x. 34. § 4.)
CY′NTHIA and CY′NTHIUS (Kunthia and Kunthios, surnames respectively of Artemis and Apollo, which they derived from mount Cynthus in the island of Delos, their birthplace. (Callim. Hymn. in Del. 10; Hor. Carm. i. 21. 2, iii. 28. 12; Lucan, i. 218.)
DAPHNAEA and DAPHNAEUS (Daphnaia and Daphnaios), surnames of Artemis and Apollo respectively, derived from daphnê, a laurel, which was sacred to Apollo. In the case of Artemis it is uncertain why she bore that surname, and it was perhaps merely an allusion to her statue being made of laurel-wood (Paus. iii. 24. § 6; Strab. xvi. p. 750; Philostr. Vit. Apollon. i. 16; Eutrop. vi. 11; Justin. xv. 4.)
DE′LIA and DE′LIUS (Dêlios and Dêlia or Dêlias), surnames of Apollo and Artemis respectively, which are derived from the island of Delos the birthplace of those two divinities. (Virg. Aen. vi. 12, Eclog. vii. 29; Val. Flacc. i. 446; Orph. Hymn. 33. 8.) They are likewise applied, especially in the plural, to other divinities that were worshipped in Delos, viz. Demeter, Aphrodite, and the nymphs. (Aristoph. Thesm. 333; Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 169, Hymn. in Del. 323; Hom. Hymn. in Apoll. Del. 157.)
DELPHI′NIA (Delphinia), a surname of Artemis at Athens. (Pollux, x. 119.) The masculine form Delphinius is used as a surname of Apollo.
DERRHIA′TIS (Derriatis), a surname of Artemis, which she derived from the town of Derrhion on the road from Sparta to Arcadia. (Paus. iii. 20. § 7.)
EURY′NOME (Eurunomê). A surname of Artemis at Phiglea in Arcadia. Her sanctuary which was surrounded by cypresses, was opened only once in every year, and sacrifices were then offered to her. She was represented half woman and half fish. (Paus. viii. 41. § 4.)
GAME′LII (Gamêlioi theoi), that is, the divinities protecting and presiding over marriage. (Pollux, i. 24; Maxim. Tyr. xxvi. 6.) Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 2) says, that those who married required (the protection of) five divinities, viz. Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Peitho, and Artemis. (Comp. Dion Chrys. Orat. vii. p. 568.) But these are not all, for the Moerae too are called theai gamêliai (Spanheim ad Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 23, in Del. 292, 297), and, in fact, nearly all the gods might be regarded as the protectors of marriage, though the five mentioned by Plutarch perhaps more particularly than others. The Athenians called their month of Gamelion after these divinities. Respecting the festival of the Gamelia see Dict. of Ant. s. v.
GENETYLLIS (Genetullis), the protectress of births, occurs both as a surname of Aphrodite (Aristoph. Nub. 52, with the Schol.), and as a distinct divinity and a companion of Aphrodite. (Suidas.) (Genetyllis was also considered as a surname of Artemis, to whom women sacrificed dogs. (Hesych. s. v. Genetulis; Aristoph. Lys. 2.) We also find the plural, Genetullides, or Gennaïdes, as a class of divinities presiding over generation and birth, and as companions of Aphrodite Colias. (Aristoph. Thesmoph. 130; Paus. i. § 4; Alciph. iii. 2; comp. Bentley ad Hor. Carm. Saec. 16.)
HECAERGE (Hekaergê), a daughter of Boreas, and one of the Hyperborean maidens, who were believed to have introduced the worship of Artemis in Delos. (Callim. Hymn. in Del. 292; Paus. i. 43. § 4, v. 7. § 4; Herod. iv. 35.) The name Hecaerge signifies hitting at a distance; and it is not improbable that the story of the Hyperborean maiden may have arisen out of an attribute of Artemis, who bore the surname of Hecaerge. (Anton. Lib. 13.) Aphrodite had the same surname at Iulis in Cos. (Anton. Lib. 1.)
HEGE′MONE (Hêgemonê), that is, the leader or ruler. Hegemone occurs also as a surname of Artemis at Sparta, and in Arcadia. (Paus. iii. 14. § 6, viii. 36. § 7, 47. § 4; Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 227; Polyaen. viii. 52.)
HEMERE′SIA (Hêmerêsia), i.e. the soothing goddess, a surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped at the well Lusi (Lousoi), in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 18. § 3; Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 236.)
HEURIPPE (Heurippa), the finder of horses, a surname of Artemis, under which Odysseus was said to have built her a temple at Pheneus in common with Poseidon Hippius, when at length he there found his lost horses. (Paus. viii. 14. § 4.)
HY′MNIA (Humnia), a surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped throughout Arcadia. She had a temple between Orchomnenus and Mantineia, and her priestess was at first always a virgin, till after the time of Aristocrates it was decreed that she should be a married woman. (Paus. viii. 5. § 8, 12 § 3, 13. §§ 1, 4.)
IMBRA′IA (Imbrasia), a surname of Artemis (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 228), and of Hera, was derived front the river Imbrasus, in Samos, on which the goddess was believed to have been born. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 187; Paus. vii. 4. § 4.)
ISSO′RIA (Issôria), a surname of the Laconian Artemis, derived from Mount Issorion, on which she had a sanctuary. (Paus. iii. 14. § 2, 25. § 3; Hesych. and Steph. Byz. s. v.; Plut. Ages. 32; Polyaen. ii. 14.)
LA′PHRIA (Laphraia), a surname of Artemis among the Calydonians, from whom the worship of the goddess was introduced at Naupactus and Patrae, in Achaia. At the latter place it was not established till the time of Augustus, but it became the occasion of a great annual festival. (Paus. iv. 31. § 6, vii. 18. § 6. &c.; Schol. ad Eurip. Orest. 1087.) The name Laphria was traced back to a hero, Laphrius, son of Castalius, who was said to have instituted her worship at Calydon. Laphria was also a surname of Athena. (Lycoph. 356.)
LEUCOPHRYNE (Leukophrunê). A surname of Artemis, derived from the town of Leucophrys in Phrygia, where, as well as at Magnesia on the Maeander, she had a splendid temple. (Xenoph. Hellen. iii. 2. § 19; Strab. xiv. p. 647; Tac. Ann. iii. 62; Athen. xv. p. 683.) The sons of Themistocles dedicated a statue to her on the Acropolis at Athens, because Themistocles had once ruled at Magnesia. (Paus. i. 26. § 4; Thuc. i. 138; Plut. Themist. 29.) There was also a statue of her at Amyclae, which had been dedicated by the Magnesian Bathycles. (Paus. iii. 18. § 6.) Her temple at Magnesia had been built by Hermogenes, who had also written a work upon it. (Vitruv. vii. Praef. 3, 1.)
LIME′NIA, LIMENI′TES, LIMENI′TIS, and LIMENO′SCOPUS (Limenia, Limenitês, Limenitis, Limenodkopos), i. e. the protector or superintendent of the harbour, occurs as a surname of several divinities, such as Zeus (Callimach. Fragm. 114, 2ded. Bentl.), Artemis (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 259), Aphrodite (Paus. ii. 34. § 11; Serv. ad Aen. i. 724), Priapus (Anthol. Palat. x. 1, 7), and of Pan (Anthol. Palat. x. 10.)
LIMNAEA, LIMNE′TES, LIMNE′GENES (Limnaia os, Limnêtês is, Limnêgenês), i.e. inhabiting or born in a lake or marsh, is a surname of several divinities who were believed either to have sprung from a lake, or had their temples near a lake. Instances are, Dionysus at Athens (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 871; Callim. Fragm. 280, Bentl.; Thuc. ii. 15; Aristoph. Ran. 216; Athen. x. p. 437, xi. p. 465), and Artemis at Sicyon, near Epidaurus (Paus. ii. 7. § 6, iii. 23. § 10), on the frontiers between Laconia and Messenia (Paus. iii. 2. § 6, 7. § 4, iv. 4. § 2, 31. § 3, vii. 20. § 7, &c.; Strab. viii. p. 361; Tac. Ann. iv. 43), near Calamae (Paus. iv. 31. § 3), at Tegea (viii. 53. § 11, comp. iii. 14. § 2), Patrae (vii. 20. § 7); it is also used as a surname of nymphs (Theocrit. v. 17) that dwell in lakes or marshes.
LOCHEIA (Locheia), the protectress of women in childbed, occurs as a surname of Artemis. (Plut. Sympos. iii. 10; Orph. Hymn. 35. 3.)
LYCEIA (Lukeia), a surname of Artemis, under which she had a temple at Troezene, built by Hippolytus. (Paus. ii. 31. § 6.)
LYCOA′TIS (Lukoatis), a surname of Artemis, who had a temple at Lycoa, in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 36. § 5.)
LYGODESMA (Lugodesma), a surname of Artemis whose statue had been found by the brothers Astrabacus and Alopecus under a bush of willows (lugos), by which it was surrounded in such a manner that it stood upright. (Paus. iii. 16. § 7.)
LYSIZO′NA (Lusizônê), i. e. the goddess who loosens the girdle, is a surname of Artemis and Eileithyia, who were worshipped under this name at Athens. (Theocrit. xvii. 60; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 287.)
MELISSA (Melissa), a surname of Artemis as the goddess of the moon, in which capacity she alleviates the suffering of women in childbed. (Porphyr. De Antr. Nymp,. p. 261.)
MUNY′CHIA (Mounuchia), a surname of Aremis, derived from the Attic port-town of Munyhia, where she had a temple. Her festival was elebrated at Athens in the month of Munychion. Paus. i. 1. § 4; Strab. xiii. p. 639; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 331.)
MY′SIA 2. A surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped in a sanctuary near Sparta. (Paus. iii. 20. § 9.)
OENOA′TIS (Oinôatis), a surname of Artemis, who was worshipped at Oenoe in Argolis. (Eurip. Herc. Fur. 376.)
O′RTHIA (Orthia, Orthias, or Orthôsia) a surname of the Artemis who is also called Iphigeneia or Lygodesma, and must be regarded as the goddess of the moon. Her worship was probably brought to Sparta from Lemnos. It was at the altar of Artemis Orthia that Spartan boys had to undergo the diamastigosis (Schol. ad Pind. Ol. iii. 54 ; Herod. iv. 87; Xenoph. de Rep. Lac. ii. 10). She also had temples at Brauron, in the Cerameicus at Athens, in Elis, and on the coast of Byzantium. The ancients derived her surname from mount Orthosium or Orthium in Arcadia.
ORT′YGIA (Ortugia), a surname of Artemis, derived from the island of Ortygia, the ancient name for Delos, or an island off Syracuse (Ov. Met. i. 694). The goddess bore this name in various places, but always with reference to the island in which she was born. (Strab. x. p. 486.)
PARTHE′NIA (Parthenia). That is, "the maiden," a surname of Artemis and Hera, who, however, is said to have derived it from the river Parthenius. (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 110; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 187.)
PEITHO (Peithô). The personification of Persuasion. Peitho also occurs as a surname of other divinities, such as Aphrodite (Paus. i. 22. § 3), and of Artemis (ii. 21. 1).
PHERAEA (Pheraia). 1. A surname of Artemis at Pherae in Thessaly, at Argos and Sicyon, where she had temples. (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 259 ; Paus. ii. 10. § 6, 23. § 5.) 2. A surname of Hecate, because she was a daughter of Zeus and Pheraea, the daughter of Aeolus, or because she had been brought up by the shepherds of Pheres, or because she was worshipped at Pherae. (Tzetz. ad Lyc. 1180; Spanheim, ad Callim. l. c.)
PHOEBE (Phoibê). A surname of Artemis in her capacity as the godddess of the moon (Luna), the moon being regarded as the female Phoebus or sun. (Virg. Georg. i. 431, Aen. x. 215; Ov. Heroid. xx. 229.)
PHO′SPHORUS (Phôsphoros), Phosphorus also occurs as a surname of several goddesses of light, as Artemis (Diana Lucifera, Paus. iv. 31. § 8; Serv. ad Aen. ii. 116), Eos (Eurip. Ion. 1157) and Hecate. (Eurip. Helen. 569.)
PITANA′TIS (Pitanatis), a surname of Artemis, derived from the little town of Pitana in Laconia, where she had a temple. (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 172; Paus. iii. 16. § 9; Eurip. Troad. 1101.)
SARO′NIS (Sarônis), a surname of Artemis at Troezene, where an annual festival was celebrated in honour of her under the name of Saronia. (Paus. ii. 30. § 7, 32. § 9.)
SARPEDO′NIA (Sarpêdonia), a surname of Artemis, derived from cape Sarpedon in Cilicia, where she had a temple with an oracle. (Strab. xiv, p. 676.) The masculine Sarpedonius occurs as a surname of Apollo in Cilicia. (Zosim. i. 57.)
SOTEIRA (Sôteira), i. e. "the saving goddess' (Lat. Sospita), occurs as a surname of several female divinities in Greece, e. g. 1. of Artemis at Pegae in Megaris (Paus. i. 40. § 2, 44. § 7). at Troezene (ii. 31. § I), at Boeae in Laconia (iii. 22. § 9), near Pellene (vii. 27. § 1); 2. of Persephone in Laconia (iii. 13. § 2), in Arcadia (viii. 31. § 1) ; 3. of Athena (Schol. ad Plat. p. 90. ed. Ruhnken ; Aristot. Rhet. iii. 18); and 4. of Eunomia (Pind. Ol. ix. 25.)
TAU′RICA (DEA) (hê Taurikê), "the Taurian goddess," commonly called Artemis. Her image was believed to have been carried from Tauris by Orestes and Iphigenia, and to have been conveyed to Brauron, Sparta, or Aricia. The worship of this Taurian goddess, who was identified with Artemis and Iphigenia, was carried on with orgiastic rites and human sacrifices, and seems to have been very ancient in Greece. (Paus. iii. 16. § 6; Herod. iv. 103.)
TAURIO′NE, TAURO, TAURO′POLOS, or TAURO′POS (Tauriônê, Taurô, Tauropolo, Taurôpos), originally a designation of the Tauran goddess, but also used as a surname of Artemis or even Athena, both of whom were identified with the Taurian goddess. (Hesych. s. v. tauropolai.) The name has been explained in different ways, some supposing that it means the goddess worshipped in Tauris, going around (i. e. protecting) the country of Tauris, or the goddess to whom bulls are sacrificed; while others explain it to mean the goddess riding on bulls, drawn by bulls, or killing bulls. Both explanations seem to have one thing in common, namely, that the bull was probably the ancient symbol of the bloody and savage worship of the Taurian divinity. (Schol. ad Soph. Ajac. 172 ; Eurip. Iphig. Taur. 1457 ; Müiller, Orchom. p. 305, &c. 2d ed.)
THOANTEA, a surname of the Taurian Artemis, derived from Thoas, king of Tauris. (Val. Flacc. viii. 208; Ov. Ib. 386.)
UPIS. (Oupis.) A surname of Artemis, as the goddess assisting women in child-birth. (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 240.)
Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.