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ARTEMIS ESTATE
 
Greek Name Transliteration Latin Spelling Latin Name
Αρτεμις Artemis Artemis Diana
OTHER ARTEMIS PAGES
Artemis Intro, Index & Gallery
Artemis Goddess of
Artemis Myths 1, Part 2
Artemis Wrath 1, Part 2, Part 3
Artemis Favour
Artemis Attendants
Artemis Cult 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4
Artemis Titles & Epithets
Artemis Summary

ARTEMIS was the great Olympian goddess of hunting, wild animals, children and birth.

This page describes her attributes, estate, and sacred plants and animals.

Her usual attributes in classical art were the bow and quiver.

Her tree was the cypress, and her most sacred animals were the deer, bear and guinea-fowl.


(1) ESTATE & ATTRIBUTES
CHARIOT & DEER OF ARTEMIS Artemis' golden chariot was drawn by a team of four golden-horned deer.
BOW & ARROWS OF ARTEMIS Artemis used her golden bow and arrows not only to slay beasts in the mountains, but also to bring disease, plague and sudden death to women.
HUNTING SPEARS OF ARTEMIS The goddess was occassionally depicted wielding hunting spears rather than bow and arrows.
HUNTING-PACK OF ARTEMIS Artemis possessed a pack of seven hunting dogs, which she received from the god Pan.
LYRE OF ARTEMIS Artemis was a goddess of music like her brother Apollon and was often depicted holding a lyre.
TORCHES OF ARTEMIS Artemis was often depicted holding a torch or torches. In this form she was closely identified (if not the same as) Hekate.
KERYNITIAN HIND OF ARTEMIS The Kerynitian hind was an immortal, golden-horned deer sacred to the goddess Artemis. Herakles was sent to fetch it as one of his twelve labours, but the beast was afterwards released.
(2) SACRED PLANTS & ANIMALS
BEAR: SACRED ANIMAL The bear was an animal sacred to Artemis.
BOAR: SACRED ANIMAL The wild boar was one of the fiercest animals that hunters faced, and so it was regarded as sacred to the goddess Artemis.
DEER: SACRED ANIMAL The deer was an animal held sacred to Artemis. Her chariot was described as being drawn by four golden-horned hinds.
FRESH-WATER FISH: SACRED FISH Fresh-water fish inhabited the sacred springs commonly found in shrines of the goddess, and were likewise regarded as sacred to the goddess.
BUZZARD-HAWK: SACRED BIRD The hawk was regarded as sacred to the gods Apollon, Artemis and Hermes. Later Greek writers attributed a different species to each god.
GUINEA-FOWL & PARTRIDGE: SACRED BIRDS These two ground-dwelling birds, commonly sought after by fowlers, were regarded as sacred to the goddess Artemis.
AMARANTH: SACRED FLOWER The red amaranth flower was held sacred to Artemis. It was connected with her cult-centre of Amaranthus in Euboia.
ASPHODEL: SACRED PLANT The asphodel, a grey herb, which was used for animal feed and connected with the underworld, was regarded as being sacred to the goddesses Persephone and Khthonian Artemis (Hekate).
CYPRESS: SACRED TREE The cypress tree was sacred to Apollon and Artemis, and was connected with the story of their birth.
PALM: SACRED TREE The palm tree was held sacred to the gods Apollon, Artemis and Leto, for the mother of the twins was said to have given birth holding onto the trunk of this tree on Delos.

CHARIOT & DEER OF ARTEMIS

Homeric Hymn 9 to Artemis (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th or 6th B.C.) :
"She [Artemis] waters her horses from Meles deep in reeds [a river in Lydia], and swifty drives her all-golden chariot through Smyrna to vine-clad Klaros where Apollon Argyrotoxos (god of the silver bow), sits waiting for [her]."

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 98 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"Thou [Artemis in her childhood] dist find by the base of the Parrhasian hill [in Arkadia] deer gamboling - a mighty herd. They always herded by the banks of the black-pebbled Anauros - larger than bulls, and from their horns shone gold. And thou wert suddenly amazed and saidst to thine own heart: ‘This would be a first capture worthy of Artemis.’ Five were there in all; and four thou didst take by speed of foot - without the chase of dogs - to draw thy swift car. But one escaped over the river Keladon, by devising of Hera, that it might be in the after days a labour for Herakles, nad the Keryneian hill received her. Artemis, Parthenos (lady of Maidenhood), Tityoktone (Slayer of Tityos), golden were thine arms and golden thy belt, and a golden car didst thou yoke, and golden bridles, goddess, didst thou put on thy deer. And where first did thy horned team begin to carry thee? To Thrakian Haimos [to obtain frost]."

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 138 ff :
"Thy [Artemis'] chariot, which lightly carry thee in thy splendour, when thou drivest to the house of Zeus."

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 170 ff :
"For thee [Artemis] the Amnisiades rub down the hinds [the golden horned deer that draw the chariot of Artemis] loosed from the yoke, and from the mead of Hera they gather and carry for them to feed on much swift-springing clover, which also the horses of Zeus eat; and golden troughs they fill with water to be for the deer a pleasant draught."

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 879 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
"Artemis, standing in her golden chariot . . . driving off with her fast-trotting deer over the hills and far away to some rich-scented sacrifice."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 11. 344 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"Artemis sovran of all creatures drives an antlered car drawn by stags."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 20. 35 ff :
"The Virgin Archeress [Artemis] drives . . . a team of stags."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 302 ff :
"Once it happened that Artemis queen of the hunt was hunting over the hills, and her skin was beaten by the glow of the scorching heat, in the middle of flowing summer . . . so she got ready her car to cool her hot frame along with Naias Nymphai in a bath in some hill burn. Then Artemis hillranger fastened her prickets [the Kerynitians hinds] under the yokestraps. Maiden Aura mounted the car, took reins and whip and drove the horned team like a tempest. The unveiled daughters of everflowing Okeanos her servants made haste to accompany the Archeress: one moved her swift knees as her queen’s forerunner, another tucked up her tunic and ran level not far off, a third laid a hand on the basket of the swiftmoving car and ran alongside . . .
[When they had reached their destination] Aura checked her swinging whip, and holding up the prickets with the golden bridles, brought the radiant car of her mistress to a standstill beside the stream."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 375 ff :
"Artemis the maiden entered her car with its team of four prickets, left the mountain and drove back to Phrygia."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 449 ff :
"Artemis the maiden entered her car with its team of four prickets [the golden-horned deer], left the mountain and drove back to Phrygia."

For MORE information on these Deer see ELAPHOI KHRYSOKEROI


K6.10 ARTEMIS
DEER CHARIOT
K6.6B ARTEMIS
DEER CHARIOT
K6.1 ARTEMIS
WITH BOW
K6.5 ARTEMIS
WITH BOW

BOW & ARROWS OF ARTEMIS

Homeric Hymn 27 to Artemis (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) :
"Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she [Artemis] draws her golden bow, rejoicing in the chase, and sends out grievous shafts. The tops of the high mountains tremble and the tangled wood echoes awesomely with the outcry of beasts: earth quakes and the sea also where fishes shoal. But the goddess with a bold heart turns every way destroying the race of wild beasts: and when she is satisfied and has cheered her heart, this huntress who delights in arrows slackens her supple bow and goes to the great house of her dear brother Phoibos Apollon."

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 5 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"[Artemis as a child asks her father Zeus for a bow and arrows:] ‘Give me arrows and a bow - stay, Father [Zeus], I ask thee not for quiver or for mighty bow: for me the Kyklopes will straightway fashion arrows and fashion for me a well-bent bow.’ . . .
And straightway she went to visit the Kyklopes . . . Therefore right boldly didst thou address them then: ‘Kyklopes, for me too fashion ye a Kydonian [of the style of Kydonia in Krete] bow and arrows and a hollow casket for my shafts; for I also am a child of Leto, even as Apollon. And if I with my bow shall slay some wild creature or monstrous beast, that shall the Kyklopes eat.’
So didst thou speak and they fulfilled thy words. Straightway dist thou array thee, O Goddess."


Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 109 ff :
"Artemis . . . golden were thine arms and golden thy belt."

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 111 ff :
"Where first did thy horned team begin to carry thee [Artemis]? To Thrakian Haimos , whence comes the hurricane of Boreas bringing evil breath of frost to cloakless men [to obtain frost for her bow - for fever chills and crop-destroying dawn frost]. And how often goddess, didst thou make trial of thy silver bow? First at an elm, and next at an oak didst thou shoot, and third again at a wild beast. But the fourth time - not long was it ere thou didst shoot at the city of unjust me, those who to one another and those who towards strangers wrought many deeds of sin, forward men, on whom thou wilt impress thy grievous wrath. On their cattle plague feeds, on their tilth feeds frost, and the old men cut their hair in mourning over their sons, and their wives either are smitten or die in childbirth, or, if they escape, bear birds whereof none stands on upright ankle."

Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 140 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Latona [Leto], clinging to an olive tree, bore Apollo and Diana [Artemis], to whom Vulcanus [Hephaistos] gave arrows as gifts [on the day of their birth]."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 3. 138 ff :
"Tired after the hunt, the goddess loved her Nymphae to bathe her with the water’s balm . . . she gave her spear and quiver and bow unstrung to an attendant Nympha."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. 610 ff :
"[Arethousa] thy hunting-nymphe Diana [Artemis] . . . whom so oft thou gavest thy bow to bear, thy arrows and thy quiver!."

Ovid, Fasti 2. 155 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Callisto once belonged to the sacred circle of Hamadryades and huntress Diana [Artemis]. She touched the goddess’ bow: ‘this bow I touch,’ she cried, ‘Be a witness to my virginity.’ Cynthia [Artemis] praised her, and said: ‘Keep the pledge you vowed and you will be my companions' princeps.’"

Statius, Silvae 2. 3. 1 (trans. Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) :
"She [Artemis] drew a short shaft from her quiver, but sped it not from the bent bow or with the wonted twang, but was content to fling it with one hand, and touched - so ‘tis said - the left hand of the drowsy Naiad [Pholoe] with the arrow-feathers [transforming her into a pond]."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 36. 28 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"Highland Artemis . . . rounded her bow straight . . . and shot arrow after arrow moving through the airy vault in vain against that mark [the goddess Hera], until her quiver was empty, and the cloud [protecting Hera] still unbroken she covered thick with arrows all over."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 302 ff :
"The goddess [Artemis] leapt out of her car [of her chariot]; Oupis took the bow from her shoulders, and Hekaerge the quiver . . . Loxo loosed the boots from her feet."

See also Artemis Goddess of Sudden Death & Disease


HUNTING SPEARS & NETS OF ARTEMIS

Ovid, Metamorphoses 3. 138 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Tired after the hunt, the goddess loved her Nymphae to bathe her with the water’s balm . . . she gave her spear and quiver and bow unstrung to an attendant Nympha."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 302 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"The goddess [Artemis] leapt out of her car [of her chariot]; Oupis took the bow from her shoulders, and Hekaerge the quiver; the daughters of Okeanos took off the well-strung hunting nets."


HUNTING PACK OF ARTEMIS

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 15 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"[My, Artemis'] handmaidens . . . shall tend well my buskins, and, when I shoot no more at lynx or stag, shall tend my swift hounds."

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 86 ff :
"And speedily again thou [the child Artemis] didst go to get thee hounds; and thou camest to the Arkadian fold of Pan. And he was cutting up the flesh of a lynx of Mainalos [mountain in Arkadia] that his bitches might eat it for food. And to thee [Artemis] the Bearded God gave two dogs black-and-white, three reddish, and one spotted, which pulled down very lions when they clutched their throats and haled them still living to the fold. And he gave thee seven Kynosourian [Arkadian breed] bitches swifter than the winds - that breed which is swiftest to pursue fawns and the hare which closes not his eyes; swiftest too to mark the lair of the stag and where the porcupine hath his burrow, and to lead upon the track of the gazelle."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 302 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"The goddess [Artemis] leapt out of her car [of her chariot] . . . the daughters of Okeanos took off the well-strung hunting nets, and another took charge of the dogs."


LYRE OF ARTEMIS

Artemis was often depicted in art holding a lyre. Literary descriptions of her lyre, however, are scant.


TORCHES OF ARTEMIS

Artemis is often described depicted in art holding torches. In this form she is almost indistinguishable from Hekate. A few selected quotes:-

Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 37. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"[In the Arkadian temple of Despoine is a] bronze image [of Artemis], holding torches . . . [inside the enclosure] stands [a statue of] Artemis wrapped in the skin of a deer, and carrying a quiver on her shoulders, while in one hand she holds a torch, in the other two serpents."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 19. 6 :
"Here [at Aulis, Boiotia] there is a temple of Artemis with two images of white marble; one carries torches, and the other is like to one shooting an arrow."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 37. 1 :
"The image of Artemis [at Kyparissos in Phokis] is one of the works of Praxiteles; she carries a torch in her right hand and a quiver over her shoulders, while at her left side there is a dog."


THE KERYNITIAN HIND

Pindar, Olympian Ode 3 ep2 (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
"For he [Herakles] came from Arkadia’s high peaks and winding glens, by constraint of his father, to perform the bidding of Eurystheus, and bring back the Hind of the Golden Horns [the Kerynitian Hind], which once Taygete had vowed to Orthosia [Artemis], a sacred gift, and on it wrote the sign of consecration."

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 81 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"His [Herakles] third labour was to bring back alive to Mykenai the Elaphos Kerynitis (Cerynitian Hind). It was at Oinoe, a golden-horned deer sacred to Artemis. In his desire neither to kill nor to wound it, Herakles spent a whole year pursuing it. Finally the animal tired of the chase and took refuge on the mountain known as Artemision, and from there proceeded to cross the Ladon River. As it was crossing, Herakles got it with an arrow, hoisted it on his shoulders pressed on urgently through Arkadia. Artemis along with Apollon accosted him on the way, reached for the Hind, and berated him for trying to kill her sacred animal. But Herakles pleaded necessity and said that Eurystheus was to blame, and thus soothed the goddess' wrath; and he brought the animal still living to Mykenai."

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 98 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"[The Golden Hinds were] larger than bulls, and from their horns shone gold . . . Five were there in all; and four thou [Artemis] didst take . . . to draw thy swift car. But one escaped over the river Keladon, by devising of Hera, that it might be in the after days a labour for Herakles, and the Keryneian hill received her."

For MORE information on the hind see ELAPHOS KERYNITIS


SACRED BIRDS & ANIMALS

I) DEER (Greek elaphos)

Strabo, Geography 5. 1. 9 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Among the Henetoi [of northern Italy] . . . in the sacred precincts [of Artemis] the wild animals become tame, and deer herd with wolves, and they allow the people to approach and caress them, and any that are pursued by dogs are no longer pursued when they have taken refuge here."

Strabo, Geography 14. 1. 29 :
"After Kolophon [in Asia Minor] one comes to the mountain Korakios and to an isle sacred to Artemis, whither deer, it has been believed, swim across and give birth to their young."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 22. 8 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"The Eleans, I think, called Artemis Elaphiaia from the hunting of the deer (elaphos)."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. 18. 8 :
"The festival [of Artemis at Patrai] begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis, and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a car yoked to deer."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 22. 7 :
"The festival of Artemis Stymphalia at Stymphalos was carelessly celebrated, and its established ritual in great part transgressed. Now a log fell into the mouth of the chasm into which the river descends, and so prevented the water from draining away, and (so it is said) the plain became a lake for a distance of four hundred stades.They also say that a hunter chased a deer, which fled and plunged into the marsh, followed by the hunter, who, in the excitement of the hunt, swam after the deer. So the chasm swallowed up both the deer and her pursuer. They are said to have been followed by the water of the river, so that by the next day the whole of the water was dried up that flooded the Stymphalian plain. Hereafter they put greater zeal into the festival in honor of Artemis."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 10. 106 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Once, sacred to the Nymphae [and presumably Artemis] who dwell among Carthaea’s fields [on the island of Keos], there was a giant stag, whose spreading antlers shed a screen of shade upon his head. Those antlers gleamed with gold and from his silky neck a collar hung over his shoulders, set with precious stones. Upon his brow, secured by slender strings, a silver medal swayed, given at his birth, and round his hollow temples, gleaming bright, from either ear a pearly pendant hung. Quite fearless, all his natural shyness lost, he often visited the homes of men, and he'd let even strangers stroke his neck. But of them all he was the favourite of Cyparissus [a boy loved by Apollon], Cea's fairest lad. And he it was who used to lead the stag to pasture and the waters of the spring. Flowers of many colours he would weave around his horns or, mounted on his back, a happy cavalier, ride up and down, guiding his tender mouth with crimson reins."

For MYTHS of Artemis & the deer see:
(1) The Kerynitian Hind of Artemis
(2) The Deer-drawn Chariot of Artemis
(3) Artemis Wrath: Aktaion

II) BOAR (Greek hus)

For MYTHS of Artemis & the boar see:
(1) Artemis Wrath: Oineus
(2) Artemis Wrath: Adonis

III) BEAR (Greek arktos)

Suidas s.v. Arktos e Brauroniois (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Women playing the bear used to celebrate a festival for Artemis [at Brauron] . . . The reason was that a wild she-bear [sacred to Artemis] used to come to the deme of Phlauidoi and spend time there; and she became tamed and was brought up with the humans. Some virgin was playing with her and, when the girl began acting recklessly, the she-bear was provoked and scratched the virgin; her brothers were angered by this and speared the she-bear, and because of this a pestilential sickness fell upon the Athenians. When the Athenians consulted the oracle [the god] said that there would be a release from the evils if, as blood price for the she-bear that died, they compelled their virgins to play the bear."

Suidas s.v. Embaros eimi :
"After a female bear appeared in it [the shrine of Artemis at Mounykhia in Attika] and was done away with by the Athenians a famine ensued [i.e. sent by the goddess as punishment for slaying her sacred bear]."

For MYTHS of Artemis & the bear see:
(1) Artemis Wrath: Kallisto
(2) Artemis Wrath: Polyphonte

IV) FRESH-WATER FISH

Many of Artemis' shrines are described as containing sacred springs which presumably held fish sacred to the goddess, like that of Syrakousa described below. She was also the goddess of the lakes, with temples of Artemis Limnaia (Lady of the Lake) being erected on their shores.

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 2. 3 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"Nymphai [Naiades of Sicilian Syrakousa], to please Artemis, caused a great fountain to gush forth to which was given the name Arethousa. And not only in ancient times did this fountain contain large fish in great numbers, but also in our own day we find these fish still there, considered to be sacred [to Artemis] and not to be touched by men."

V) GUINEA-FOWL (Greek meleagris)

For MYTHS of Artemis & the guinea-fowl see Artemis Favour: the Meleagrides

VI) PARTRIDGE (Greek perdix)

Aelian, On Animals 10. 35 (trans. Schofield) (Greek natural history C2nd to 3rd A.D.) :
"Other sources tell us that the Partridge is the darling of [Artemis] the daughter of Zeus and Leto."

VII) QUAIL (Greek ortyx)

The quail was sacred to Leto, a bird after which the island of Artemis' birth was named Ortygia. Like various other ground-birds it was also sacred to Artemis.

VIII) BUZZARD-HAWK (Greek triorkhes?)

Aelian, On Animals 12. 4 (trans. Schofield) (Greek natural history C2nd to 3rd A.D.) :
"There are in fact several species of Hawks . . . They are allotted separately to many gods . . . the ocypterus is a servant of Apollon . . . and the buzzard, as it is called, of Artemis."

For MYTHS of Artemis & the hawk see Artemis Wrath: Khione
(her father was transformed into a hawk by Apollon, Artemis, Hermes)


SACRED PLANTS & FLOWERS

I) AMARANTH (Greek amarantos)

A wild flowering shrub, perhaps originally connected with the goddess through her cult at Amaranthos on the Greek island of Euboia.

II) ASPHODEL (Greek asphodelos)

A herb connected with Persephone and Khthonian Artemis (Hekate).

Suidas s.v. Asphodel (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Asphodelos (Asphodel): A bulbous plant, having long leaves and an edible stem; and its seed when roasted and the root chopped up with figs fetches a high price. [It is] sacred to Persephone and the underworld [deities]. Also Rhodians wreath Kore [Persephone] and Artemis [Hekate] with asphodel . . . But the place in which it grows must be pronounced oxytone, as in Homer: `over the asphodel meadow.'"

III) CYPRESS TREE (Greek kyparissos)

The cypress tree was sacred to Apollon and Artemis, being associated with the story of their birth.

Strabo, Geography 14. 1. 20 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"On the same coast [of Ephesos, Asia Minor], slightly above the sea, is also Ortygia [an island which in rivalry with Delos, claimed to be the birth place of Apollon and Artemis], which is a magnificent grove of all kinds of trees, of the cypress most of all . . . here is the mythical scene of the birth [of Apollon and Artemis]."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 24. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"Mount Lykone [in Argolis], has trees on it, chiefly cypresses. On the top of the mountain is built a sanctuary of Artemis."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 41. 4 :
"Around it [the shrine of Artemis Eurynome in Phigalia, Arkadia] are many cypress trees, growing close together."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 38. 9 :
"A little beyond the city [of Oiantheia in Phokis] there is a grove of cypress-trees mixed with pines; in the grove is a temple of Artemis with an image."

IV) PALM TREE

The palm tree was sacred to Leto as well as to her children Apollon and Artemis, for it was connected with the story of their birth.

Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 19. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"In front of the sanctuary [of Artemis at Aulis, Boiotia] grow palm-trees, the fruit of which, though not wholly edible like the dates of Palestine, yet are riper than those of Ionia."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 259 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"The old palm-tree [of Delos] played midwife for Leto with her poor little leaves [under its branches she bore Apollon and Artemis]."

For MYTHS of Artemis & the palm tree see The Birth of Artemis

For MORE information about and pictures of Sacred Plants see FLORA OF MYTH


Sources:

  • Homer, The Iliad - Greek Epic C9th-8th BC
  • The Homeric Hymns - Greek Epic C8th-4th BC
  • Pindar, Odes - Greek Lyric C5th BC
  • Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd BC
  • Callimachus, Hymns - Greek C3rd BC
  • Strabo, Geography - Greek Geography C1st BC - C1st AD
  • Pausanias, Guide to Greece - Greek Geography C2nd AD
  • Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History - Greek History C1st BC
  • Aelian, On Animals - Greek Natural History C2nd - C3rd AD
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses - Latin Epic C1st BC - C1st AD
  • Ovid, Fasti - Latin Epic C1st BC - C1st AD
  • Statius, Silvae - Latin Epic C1st AD
  • Nonnos, Dionysiaca - Greek Epic C5th AD
  • Suidas - Byzantine Lexicographer C10th AD