HIPPONOOS (Hipponous) was a king of the Epeian town of Olenos (Olenus) in the western Peloponnesos. He sent his daughter Periboia (Periboea) to King Oineus (Oeneus) of Aitolia for execution upon learning that she had been seduced by the god Ares. Others say the Oineus won the girl in his conquest of the town.
CHRONOLOGY OF MYTH
Hipponoos' son Kapaneus (Capaneus), his grandson Tydeus and his brother-in-law Adrastos were all warriors in the War of the Seven Against Thebes. Hipponoos himself was presumably either a son or brother of Dexamenos, former king of Olenos in the mythic chronology.
[1.1] DEXAMENOS ?
[1.1] PERIBOIA (Homerica Thebaid Frag 6, Apollodorus 1.8.4, Diodorus Siculus 4.35.1)
[2.1] KAPANEUS (Apollodorus 3.6.3, Pausanias 9.8.7 & 10.10.3)
[2.2] KAPANEUS (by Astynome) (Hyginus Fabulae 70)
CLASSICAL LITERATURE QUOTES
Homerica, The Thebaid Fragment 6 (from Apollodorus 1. 74) (Greek epic C.C.) :
"Oineus (Oeneus) married Periboia (Periboea) the daughter of Hipponoos (Hipponous). The author of the Thebais says that when Olenos (Olenus) had been stormed, Oineus received her as a prize."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 8. 4 - 5 (trans. Frazer) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"After Althaia's (Althaea's) death Oineus (Oeneus) married Periboia (Periboea), daughter of Hipponoos (Hipponous). The author of the Thebais says that when Olenos (Olenus) was sacked, Oineus received Periboia as a gift of honor; but Hesiod says that she was seduced by Hippostratos, son of Amarynkeus (Amarynceus), and that her father Hipponoos sent her away from Olenos in Akhaia (Achaea) to Oineus, because he dwelt far from Greece, with an injunction to put her to death.
However, some say that Hipponoos discovered that his daughter had been debauched by Oineus, and therefore he sent her away to him when she was with child. By her Oineus begat Tydeus . . . When Tydeus had grown to be a gallant man he was banished for killing, as some say, Alkathoos (Alcathous), brother of Oineus . . . but as Pherekydes will have it, he murdered his own brother Olenias. Being arraigned by Agrios (Agrius), he fled to Argos and came to Adrastos (Adrastus), whose daughter Deipyle he married." [N.B. Periboia's second child Olenias was named after her father's town.]
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 6. 3 :
"Having mustered an army with seven leaders, Adrastos (Adrastus) hastened to wage war on Thebes. The leaders were these : Adrastos, son of Talaos (Talaus); Amphiaraos, son of Oikles (Oicles); Kapaneus (Capaneus), son of Hipponoos (Hipponous); Hippomedon, son of Aristomakhos (Aristomachus), but some say of Talaos. These came from Argos; but Polynikes (Polynices), son of Oidipous (Oedipus), came from Thebes; Tydeus, son of Oineus (Oeneus), was an Aitolian; Parthenopaios (Parthenopaeus), son of Melanion, was an Arkadian." [N.B. In this genealogy Tydeus's mother Periboia was the sister of Kapaneus, both of which were children of King Hipponoos of Olenos.]
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 34. 7 - 4. 35. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"[Althaia (Athaea), wife of Oineus (Oeneus),] being deeply incensed at the murder of her brothers [by her son Meleagros (Meleager)], burned the brand and so made herself the cause of the death of Meleagros; but as time went on she grieved more and more over what she had done and finally made an end of her life by hanging.
At the time that these things were taking place, the myth continues, Hipponoos (Hipponous) in Olenos (Olenus), angered at his daughter Periboia (Periboea) because she claimed that she was with child by Ares, sent her away into Aitolia (Aetolia) to Oineus with orders for him do away with her at the first opportunity.
Oineus, however, who had recently lost his son and wife, was unwilling to slay Periboia, but married her instead and begat a son Tydeus." [N.B. The author implies that Tydeus' natural father was in fact Ares.]
Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 8. 7 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"[The War of the Seven Against Thebes :] The entry into Thebes from Plataia (Plataea) is by the Elektran gate. At this, so they say, Kapaneus (Capaneus), the son of Hipponoos (Hipponous), was struck by lightning as he was making a more furious attack upon the fortifications."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 10. 3 :
"[Amongst the statues dedicated at the shrine of Delphoi :] Near the horse are also other votive offerings of the Argives, likenesses of the captains of those who with Polyneikes (Polynices) made war on Thebes : Adrastos, the son of Talaos, Tydeus, son of Oineus (Oeneus), the descendants of Proitos (Proetus), namely, Kapaneus (Capaneus), son of Hipponoos (Hipponous), and Eteoklos (Eteoclus), son of Iphis, Polyneikes, and Hippomedon, son of the sister of Adrastos. Near is represented the chariot of Amphiaraus."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 81 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Seven Kings who set out for Thebes. Adrastus, son of Talaus by Eurynome, daughter of Iphitus, an Argive . . .
Tydeus, son of Oeneus by the captive Periboea, a Calydonian . . .
Capaneus, son of Hipponous by Astynome, daughter of Talaus, sister of Adrastus, an Argive.
Hippomedon, son of Mnesimachus by Metidice, daughter of Talaus, sister of Adrastus, an Argive."
[N.B. Hipponoos and Mnesimakhos may have been sons of King Dexamenos of Olenos. Dexamenos had a daughter named Mnesimakhe, and Hipponoos like Dexamenos was described as a king of Olenos. Adrastos' kingdom incorporated most of Akhaia up to the border with Olenos.]
CHRONOLOGY OF THE ELEAN KINGS
|1. Aethlios||1. Alxion||1. Olenos|
|2. Endymion||2. Oinomaos|
6. Eleios *
5. Heleios *
|1. Phorbas||2. Alektor|
|7. Augeias **||2. Aktor||3. Dexamenos
4. Hipponoos ****
|8. Agasthenes||1. Amarynkeus ***||3. Kteatos & Eurytos||1. Phyleus|
|9. Polyxeinos||2. Diores||4. Thalpios & Antimakhos||2. Meges|
1. Pisa (southern Elis); 2. Elis (central Elis); 3. Bouprasion (northern Elis); 4. Doulikhion (island west of Elis); 5. Olenos (northern Elis & western Akhaia).
* Eleios-Heleios is the same figure. One tradition represents him as a son of Perseus and the heir of King Pelops, another makes him a grandson of King Endymion. He was sometimes confounded with the sun-god Helios.
** Augeias ruled the whole of Elis including the regions of Elis, Pisa, Bouprasion and Doulikhion. After his death the kingdom was divided into four autonomous parts.
*** Amarynkeus received a quarter of the kingdom of Augeias. One assumes his portion was Pisatis.
**** In the reign of Hipponoos, Olenos was annexed by King Oineus of Aitolia. It is listed as an Aitolian dominion in Homer's Catalogue of Ships.
- Homerica, The Thebaid Fragments - Greek Epic C8th - 7th B.C.
- Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History - Greek History C1st B.C.
- Pausanias, Description of Greece - Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
- Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.