POSEIDON was the god of the sea, the sources of fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He had a large number of lovers in myth, although most of these appear only in the ancient genealogies with no accompanying story.
|(4) MORTAL LOVES (WOMEN)
|AGAMEDE A princess of Elis (in southern Greece). She was loved by Poseidon and bore him a son named Diktys. [see Family]
|AITHRA A princess of Troizenos in the Argolis (southern Greece) who was seduced by Poseidon and bore him a son, the hero Theseus.
|ALOPE A princess of Eleusis in Attika (southern Greece) who was loved by Poseidon and bore him a son, Hippothoon.
|ALTHAIA A queen of Aitolia (in central Greece) and wife of King Oineus. She was, according to some, the mother of Ankaios by Poseidon (though most sources say his mother was Astypalaia). [see Family]
|AMPHIKTYON'S DAUGHTER A princess of Eleusis in Attika (southern Greece) who, according to some, bore Poseidon a son named Kerkyon. [see Family]
|AMYMONE A Princess of Argos (in Central Greece) and one of the fifty Danaides, who was seduced by Poseidon while fetching water. She bore him a son named Nauplios.
|ANIPPE A princess or nymph of Aigyptos (Egypt in North Africa) who, according to some, was the mother of Bousiris by Poseidon (others say the mother was Lysianassa). [see Family]
|ARENE A queen of Messenia (in southern Greece) who, according to some, bore Poseidon the hero Idas (most sources, however, say that Idas and his brother Lynkeus were sons of Arene's husband Aphareus). [see Family]
|ARNE or ANTIOPE A princess of Thessalia (in northern Greece) who bore Poseidon sons named Aiolos (or Hellen) and Boiotos. She exposed the infants on a mountainside where they were discovered by a shepherd and given to the childless Ikarian king Metapontos to raise as his own.
|ASTYDAMEIA A daughter of Phorbas who was the mother of Kaukon by Poseidon. Her father may have been the king of Olenos in Akhaia (southern Greece). [See Family.]
|ASTYPALAIA A Princess of Phoenicia (in West Asia) who abducted by Poseidon to the island of Samos (in the Greek Aegean) where she bore him sevral sons: Ankaios, Eurypylos and perhaps Periklymenos (the last is usually called a son of Neleus).
|EUROPA A lady of (Orkhomenos?) in Boiotia (central Greece), daughter of Tityos. According to some, she bore Poseidon a son: the Argonaut Euphemos (though others say his mother was Mekionike. [see Family]
|EURYALE A princess of Krete (in the Greek Aegean) who was loved by Poseidon and, according to some, bare him the giant Orion. [see Family]
|EURYKYDA A princess of Elis (in aouthern Greece) who was loved by Poseidon and bore him a son named Eleios. [see Family]
|EURYNOME A queen of Korinthos (in southern Greece), wife of King Glaukos, who was seduced by Poseidon and bore him a son, the hero Bellerophon.
|HELLE A princess of Athamantia, Boiotia (central Greece) who fell into the Hellespont Straits while escaping from her stepmother upon the back of a flying ram. She was rescued by Poseidon who transformed into a Sea-Nymphe and bore him children named Almopos, Edonos and Paion (eponyms of various kingdoms in Thrake).
|HIPPOTHOE A princess of Mykenai in the Argolis (southern Greece) who was seduced by Poseidon and bore him a son named Taphios.
|IPHIMEDEIA A lady of Alos, Malis (in northern Greece), wife of Lord Aloeus. She was loved by Poseidon who visited her in the form of sea water. She bore him the twin giants Otos and Ephialtes.
|KAINIS A princess of the Lapithai tribe of Thessalia (in northern Greece) who was loved by Poseidon. The god granted her wish to become a man (Kaineus) and made her invulnerable to weapons. No children were born from their union.
|KALYKE A princess of Kolonai in the Troad (Asia Minor) who bore Poseidon a son named Kyknos. [see Family]
|KANAKE A princess of Thessaly in northern Greece who was seduced by Poseidon in the form of a bull. She bore him a number of sons: Triopas, Hopleus, Nireus, Epopeus, and Aloeus (though several of these are frequently given alternative parents).
|KELAINO ERGEIS A princess of Euboia (in central Greece), the daughter of King Ergeus, who was loved by Poseidon and bore him sons named Lykos and Nykteus (and perhaps Euphemos). She was sometimes confused with the Pleiad Kelaino. [see Family]
|KELAINO DANAIS A princess of Argos (in southern Greece), one of the fifty Danaides, who bore Poseidon a son named Kelainos, eponym of a Phrygian city. [see Family]
|KHALKINIA A princess of Sikyonia (in southern Greece) who bore Poseidon a son, Peratos. [see Family]
|KHRYSOGENEIA A princess of the town of Almones in Boiotia or Orkhomenos (central Greece). She bore Poseidon a son named Khryses. [see Family]
|KLEITO A princess of the mythical island-continent of Atlantis loved by Poseidon who bore him the ten Kings of Atlantis--Atlas, Gadeiros (or Eumelos), Ampheres, Euaimon, Mneseus, Autokhthon, Elasippos, Mestor, Azaes, and Daiprepres.
|KORONEIS A princess of Phokis (in central Greece) who was pursued by Poseidon. Fleeing from the god she cried out to Athene for help and was transformed into a crow (koronis).
|LARISSA A princess of Argos (in central Greece) who, according to some, bore Poseidon three sons: Akhaios, Pelasgos and Pythios (though others gave these eponymous heroes different parents). [see Family]
|LEIS A princess of Troizenos (in southern Greece) who bore Poseidon a son named Althepos.
|LENA A princess of Messenia (in southern Greece) who bore Poseidon a daughter named Euadne. She may be the same as Pitane. [see Family]
|LIBYA A princess of Aigyptos (Egypt in North Africa) and Eponym of the Continent of Libya (the Greek name for Africa). She was loved by Poseidon and bore him one or two sons Belos and Agenor (though Agenor is usually called a son of Belos). [see Family]
|LYSIANASSA A Princess of Aigyptos (Egypt, in North Africa) who, according to some, was the mother of Bousiris by Poseidon (others say the mother was Anippe). [see Family]
|MEKIONIKE A woman of Hyria, Boiotia (in central Greece) who, according to some, bore Poseidon a son Euphemos (others, however, say his mother was Europe). [see Family]
|MELANTHO A princess of Phokis (in central Greece) who was seduced by Poseidon in the form of a dolphin and, according to some, bare him a son named Delphos.
|MESTRA A princess of Thessalia (in northern Greece). She was loved by Poseidon who gave her the ability to change her shape. It is not known if she bore him any children.
|MOLIONE A Queen of Olenos in Akhaia (Southern Greece), wife of Aktor. She bore a pair of saimese twins, Eurytos and Kteatos, who were known as the Molionidai. Their father was reputed to be Poseidon (though others say it was her husband Aktor).
|OINOPE A princess of Sikyonia (in southern Greece) and later Lady of Onkhestos in Boiotia (Central Greece) who was the mother of Megareus by Poseidon. She appears to have been seduced by the god whilst married to Onkhestos (Lord of the town of the same name) as Megareus is sometimes called his son, and inherited the throne. [see Family]
|ORNYTION, WIFE OF The wife of Prince Ornytion of Korinthos (in southern Greece) was the mother by Poseidon of a man named Phokos. [see Family]
|PERIBOIA A princess of the Phaiakoi, Korkyra (in the Adriatic Sea) who was loved by Poseidon and bore him a son named Nausithoos. [see Family]
|THEMISTO A queen of Athamantia in Boiotia (central Greece), and wife of King Athamas. According to some, the father of her son Leukon was Poseidon instead of her husband. [see Family]
|THEOPHANE A princess of the Bisaltes tribe (of Thrake) who was transformed by her lover Poseidon into a ewe to hide her from her many suitors. The god assumed the form of a ram and coupled with her. From this union was born Khrysomallos the Golden Fleeced Ram.
|TYRO A queen of Iolkos in Thessalia (northern Greece), wife of King Kretheus. She fell in love with the river-god Enipeus whose form Poseidon assumed in order to seduce her. She bore him two sons named Neleus and Pelias.
|(5) MORTAL LOVES (MEN)
|PELOPS A prince of Lydia (in Asia Minor) and later King of Pisa in Elis (Southern Greece) loved by the god Poseidon.
POSEIDON LOVES : AITHRA
LOCALE : Troizenos, Argolis (Southern Greece)
Plato, Republic 391c-d (trans. Shorey) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"Theseus, the son of Poseidon, and Peirithous, the son of Zeus."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 208 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"[Aegeas] continued [as the King of Athens] without an heir, and in fear of his brothers he went to Pythia and asked about having children. The god's response was as follows: ‘Noblest of men, do not loosen the tumid neck of your wineskin until you reach the heights of Athens.’ Confused by this oracle, Aegeas left again for Athens. He went through Troizenos and stayed with Pelops' son Pittheus, who figured out the oracle [promising Aegeas a son] and put him to bed with his daughter Aithra. On the same night Poseidon also had intercourse with Aithra . . . Aithra did bear Aegeas a son, named Theseus [who later proved to be the son of Poseidon]."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 33. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"[The island off the coast of Troizenos in Argolis] formerly called Sphairia name was changed to Sacred Island for the following reason. In it is the tomb of Sphairos, who, they say, was charioteer to Pelops. In obedience forsooth to a dream from Athena, Aithra crossed over into the island with libations for Sphairos. After she had crossed, Poseidon is said to have had intercourse with her here. So for this reason Aithra set up here a temple of Athena Apatouria (the Deceitful), and changed the name from Sphaeria to Sacred Island."
Pseudo-Plutarch, Greek and Roman Parallel Stories 34 (trans. Babbitt) (Greek historian C2nd A.D.) :
"Theseus, was actually the son of Poseidon."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 37 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Neptunus [Poseidon] and Aegeus, son of Pandion, one night in the shrine of Minerva [Athena] both lay with Aethra, daughter of Pittheus. Neptunus [Poseidon] conceded the child to Aegeus . . . And later Aethra bore Theseus."
Ovid, Heroides 4. 109 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"[Theseus] the hero son of Neptune."
POSEIDON LOVES : ALOPE
LOCALE : Eleusis, Attika (Southern Greece)
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 39. 3 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"[Near Eleusis] is the tomb of Alope, who, legend says, being mother of Hippothoon by Poseidon was on this spot put to death by her father Kerkyon."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 5. 2 :
"The eponymoi [i.e. epnomous heroes of the tribes of Attika]--this is the name given to them--are Hippothoon son of Poseidon and Alope daughter of Kerkyon. [A list of the other eponymoi follows.]"
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 14. 3 :
"Khoirilos, an Athenian, who wrote a play called Alope, says that Kerkyon and Triptolemos were brothers, that their mother was the daughter of Amphiktyon, while the father of Triptolemos was Raros, of Kerkyon, Poseidon."
POSEIDON LOVES : AMYMONE
LOCALE : Lerna, Argolis (Southern Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 13 & 33 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"By a great number of wives there were born to Aigyptos [the King of Egypt] fifty sons and to Danaos fifty daughters [including Amymone]. When later on they were at variance over the rules, Danaos, in fear of the sons of Aigyptos, under Athena's supervision built a ship (the first man to do so), put his daughters on board and escaped . . . he went to Argos, where Gelanor, who was ruling at the time, handed over the kingship to him.
the land was without water, thanks to Poseidon, who, in anger at [the river-god] Inakhos for testifying that the region belonged to Hera, had dried up even the springs. So Danaus sent his daughters to find water. One of them, Amymone, while searching threw a spear at a deer and hit a sleeping Satyros (Satyr), who woke, jumped up, and was ready to have sex with her. Then Poseidon appeared and the Satyros ran off; so Poseidon himself made love to her, after which he told her about the springs of Lerna . . . Amymone bore to Poseidon a son Nauplios. He lived a long life, and as he sailed the sea he brought death to those who met him by means of beacon fires."
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 136 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
"[Numbered amongst the Argonauts was:] Nauplios, whose lineage we can trace to King Danaos [of Argos] himself. For his father was Klytoneos son of Naubolos; Naubolos was the son of Lernos; and we know that Lernos was the son of Proitos, himself the son of an earlier Nauplios, who proved to be the finest sailor of his time, offspring as he was of one of Danaos' daughters, the lady Amymone, and her lover [Poseidon] the Sea-God."
Strabo, Geography 8. 6. 2 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"The genealogy of Nauplios is also wholly incorrect in respect to the times involved; for, granting that he was the son of Poseidon, how could a man who was still alive at the time of the Trojan war have been the son of Amymone?" [N.B. Amymone was a Danaid who lived many generations before the Trojan War.]
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 37. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"At this mountain [Mount Pontinos in Argos] there is a [sacred] grove, which consists chiefly of plane trees, and reaches down to the sea. Its boundaries are, on the one side the river Pantinos, on the other side another river, called Amymone, after the daughter of Danaus."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 38. 2 :
"Fifty stades [from the springs of Amymone], I conjecture, from Temenion is Nauplia, which at the present day is uninhabited; its founder was Nauplios, reputed to be a son of Poseidon and Amymones."
Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 8 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :
"[From a description of an ancient Greek painting at Neapolis (Naples):] Poseidon journeys over the sea . . . and the sea is calm, escorting him with its sea horses and its sea-monsters (ketea) . . . but here it is Hippokampoi (Hippocamps) that draw the chariot, creatures with web-footed hoofs, good swimmers, blue-eyed, and, by Zeus, in all respects like dolphins. There in Homeros Poseidon seems to be angry, and vexed with Zeus for turning back the Greek forces and for directing the contest to their disadvantage; while here he is painted as radiant, of joyous look, and deeply stirred by love. For the sight of Amymone, the daughter of Danaos, as she visits the waters of Inakhos, has overmastered the god and he sets out to pursue the girl, who does not yet know that she is loved. At any rate the fright of the maiden, her trembling, and the golden pitcher falling from her hands make it evident that Amymone is astounded and at a loss to know with what purpose Poseidon so precipitately leaves the sea; and her natural pallor, is illumined by the gold of the pitcher, as its brightness is reflected in the water. Let us withdraw, my boy, and leave the maiden; for already a wave is arching over the nuptials, and, though the water is still bright and pellucid in appearance, Poseidon will presently paint it a purple hue [to enrich the marriage chamber and conceal the pair]."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 14 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Argonauts Assembled . . . Nauplius, son of Neptunus [Poseidon] and Amymone, daughter of Danaus, an Argive."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 157 :
"Sons of Neptunus [Poseidon] . . . Nauplius by Amymone, daughter of Danaus."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 169 :
"When Amymone, daughter of Danaus, was eagerly hunting in the woods, she struck a Satyr with her dart. He wanted to ravish her, but she begged the aid of Neptunus [Poseidon]. When Neptunus came there, he drove away the Satyr, and lay with her himself. From this embrace Nauplius was born. At the place where this occurred, Neptunus is said to have struck the earth with his trident. Water flowed out, called the Fountain of Lerna and the Amymonian River."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 169A :
"Amymone, daughter of Danaus, was sent by her father to get water for performing sacred rites. While hunting for it, she grew weary and fell asleep. A Satyr tried to seduce her, but she implored the help of Neptunus [Poseidon]. When Neptunus had hurled his trident at the Satyr, it became fixed in a rock. Neptunus drove off the Satyr. When he asked the girl what she was doing in this lonely place she said she had been sent by her father to get water. Neptunus lay with her, and in return he did her a favour, bidding her draw out his trident from the rock. She drew it out and three streams of water flowed, which were called the Amymonian Spring from her name. From the embrace Nauplius was born. The fountain, however, later was called the Fountain of Lerna."
POSEIDON AS BEAST
POSEIDON LOVES : ASTYPALAIA
LOCALE : Phoinikia (West Asia) & Kos (Greek Aegean)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 138 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Herakles sailed to Kos . . . used force and took the place by night, slaying the king Eurypylos, son of Astypalaia and Poseidon."
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 866 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
"[After the death of Tiphys helmsman of the Argo:] The goddess Hera filled Ankaios with the courage that dares all. This man was a son of [Poseidon] the Sea-God, borne to him by Astypalaia near the waters of Imbrasos [a river of the island of Samos], and steersmanship was his especial skill."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. 4. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"[The poet] Asios . . . a Samian, says in his epic that there were born to Phoinix Astypalaia and Europa, whose mother was Perimede, the daughter of Oineus; that Astypalaia had by Poseidon a son Ankaios, who reigned over those called Leleges [the aboriginal inhabitants of the island of Samos]; that Ankaios took to wife Samia, the daughter of the river Maiandros, and begat . . . [various children]. Thus far Asios in his poem."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 157 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Sons of Neptunus [Poseidon] . . . Periclymenus, Eurypylus and Ancaeus by Astypale, daughter of Phoenix."
POSEIDON LOVES : EURYNOME
LOCALE : Korinthos (Southern Greece)
Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 7 (from Oxyrhynchus Papyri 421) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"Eurynome the daughter of Nisos, Pandion's son, to whom Pallas Athene taught all her art, both wit and wisdom too; for she was as wise as the gods. A marvellous scent rose from her silver raiment as she moved, and beauty was wafted from her eyes. Her, then, Glaukos sought to win by Athena's advising, and he drove oxen for her. But he knew not at all the intent of Zeus who holds the aegis. So Glaukos came seeking her to wife with gifts; but cloud-driving Zeus, king of the deathless gods, bent his head in oath that the . . . son of Sisyphos should never have children born of one father. So she lay in the arms of Poseidon and bare in the house of Glaukos blameless Bellerophon, surpassing all men."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 157 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Sons of Neptunus [Poseidon] . . . Bellerophon by Eurymede, daughter of Nisus."
POSEIDON LOVES : HIPPOTHOE
LOCALE : Mykenai, Argolis (Southern Greece) & Ekhidnades Islands (Central Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 50 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Mestor [prince of Mykenai] and Pelops' daughter Lysidike were parents of Hippothoe. Poseidon kidnapped Hippothoe, took her off to the Ekhidnades islands, slept with her, and fathered Taphios. He in turn founded Taphos and called his people Teleboans because he had ‘gone far’ from his fatherland."
POSEIDON LOVES : IPHIMEDEIA
LOCALE : Thessalia (Northern Greece)
Homer, Odyssey 11. 305 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"I [Odysseus in Haides] saw [the ghost of] Aloeus' wife; she was Iphimedeia, whose boast it was to have lain beside Poseidon. She bore him two sons, though their life was short-- Otos the peer of the gods and far-famed Ephialtes; these were the tallest men, and the handsomest, that ever the fertile earth has fostered, save only incomparable Orion; at nine years of age their breadth was nine cubits, their height nine fathoms. They threatened the Deathless Ones themselves--to embroil Olympos in all the fury and din of war."
Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 6 (from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius 1 .142) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"Aloiadai. Hesiod said they were sons of Aloeus--called so after him--and of Iphimedeia, but in reality, sons of Poseidon and Iphimedeia, and that Alos a city of Aitolia [actually a city in Malis] was founded by their father."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 53 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Aloeus married Triops' daughter Iphimedeia, who, however, was in love with Poseidon. She would go down to the sea, gather the waves in her hands, and pour the water on her vagina. Poseidon mated with her and fathered two sons, Otos and Ephialtes, who were known as Aloadai. Each year these lads grew two feet in width and six feet in length. When they were nine years old and measured eighteen feet across by fifty four feet tall, they decided to fight the gods."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 28 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Otos and Ephialtes, sons of Aloeus and Iphimede, are said to have been of extraordinary size. They each grew nine inches every month, and so when they were nine years old, they tried to climb into heaven . . . Other writers, however, say that they were invulnerable sons of Neptunus [Poseidon] and Iphimede."
Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 117 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Neptunus [Poseidon] too sired, as [the river] Enipeus, the Aloidae." [N.B. Ovid confuses the stories of Iphimedeia and Tyro.]
POSEIDON LOVES : KANAKE
LOCALE : Thessalia (Northern Greece)
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 52 - 53 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"He [Aiolos] married Enarete, daughter of Deimakhos . . . and had five daughters, Kanake, Alkyone, Peisidike, Kalyke, and Perimede . . . Kanake bore to Poseidon Hopleos, Nireos, Epopeos, Aloeus, and Triops."
Callimachus, Hymn 6 to Demeter 99 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
"Triopas [son of Poseidon and Kanake] himself laid hands on his grey hairs, calling on Poseidon . . . with such words as these: ‘I am son of thee and of Kanake, daughter of Aiolos.’"
Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 116 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Neptune [Poseidon] changed to a savage bull for love of Aeolia [Kanake]."
POSEIDON LOVES : KORONEIS
LOCALE : Phokis (Central Greece)
Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 569 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"My [the crow's] father was the famous king of Phocis, Coroneus, as the world knows well enough, and I was a princess, and I was wooed (you must not laugh) by many a wealthy man. My beauty doomed me. One day on the shore, pacing across the sand with long slow strides, as I still do, the Sea-God (Deus Pelagi) [Poseidon] saw me there, and fell in love with me. In my flight I left he hard firm beach and soon, in the soft sand, was quite worn out--in vain! I cried for help to gods and men. No human heard my voice; a virgin's anguish moved the Virgin's [Athena's] heart and Minerva [Athena] brought her aid. I raised my arms to heaven; along my arms a sable down of feathers spread [and she was transformed into a crow]."
POSEIDON LOVES : MELANTHO
LOCALE : Delphi, Phokis (Central Greece)
Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 120 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Poor Melantho knew him [Poseidon] as a dolphin."
Melantho was the mother of Delphos (the Dolphin), eponymous lord of Delphoi, by Poseidon.
POSEIDON LOVES : MOLIONE
LOCALE : Olenos, Akhaia (Southern Greece)
Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 9 (from Scholiast Ven. On Homer’s Iliad 11. 750) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"The two sons of Aktor and Molione . . . Hesiod has given their descent by calling them after Aktor and Molione; but their [real] father was Poseidon."
Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 9 (from Porphyrius, Questions Homerica on the Iliad 265) :
"But Aristarkhos is informed that they [the Molionidai] were twins, not . . . such as were the Dioksouroi (Dioscuri), but, on Hesiod's testimony, double in form and with two bodies joined to one another."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 34 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"[Herakles] led a campaign against Augeias [king of Elis] . . . When Augeias heard of this war threat, he made Eurytos and Kteatos the generals of the Elean army. These two men shared one body, and at that time surpassed all men in strength. They were the sons of Molione and Augeias' brother Aktor (although some say Poseidon was the father)."
Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 1. 57f - 58a(trans. Gullick) (Greek rhetorician C2nd to 3rd A.D.) :
"Ibykos [Greek poet C6th B.C.], in the fifth book of his Lyrics, says of the Molionidai: ‘I [Herakles] likewise slew the white-horsed youths, sons of Molione, equal in age and in height, with their limbs joined in one, both hatched in a silver egg.’"
POSEIDON LOVES : THEOPHANE
LOCALE : Bisaltia, Thrake (North of Greece)
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 3 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Nebula their [Phrixos and Helle's] mother is said to have come there bringing a Gilded Ram, offspring of Neptunus [Poseidon] and Theophane."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 188 :
"Theophane, a most beautiful maiden, was the daughter of Bisaltes. When many suitors sought her from her father, Neptunus [Poseidon] carried her off and took her to the island of Crumissa. When the suitors knew she was staying there, they secured a ship and hastened to Crumissa. To deceive them, Neptunus changed Theophane into a very beautiful ewe, himself into a ram, and the citizens of Crumissa into cattle. When the suitors came there and found no human beings, they began to slaughter the herds and use them for food. Neptunus saw that the men who had been changed to cattle were being destroyed, and changed the suitors into wolves. He himself, in ram form, lay with Theophane, and from this union was born the Aries Chrysomallus (Golden-fleeced Ram) which carried Phrixus to Colchis, and whose fleece, hung in the grove of Mars [Ares], Jason took away."
Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 117 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Bisaltis [i.e. the daughter of Bisaltes] he [Poseidon] seduced as a ram."
POSEIDON LOVES : TYRO
LOCALE : River Enipeus, Thessalia (Northern Greece)
Homer, Odyssey 11. 236 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"The first [ghost] that I [Odysseus in Haides] saw was high-born Tyro, daughter of great Salmoneos and wife of Kretheus son of Aiolos--such was her twofold boast. She fell in love with the river-god Enipeos, whose waters are the most beautiful of any that flow on earth; and she haunted his beguiling streams. But in place of Enipeos, and in his likeness, there came the god [Poseidon] who sustains and who shakes the earth. He lay with her at the mouth of the eddying river, and a surging wave, mountain-high, curled over them and concealed the god and the mortal girl. And when the god had finished the work of love, he uttered these words with her hand in his : ‘Girl, be happy in this our love. When the year comes round you will be the mother of glorious children (an immortal’s embrace is not in vain); tend them and care for them. Now return home; be wary, and say no word of me; nevertheless I would have you know that I am the Shaker of the Earth, Poseidon.’
With these words he sank beneath billowing ocean. She conceived and brought forth Pelias and Neleus, and both became powerful liegemen [kings] of mighty Zeus. Pelias, possessor of many flocks, had spacious Iolkos for his dwelling; the domain of Neleus was sandy Pylos. Queen Tyro bore other sons to Kretheos--Aison and Pheres and the chariot-warrior Amythaon."
Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 13 (from Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey 12. 69) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"Tyro the daughter of Salmoneos, having two sons by Poseidon, Neleus and Pelias, married Kretheus, and had by him three sons, Aison, Pheres and Amythaon."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 90 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Tyro was the daughter of Salmoneos and Alkidike, but was reared by Kretheus [after her parents had been slain by Zeus for pretending to be gods]. She was struck with love for the River Enipeos, to whose stream she would go constantly to lament. Poseidon, taking the form of Enipeos, slept with her. In secret she gave birth to twin boys. As the infants lay abandoned to exposure, a mare of some passing horse-keepers grazed on of them with her hoof, and made part of his face black and blue. The horseman took and reared both boys, giving the name Pelias to the one with the discoloration, and calling the other Neleus. When they had grown, they rediscovered their mother, and slew their stepmother Sidero [wife of Kretheus]. For they found out that she was mistreating Tyro."
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 68. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"I shall endeavour to set forth the facts concerning Salmoneos and Tyro and their descendants . . . Salmoneos was a son of Aiolos . . . [who] setting out from Aiolis with a number of Aiolians he founded a city Eleia on the banks of the river Alpheios and called it Salmonia after his own name. And marrying Alkidike, the daughter of Aleus [king of Arkadia], he begat by her a daughter, her who was given the name Tyro, a maiden of surpassing beauty. When his wife Alkidike died Salmoneos took for a second wife Sidero, as she was called, who treated Tyro unkindly, as a stepmother would. Afterwards Salmoneos, being an overbearing man and impious, came to be hated by his subjects and because of his impiety was slain by Zeus with a bolt of lightning. As for Tyro, who was still a virgin when this took place, Poseidon lay with her and begat two sons, Pelias and Neleus. Then Tyro married Kretheos and bore Amythaon and Pheres and Aison."
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 6. 7. 2 - 3 :
"And there was born to him [Salmoneus] an only daughter, Tyro, to whom he thought this name was appropriate by reason of the softness of her body and the whiteness of her skin. Poseidon became enamoured of this maiden because of her beauty, and lying with her he begat Pelias and Neleus. And Salmoneus, not believing that it was Poseidon who had taken her virginity, would not leave off ill-treating Tyro; but in the end he paid the penalty to the deity for his impiety, ending his life when struck by lightning from the hand of Zeus [i.e. as punishment for impersonating the god]."
Strabo, Geography 8. 3. 32 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"[The town of] Salmone [in Triphylia, Elis] is situated near the spring of that name from which flows the Enipeus River. The river empties into the Alpheios, and is now called the Barnikhios. It is said that Tyro fell in love with Enipeus: ‘She loved a river, the divine Enipeus.’ For there [in southern Elis], it is said, her father Salmoneus reigned, just as Euripides also says in his Aiolos. Some write the name of the river in Thessalia Eniseus ; it flows from Mount Othrys, and receives the Apidanos, which flows down out of Pharsalos."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 4. 2. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"Aphareus [king of Messenia] . . . received into his house his cousin Neleus the son of Kretheus, son of Aiolos (he [Neleus] was also called a son of Poseidon), when he was driven from Iolkos by Pelias."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 12 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Pelias son of Cretheus and Tyro."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 157 :
"Sons of Neptunus [Poseidon] . . . Neleus and Pelias by Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 118 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"Do bulls also go mad with love, and ravish women? Has Poseidon played a trick, and ravished a girl under the shape of a horned bull like a river-god? Has he woven another plot to follow the bedding of Tyro, just as he did the other day, when the watery paramour came trickling up with counterfeit ripples like a bastard Enipeus?"
- Homer, The Odyssey - Greek Epic C8th B.C.
- Hesiod, Catalogues of Women - Greek Epic C8th-7th B.C.
- Plato, Republic - Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
- Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica - Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
- Callimachus, Hymns - Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
- Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History - Greek History C1st B.C.
- Strabo, Geography - Greek Geography C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
- Pausanias, Description of Greece - Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
- Plutarch, Moralia- Greek Historian C1st-2nd A.D.
- Philostratus the Elder, Imagines - Greek Art History C3rd A.D.
- Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae - Greek Rhetorician C2nd-3rd A.D.
- Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Ovid, Metamorphoses - Latin Epic C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
- Ovid, Heroides - Latin Poetry C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
- Nonnos, Dionysiaca - Greek Epic C5th A.D.