POSEIDON was the god of the sea, the sources of fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. The foremost of these were his sanctuary near Korinthos, where the famed Isthmian Games were celebrated in his honour every four years, and the shrines at Helike in Akhaia, and Onkhestos in Boiotia.
Poseidon was represented as a mature, muscular bearded god in Greek sculpture. He was virtually identical to Zeus in appearance apart from his attributes: Poseidon was often depicted standing beside a dolphin, and holding a trident, whereas Zeus had thunderbolt and eagle. In statues like the bronze god of Artemisium (S2.1) below, where the attribute is lost, identification is difficult.
GENERAL CULT OF POSEIDON
Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 9. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"In Korkyra a bull, leaving the cows, would go down from the pasture and bellow on the shore. As the same thing happened every day, the herdsman went down to the sea and saw a countless number of tunny-fish. He reported the matter to the Korkyraians, who, finding their labour lost in trying to catch the tunnies, sent envoys to Delphoi. So they sacrificed the bull to Poseidon, and straightway after the sacrifice they caught the fish, and dedicated their offerings at Olympia and at Delphoi with a tithe of their catch."
Aelian, On Animals 15. 6 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd to 3rd A.D.) :
"When tunny have been caught by fishermen . . . when they are safely enmeshed in the net, then is the time when everybody prays to Poseidon the Averter of Disaster. And as I ask myself the reason, I think it worth while to explain what induced them to attach the name ‘Averter of Disaster’ to the god. They pray to the brother of Zeus, the Lord of the Sea (Kratos Thalattos), that neither swordfish nor dolphin [who wreck the nets] may come as fellow-traveller with the shoal of tunny."
CULT IN ATTIKA (SOUTHERN GREECE)
I) ATHENS Chief City of Attika
Strabo, Geography 9. 1. 16 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"The city [of Athens] itself is a rock situated in a plain and surrounded by dwellings . . .
The words of Hegesias occur to me : `I see the acropolis, and the mark of the huge trident [of Poseidon] there.'"
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 2. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"Not far from the temple [of Demeter in Athens] is Poseidon on horseback, hurling a spear against the giant Polybotes, concerning whom is prevalent among the Koans the story about the promontory of Khelone. But the inscription of our time assigns the statue to another, and not to Poseidon."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 24. 3 :
"[On the Areopagos, Athens :] Athena is represented displaying the olive plant, and Poseidon the wave."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 26. 5 :
"There is also a building [in Athens] called the Erekhtheion . . . Inside the entrance are altars, one to Poseidon, on which in obedience to an oracle they sacrifice also to Erekhtheus, the second to the hero Boutes, and the third to Hephaistos . . . here is also inside--the building is double--sea-water in a cistern. This is no great marvel, for other inland regions have similar wells, in particular Aphrodisias in Karia. But this cistern is remarkable for the noise of waves it sends forth when a south wind blows. On the rock is the outline of a trident. Legend says that these appeared as evidence in support of Poseidon's claim to the land."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 30. 4 :
"There is also pointed out a place [not far from Athens] called the Hill of Horses, the first point in Attika, they say, that Oidipous reached--this account too differs from that given by Homer, but it is nevertheless current tradition--and an altar to Poseidon Hippios (Horse God), and to Athena Hippia (Horse Goddess), and a chapel to the heroes Peirithous and Theseus, Oidipous and Adrastos. The grove and temple of Poseidon were burnt by [the historical] Antigonos when he invaded Attika, who at other times also ravaged the land of the Athenians."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 10. 2 :
"There is an old legend that a wave of sea-water rises up in the sanctuary [of Poseidon in Mantineia, Arkadia]. A like story is told by the Athenians about the wave on the Akropolis . . . But the sea at Phaleron is about twenty stades distant from Athens."
II) LAKIADAI Village in Attika
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 37. 2 :
"[In the Atttic] parish called Lakiadai [near Athens] . . . there is a sanctuary of Demeter and her daughter. With them Athena and Poseidon are worshipped."
III) ELEUSIS Town in Attika
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 38. 6 :
"The Eleusinians have a temple of Poseidon Patros (Father)."
CULT IN KORINTHIA (SOUTHERN GREECE)
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 1. 6 :
"A legend of the Korinthians about their land is not peculiar to them, for I believe that the Athenians were the first to relate a similar story to glorify Attika. The Korinthians say that Poseidon had a dispute with Helios (Sun) about the land, and that [the Hekatonkheiros] Briareos arbitrated between them, assigning to Poseidon the Isthmos and the parts adjoining, and giving to Helios the height above the city. Ever since, they say, the Isthmos has belonged to Poseidon."
I) KORINTHOS Chief City of Korinthia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 2. 3 :
"The names of the Korinthian harbors were given them by Lekhes and Kenkhrias, said to be the children of Poseidon and Peirene the daughter of Akhelous, though in the poem called The Great Eoiai Peirene is said to be a daughter of Oibalos. In Lekhaion are a sanctuary and a bronze image of Poseidon . . . [and in] Kenkhriai . . . on the mole running into the sea a bronze image of Poseidon."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 3. 4 :
"[In Korinthos on the road to Lekhaion are a statue group of] Poseidon, Leukothea, and Palaimon on a dolphin."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 3. 5 :
"The Korinthians have baths in many parts of the city, some put up at the public charge and one by the emperor Hadrian. The most famous of them is near the Poseidon. It was made by the Spartan Eurykles, who beautified it with various kinds of stone, especially the one quarried at Krokeai in Lakonia. On the left of the entrance stands a Poseidon, and after him Artemis hunting."
II) THE DIOKLOS & THE ISTHMIAN GAMES Shrine & Festival of Korinthia
The Isthmian Games were held at Korinthos in honour of Poseidon. It was one of the four great Athletic Festivals of Ancient Greece--the others being those of Zeus at Olympia and Nemea, and those of Apollon at Delphoi.
Callimachus, Fragment 103 (from Plutarch Quest. Conviv. 5. 677B) (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"And it [the wild celery] shall the sons of Aletes [great-grandson of Herakles], when in the presence of the god Aigaion (of the Aegean Sea) [i.e. Poseidon] they celebrate a festival more ancient by far than this, appoint to be the token of victory in the Isthmia (Isthmian Games), in rivalry of those at Nemea; but the pine they shall reject, which aforetime crowned the combatants at Ephyra [Korinthos]."
Strabo, Geography 8. 6. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Near Skhoinos [in Korinthia] is the Dioklos, the narrowest part of the Isthmos, where is the temple of Poseidon Isthmios (of the Isthmos)."
Strabo, Geography 8. 6. 22 :
"From Kenkhreai [the Korinthian port] one comes to Skhoinos, where is the narrow part of the Isthmos, I mean the Dioklos; and then one comes to Krommyonia . . . On the Isthmos is also the temple of Poseidon Isthmios, in the shade of a grove of pinetrees, where the Korinthians used to celebrate the Isthmia (Isthmian Games)."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 1. 7 - 2. 2 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"The Isthmos [of Korinthos] belongs to Poseidon. Worth seeing here are a theater and a white-marble race-course [where the Isthmion Games were held]. Within the sanctuary of the god [Poseidon] stand on the one side portrait statues of athletes who have won victories at the Isthmian games, on the other side pine trees growing in a row, the greater number of them rising up straight. On the temple, which is not very large, stand bronze Tritones. In the fore-temple are images, two of Poseidon, a third of Amphitrite, and of Thalassa (the Sea), which also is of bronze. The offerings inside were dedicated in our time by Herodes the Athenian, four horses, gilded except for the hoofs, which are of ivory, and two gold Tritones beside the horses, with the parts below the waist of ivory. On the car stand Amphitrite and Poseidon, and there is the boy Palaimon upright upon a dolphin. These too are made of ivory and gold. On the middle of the base on which the car is has been wrought Thalassa (the Sea) holding up the young Aphrodite, and on either side are the Nymphai called Nereides . . . Among the reliefs on the base of the statue of Poseidon are the [Dioskouroi] sons of Tyndareus, because these too are saviours of ships and of sea-faring men. The other offerings are images of Galene (Calm) and of Thalassa (Sea), a horse like a whale from the breast onward, Ino [Leukothea] and Bellerophontes, and the horse Pegasos
Within the enclosure is on the left a temple of Palaimon, with images in it of Poseidon, Leukothea and Palaimon himself. There is also what is called his Holy of Holies, and an underground descent to it, where they say that Palaimon is concealed. Whosoever, whether Korinthian or stranger, swears falsely here, can by no means escape from his oath. There is also an ancient sanctuary called the altar of the Kyklopes, and they sacrifice to the Kyklopes upon it. The graves of Sisyphos [an early king of Korinthos] and of Neleus [son of Poseidon]--for they say that Neleus came to Korinthos, died of disease, and was buried near the Isthmos."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 2. 1 - 6 :
"[A mythical story explaining why the Eleans did not compete in the Isthmian Games and why the Korinthians did not participate at the Olympics :] The [Moliones] sons of Aktor were in the prime of courageous manhood, and always put to flight the allies under Herakles [in his war against King Augeias of Elis], until the Korinthians proclaimed the Isthmion truce, and the sons of Aktor came as envoys to the meeting. Herakles set an ambush for then, at Kleonai and murdered them. As the murderer was unknown, Molione, more than any of the other children, devoted herself to detecting him. When she discovered him, the Eleians demanded satisfaction for the crime from the Argives, for at the time Herakles had his home at Tiryns. When the Argives refused them satisfaction, the Eleans as an alternative pressed the Korinthians entirely to exclude the Argive people from the Isthmia (Isthmian Games). When they failed in this also, Molione is said to have laid curses on her countrymen, should they refuse to boycott the Isthmia festival. The curses of Molione are respected right down to the present day, and no athlete of Elis is wont to compete in the Isthmia (Isthmian Games).
There are two other accounts, differing from the one that I have given. According to one of them [the historic] Kypselos, the tyrant of Korinthos, dedicated to Zeus a golden image at Olympia. As Kypselos died before inscribing his own name on the offering, the Korinthians asked of the Eleans leave to inscribe the name of Korinthos on it, but were refused. Wroth with the Eleans, they proclaimed that they must keep away from the Isthmion games. But how could the Korinthians themselves take part in the Olympia (Olympic Games) if the Eleans against their will were shut out by the Korinthians from the Isthmia (Isthmian Games)? The other account is this. Prolaos, a distinguished Elean, had two sons, Philanthos and Lampos, by his wife Lysippe. These two came to the Isthmia to compete in the boys' pancratium, and one of them intended to wrestle. Before they entered the ring they were strangled or done to death in some other way by their fellow competitors. Hence the curses of Lysippe on the Eleans, should they not voluntarily keep away from the Isthmion games. But this story too proves on examination to be silly. For Timon, a man of Elis, won victories in the pentathlum at the Greek games, and at Olympia there is even a statue of him, with an elegiac inscription giving the crowns he won and also the reason why he secured no Isthmian victory. The inscription sets forth the reason thus:--`But from going to the land of Sisyphos he was hindered by a quarrel about the baleful death of the Molionides.'"
Pliny the Elder, Natural History 4. 18 (trans. Rackham) (Roman encyclopedia C1st A.D.) :
"Cenchreae, on the south side of the Isthmus [of Korinthos], with the temple of Neptunus [Poseidon], famous for the Isthmian Games celebrated there every four years."
CULT IN SIKYONIA (SOUTHERN GREECE)
I) SIKYON Chief City of Sikyonia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 9. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"After the hero-shrine of Aratos [in Sikyon] is an altar to Poseidon Isthmios (of the Isthmos)."
II) Near SIKYON Chief City of Sikyonia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 12. 2 :
"When you have gone down to the harbor called the Sikyonians' and turned towards Aristonautai, the Port of Pellene, you see a little above the road on the left hand a sanctuary of Poseidon."
CULT IN ARGOLIS (SOUTHERN GREECE)
I) ARGOS Chief City of Argolis
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 2. 24 :
"Here [in the city of Argos] is a sanctuary of Poseidon, surnamed Prosklystios (Flooder), for they say that Poseidon inundated the greater part of the country because Inakhos and his assessors decided that the land belonged to Hera and not to him. Now it was Hera who induced Poseidon to send the sea back, but the Argives made a sanctuary to Poseidon Prosklystios at the spot where the tide ebbed."
II) TROIZENOS & KALAURIA Town & Island in Argolis
Callimachus, Fragment 221 (from Scholiast on Aeschylus Eumenides 21) (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"He [Apollon] came to the exchange of Kalaureia." [N.B. In myth Apollon exchanged the island of Kalaureia with Poseidon for his share in the shrine at Delphoi.]
Strabo, Geography 8. 6. 14 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Troizenos [in the Argolis] is sacred to Poseidon, after whom it was once called Poseidonia. It is situated fifteen stadia above the sea, and it too is an important city. Off its harbor, Pogon by name, lies Kalaureia, an isle with a circuit of about one hundred and thirty stadia. Here was an asylum sacred to Poseidon; and they say that this god made an exchange with Leto, giving her Delos for Kalaureia, and also with Apollon, giving him Pytho for Tainaron [in Lakedaimonia]. And Ephoros goes on to tell the oracle : `For thee it is the same thing to possess Delos or Kalaureia, most holy Pytho or windy Tainaron.'
And there was also a kind of Amphiktyonic League connected with this temple, a league of seven cities which shared in the sacrifice; they were Hermione, Epidauros, Aigina, Athens, Prasïeis, Nauplïeis, and Orkhomenos Minyeios; however, the Argives paid dues for the Nauplians, and the Lakedaemonians for the Prasians. The worship of this god was so prevalent among the Greeks that even the [historical] Makedonians, whose power already extended as far as the temple, in a way preserved its inviolability, and were afraid to drag away the suppliants who fled for refuge to Kalaureia."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 30. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"During his [the mythical king Oros Troizenos'] reign, they say, Athena and Poseidon disputed about the land, and after disputing held it in common, as Zeus commanded them to do. For this reason they worship both Athena, whom they name both Polias (Urban) and Sthenias (Strong), and also Poseidon, under the surname of Basileus (King). And moreover their old coins have as device a trident and a face of Athena."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 30. 8 :
"They [the people of Troizenos, Argolis] know nothing of the later kings [from Saron down to] Hyperes and Anthas. These they assert to be sons of Poseidon and of Alkyone, daughter of Atlas, adding that they founded in the country the cities of Hyperea and Anthea."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 32. 8 :
"Outside the wall [of Troizenos, Argolis] there is also a sanctuary of Poseidon Phytalmios (Nurterer). For they say that, being wroth with them, Poseidon smote the land with barrenness, brine (halme) reaching the seeds and the roots of the plants (phyta), until, appeased by sacrifices and prayers, he ceased to send up the brine upon the earth."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 33. 2 :
"[The island of] Kalaureia [off the coast of Troizenos, Argolis], they say, was sacred to Apollon of old, at the time when Delphii was sacred to Poseidon. Legend adds that the two gods exchanged the two places. They still say this, and quote an oracle:--`Delos and Kalaureia alike thou lovest to dwell in, Pytho, too, the holy, and Taenaron, swept by the high winds.' At any rate, there is a holy sanctuary of Poseidon here, and it is served by a maiden priestess until she reaches an age fit for marriage."
III) HYDREA Island of Argolis
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 34. 9 :
"After it [the island of Hydrea, Argolis] the mainland is skirted by a crescent-shaped beach and after the beach there is a spit of land up to a sanctuary of Poseidon, beginning at the sea on the east and extending westwards. It possesses harbors, and is some seven stades in length, and not more than three stades in breadth where it is broadest. Here the Hermionians had their former city. They still have sanctuaries here: one of Poseidon at the east end of the spit."
IV) HERMIONE Town in Argolis
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 34. 11 :
"The modern city [of Hermione, Argolis] is just about four stades distant from the headland, upon which is the sanctuary of Poseidon, and it lies on a site which is level at first, gently rising up a slope, which presently merges into Pron, for so they name this mountain."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 35. 1 :
"[In Hermione, Argolis there is] a bronze Poseidon with one foot upon a dolphin."
V) PHILANORION Village in Argolis
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 36. 3 :
"[In Philanorion, Argolis] there is a sanctuary of Apollon, a sanctuary of Poseidon, and in addition one of Demeter. The images are of white marble, and are upright."
VI) TEMENION Village in Argolis
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 38. 1 :
"In Temenion [in Argolis] is built a sanctuary of Poseidon."
VII) NAUPLIA Town in Argolis
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 38. 2 :
"Nauplia [in Argolis], which at the present day is uninhabited; its founder was Nauplios, reputed to be a son of Poseidon and Amymone. Of the walls, too, ruins still remain and in Nauplia are a sanctuary of Poseidon."
VIII) GENESION Village in Argolis
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 38. 4 :
"From Lerna [in Argolis] there is also another road, which skirts the sea and leads to a place called Genesion. By the sea is a small sanctuary of Poseidon Genesios."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 7. 2 :
"After crossing into Mantinean country [in Arkadia] over Mount Artemisios you will come to a plain called the Untilled Plain [where the Arkadians claimed Poseidon was born], whose name well describes it, for the rain-water coming down into it from the mountains prevents the plain from being tilled; nothing indeed could prevent it from being a lake, were it not that the water disappears into a chasm in the earth. After disappearing here it rises again at Dine (Whirlpool) [in Argolis]. Dine is a stream of fresh water rising out of the sea by what is called Genethlion in Argolis. In olden times the Argives cast horses adorned with bridles down into Dine as an offering to Poseidon."
CULT IN LAKEDAIMONIA (SOUTHERN GREECE)
I) SPARTA Chief City of Lakedaimonia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 11. 9 :
"Not far from them [the markets of Sparta] is a sanctuary . . . of Poseidon surnamed Asphalios (Securer)."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 12. 5 :
"[On the Aphetaid road, beyond Bidiai] is a precinct of Poseidon Tainarios (of Tainaron), which is the surname given him."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 14. 2 :
"[In Sparta] is the tomb of Tainaros, after whom they say the headland was named that juts out into the sea. Here are sanctuaries of Poseidon Hippokourios (Horse-tending) and of Artemis Aiginaia (Goat-goddess)."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 14. 7 :
"Beside the shrine of Alkon [in Sparta] is a sanctuary of Poseidon, whom they surname Domatites (of the House)."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 15. 10 :
"Not far from the theater [of Sparta] is a sanctuary of Poseidon Genethlios (God of Kin)."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 17. 3 :
"[On the Bronze House of Athene in Sparta] there are also wrought the birth of Athena, Amphitrite, and Poseidon, the largest figures, and those which I thought the best worth seeing."
II) THERAPNE Village in Lakedaimonia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 20. 2 :
"At no great distance from it [Therapne, Lakedaimonia] stands a sanctuary of Poseidon surnamed Gaieokhos (Earth-embracer)."
III) AIGIAI Village in Lakedaimonia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 21. 5 :
"[Beside the town of Aigiai, Lakedaimonia] is a lake called Poseidon's, and by the lake is a temple with an image of the god. They are afraid to take out the fish, saying that a fisherman in these waters turns into the fish called the fisher."
IV) KYTHION Village in Lakedaimonia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 21. 8 :
"[In Kythion, Lakedaimonia) an image of Poseidon Gaieokhos (Earth-embracer)."
V) BOIAI Village in Lakedaimonia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 23. 2 :
"Boiai towards the point of Malea is a harbor called Nymphaion, with a statue of Poseidon standing, and a cave close to the sea; in it is a spring of sweet water."
VI) TAINARON Promontory in Lakedaimonia
Strabo, Geography 8. 5. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"A headland that projects into the sea [in Lakedaimonia], Tainaron, with its temple of Poseidon situated in a grove."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 25. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"The promontory of Tainaron [in Lakedaimonia] projects into the sea 150 stades from Teuthrone . . . On the promontory is a temple like a cave, with a statue of Poseidon in front of it."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 4. 24. 6 :
"Certain Lakedaimonians who had been condemned to death on some charge fled as suppliants to Tainaron but the board of ephors dragged them from the altar there and put them to death. As the Spartans paid no heed to their being suppliants, the wrath of Poseidon came upon them, and the god razed all their city to the ground."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. 25. 3 :
"The Lakedaimonians put to death men who had taken refuge in the sanctuary of Poseidon at Tainaron. Presently their city was shaken by an earthquake so continuous and violent that no house in Lakedaimon could resist it."
CULT IN MESSENIA (SOUTHERN GREECE)
I) MESSENE Chief City of Messenia
Pausanias, Description of Greece 4. 31. 6 :
"[In Messene, Messenia] there are sanctuaries of the gods Poseidon and Aphrodite."
CULT IN ELIS (SOUTHERN GREECE)
Strabo, Geography 8. 3. 12 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"The whole country [of Elis] is full of . . . temples of Poseidon on the capes."
I) OLYMPIA Village & Sanctuary in Elis
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 15. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"At the starting-point for the chariot-race [at Olympia], just about opposite the middle of it, there are in the open altars of Poseidon Hippios (Horse-god) and Hera Hippia (Horse-goddess)."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 24. 1 :
"[At Olympia is an] altar of Zeus Laoites (of the People) and Poseidon Laoites."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 20. 18 :
"The most probable of the stories in my opinion makes Taraxippos (Frightener of Horses) [i.e. a ghost or daimon which haunted the racecourse at Olympia] a surname of Poseidon Hippios (Horse)."
II) SAMIKON Village in Elis
Strabo, Geography 8. 3. 13 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Then [in Elis] comes the mountain of Triphylia . . . and a settlement called Khalkis, and, after these, Samikon, where is the most highly revered temple of Poseidon Samios. About the temple is a sacred precinct full of wild olive trees. The people of Makiston used to have charge over it; and it was they, too, who used to proclaim the armistice day called 'Samion.' But all the Triphylians contribute to the maintenance of the temple."
Strabo, Geography 8. 3. 16 :
"This city [Lepreon in Elis], too, was situated above the sea, at a distance of forty stadia; and between Lepreon and the Annios is the temple of Poseidon Samios, at a distance of one hundred stadia from each. This is the temple at which the poet says Telemakhos found the Pylians performing the sacrifice: 'And they came to Pylos, the well-built city of Neleus; and the people were doing sacrifice on the seashore, slaying bulls that were black all over, to the dark-haired Earth-shaker.' in this view it is assumed that Nestor lived in the Triphylian Pylos [i.e. as opposed to Messenian Pylos further to the south]."
Strabo, Geography 8. 3. 20 :
"The Poseidion is a sacred precinct, as I have said, near the sea, and above it is situated a lofty hill which is in front of the Samikon [in Elis] of today, on the site of which [the town of] Samos once stood, and therefore Samos was not visible from the sea."
- Herodotus, Histories - Greek History C5th B.C.
- Callimachus, Fragments - Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
- Strabo, Geography - Greek Geography C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
- Pausanias, Guide to Greece - Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
- Aelian, On Animals - Greek Natural History C2nd-3rd A.D.
- Pliny the Elder, Natural History - Latin Encyclopedia C1st A.D.
- Suidas - Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.