Greek Mythology >> Greek Gods >> Daemones (Spirits)


Daemones (personified spirits) of the human condition and abstract concepts formed a large part of the Greek pantheon of gods. Their names are simply capitalized nouns so, for example, Eros is "Love" and Thanatus is "Death".



The abstract personifications can be divided into seven broad categories:

1. Emotions and states of mind, e.g. Love and Hate, Sexual-Desire, Affection, Anger, Harmony and Discord, Joy and Grief, Laughter, Hope and Fear, Indignation, Delusion;

2. The human condition, e.g. Birth and Death, Sleep and Dreams, Pleasure and Pain, Youth and Old Age, Wealth and Poverty, Hunger and Disease, Ease and Toil, Fate and Opportunity;

3. Qualities, e.g. Strength, Beauty and Grace, Wisdom, Stupidity;

4. Morality, e.g. Valour, Modesty, Moderation, Hubris, Mercy, Truth, Lies, Impiety, Justice, Oath, Respect, Insolence;

5. Voice, e.g. Eloquence, Persuasion, Criticism, Lies, Quarrels, Prayer, Counsel, Curse, Lament, Rumour, Message, Fame, Battle-Cry;

6. Actions, e.g. Force, Rivalry, Victory, Labor, Contest, Fighting, Murder;

7. State of society, e.g. Peace and War, Good-Governance, Law and Lawlessness, Justice and Injustice.

Most of these divinities were pure personification with little or no mythology. Only a handful achieved full characterisation, including Eris (Strife) and Hypnus (Sleep). A few including Eros (Love), Nike (Victory) and Nemesis (Indignation) achieved cult status, with minor altars and precincts dedicated to them in historical times.

The first section of this page lists the Spirits (or Daemones) by their Greek names, the second gives their Latin counterparts. After each there follows an English translation of the name-word. In many cases multiple terms are used to clarify the meaning of the word, especially moral concepts which do not translate easily.


ACHOS (Akhos) Pain of Body, Pain of Mind, Grief, Distress (Latin Dolor)


ADICIA (Adikia) Injustice, Wrong-doing

AEDOS (Aidos) Reverence, Respect, Shame, Self-Respect, Modesty (Latin Pudicitia)

AERGIA Idleness, Laziness, Do Nothing, Sloth (Latin Socordia, Ignavia)

AESCHYNE (Aiskhyne) Shame, Sense of Shame, Modesty, Honour (Latin Pudicitia)

AGLAEA (Aglaia) Beauty, Splendour, Glory, Magnificence, Adornment

AGON Contest, Struggle

ALALA War-Cry, Battle-Cry

ALASTOR Blood Feud, Vengeance

ALCE (Alke) Battle-Strength, Prowess, Courage

ALETHEIA Truth, Truthfulness, Sincerity (Latin Veritas)

ALGEA (plural) Pain of Body, Pain of Mind, Grief, Distress, Suffering (Latin Dolor)

AMECHANIA (Amekhania) Helplessness, Want of Means

AMPHILOGIAE (Amphilogiai) (plural) Disputes, Debate, Contention (Latin Altercatio)

ANAIDEIA Ruthlessness, Shamelessness, Unforgivingness

ANANCE (Ananke) Necessity, Compulsion (Latin Necessitas)

ANDROCTASIAE (Androktasiai) (plural) Slaughter of Men in Battle

ANGELIA Message, Tidings, Proclamation

ANIA Grief, Sorrow, Distress, Trouble (Latin Dolor)

ANTEROS Reciprocated Love

APATE Trick, Fraud, Deceit, Guile, Treachery (Latin Dolus, Fraus)

APORIA Difficulty, Perplexity, Want of Means (Latin, Egestas)

ARAE (Arai) (plural) Curses, Imprecations

ARETE Virtue, Excellence, Goodness, Manliness, Valour (Latin Virtus)

ATE Delusion, Infatuation, Folly, Reckless Impulse, Rash Action (Latin Nefas, Error)

BIA Force, Power, Might, Bodily Strength, Compulsion (Latin Vis)

CACIA (Kakia) Vice, Moral Badness

CAERUS (Kairos) Opportunity, Critical Time, Advantage, Profit (Latin Occasio, Tempus)

CALLEIS (Kalleis) Beauty

CALOCAGATHIA (Kalokagathia) Nobility, Nobleness, Goodness

CHARIS (Kharis) Beauty, Grace, Favour

CHARITES (Kharites) (plural) Grace, Favour, Beauty (Latin Gratiae)

COALEMUS (Koalemos) Stupidity, Foolishness

CORUS (Koros) Satiety, Surfeit, Insolence, Disdain

CRATUS (Kratos) Strength, Might, Power, Bodily Strength, Rule (Latin Potestas)

CTESIUS (Ktesios) Home, House, Domestic Property

CYDOIMUS (Kydoimos) Din of Battle, Confusion, Uproar, Hubbub

DEIMUS (Deimos) Terror-Fear, Dread (Latin Pavor, Formido)

DEMOCRACIA (Demokrakia) Democracy

DICAIOSYNE (Dikaiosyne) Justice, Righteousness

DIKE Justice, Rights by Custom & Law, Righteous Judgment (Latin Justitia)

DOLUS (Dolos) Trickery, Cunning Deception, Craftiness, Guile, Treachery (Latin Dolus)

DYSNOMIA Lawlessness, Bad Civil Constitution

DYSSEBIA Impiety, Ungodliness (Latin Impietas)

EIRENE Peace (Latin Pax)

ECECHEIRIA (Ekekheiria) Truce, Armistice, Cessation of Hostilities

ELEUS (Eleos) Pity, Mercy, Compassion (Latin Misericordia, Clemencia)

ELPIS Hope, Expectation (Latin Spes)

EPIALES Nightmare

EPIDOTES Ritual Purification

EPIPHRON Prudence, Shrewdness, Carefulness, Thoughtfulness, Sagacity

ERIS Strife, Discord, Quarrel, Contention, Rivalry, Battle-Strife (Latin Discordia)


EROS Love, Sexual Passion (Latin Amor, Cupidos)

EUCLEIA (Eukleia) Good Repute, Glory

EUDAEMONIA (Eudaimonia) Happiness

EUNOMIA Good Order, Civil Order, Good Laws, Lawful Behaviour

EUPHEME Good Words, Praise, Acclamation, Applause

EUPHROSYNE Good Cheer, Cheerfulness, Merriment, Joy, Mirth

EUPRAXIA Good Conduct

EUSEBIA Piety, Filial Respect, Loyalty (Latin Pietas)

EUTHENIA Prosperity, Abundance, Plenty

EUTHYMIA Good Cheer, Joy, Contentment

EUTYCHIA (Eutykhia) Good Fortune, Luck, Prosperity, Success (Latin Fortuna)

GELUS (Gelos) Laughter (Latin Risus)

GERAS Old Age (Latin Senectus)

HARMONIA Harmony, Marital Harmony, Concord, Union, Joining (Latin Concordia)

HEBE Youth, Youthful Prime (Latin Juventas)

HEDONE Pleasure, Enjoyment, Delight, Sensual Pleasures (Latin Voluptas)

HEDYLOGUS (Hedylogos) Sweet talk, Flatter

HESYCHIA (Hesykhia) Quiet, Rest, Silence, Stillness (Latin Quies, Silentia)

HIMERUS (Himeros) Sexual Desire, Longing, Yearning

HOMADUS (Homados) Din of Battle, Battle-Noise, Tumult

HOMONOEA (Homonoia) Concord, Unanimity, Oneness of Mind (Latin Concordia)

HORCUS (Horkos) Oath, Punishment of Perjury (Latin Jusjurandum)

HORMES Effort, Impulse to Do, Setting Oneself in Motion, Eagerness, Starting Action

HYBRIS Insolence, Violence, Excessive Pride, Wantonness, Outrageous Behaviour (Latin Petulantia, Superbia)

HYGEIA Good Health (Latin Salus)

HYPNUS (Hypnos) Sleep, Sleepiness (Latin Somnus)

HYSMINAE (Hysminai) (plural) Fighting, Fights, Fist-Fights, Combat (Latin Pugna)

IOKE Onslaught, Battle-Tumult, Pursuit, Rout

KERES (plural) Death, Doom of Death, Plague (Latin Letum, Tenebrae)

LETHE Forgetfulness, Oblivion (Latin Oblivio, Letum)

LIMUS (Limos) Hunger, Famine, Starvation (Latin Fames)

LITAE (Litai) (plural) Prayer, Entreaty

LUPE Pain of Body, Pain of Mind, Grief (Latin Dolor)

LYSSA Rage, Martial Rage, Fury, Raging Madness, Frenzy, Rabies (Latin Ira, Furor, Rabies)

MACHAE (Makhai) (plural) Battle, Combat

MANIAE (Maniai) (plural) Madness, Crazed Frenzy, Insanity (Latin Insania)

METHE Drunkenness, Inebriety

MNEMOSYNE Memory (Latin Moneta)

MOIRAE (Moirai) (plural) Fate, Destiny, Portion (Latin Parca, Parcae)

MOMUS (Momos) Mockery, Ridicule, Blame, Reproach, Stinging Criticism (Latin Querella)

MORUS (Moros) Fate, Destiny, Doom, Death (Latin Fatum)

MUSICA (Mousika) Music

NEICEA (Neikea) (plural) Quarrel, Feud, Grievance (Latin Altercatio)

NEMESIS Righteous Indignation, Distribution of Dues, Jealousy, Wrath (Latin Invidia)

NIKE Victory (Latin Victoria)

NOMUS (Nomos) Law, Laws, Ordinances, Statutes

NOSI (Nosoi) (plural) Sickness, Disease, Plague (Latin Morbus)

OIZYS Woe, Misery (Latin Miseria, Tristitia)

OLETHRUS (Olethros) Day of Doom, Destruction, Death

ONEIRI (Oneiroi) (plural) Dream, Dreams (Latin Somnium, Somnia)

OSSA Rumour (Latin Fama)

PALIOXIS Backrush, Flight, Retreat in Battle

PAREGOROS Comfort, Consolation, Soothing Words (Latin Consolatio)

PEITHARCHIA (Peitharkhia) Obedience to Command

PEITHO Persuasion, Suasion, Seduction (Latin Suadela)

PENIA Poverty, Need, Penury

PENTHUS (Penthos) Grief, Sorrow, Mourning, Misery (Latin Luctus)

PHEME Rumour, Report, Common Talk, Gossip, Fame, Reputation (Latin Fama)

PHILIA Affectionate Regard, Friendship (Latin Amicitia, Gratia)

PHILOPHROSYNE Friendliness, Kindliness, Welcome

PHILOTES Friendship, Love, Affection, Sex (Latin Amicitia, Gratia)

PHOBUS (Phobos) Panic-Fear, Flight, Rout (Latin Metus, Terror, Fuga)

PHONI (Phonoi) (plural) Murder, Killing, Slaughter

PHRICE (Phrike) Horror (Latin Horror)

PHTHISIS Wasting Away, Perishing, Decay (Latin Tabes)

PHTHONUS (Phthonos) Envy, Jealousy, Ill-Will, Malice (Latin Invidia)

PHYGE Flight, Escape, Flight from Battle, Exile, Banishment (Latin Fuga)

PISTIS Trust, Honesty, Faith, Trustworthiness (Latin Fides)

PLUTUS (Ploutos) Wealth

POINAE (Poinai) (plural) Retribution, Vengeance, Recompense, Punishment, Penalty, Bloodmoney (for murder and manslaughter) (Latin Ultio)

POLEMUS (Polemos) War, Battle

POMPE Religious Procession

PONUS (Ponos) Hard Work, Toil, Labour (Latin Labor)

PORUS (Poros) Expediency, Means of Accomplishing or Providing, Contivance, Device

POTHUS (Pothos) Sexual Longing, Yearning

PRAXIDICAE (Praxidikai) Exacting Justice

PRAXIDIKE Exacting Justice, Exacting Penalties

PROIOXIS Onrush, Pursuit in Battle

PROPHASIS Excuse, Plea

PSEUDOLOGI (Pseudologoi) (plural) Lies, Lying Words, Falsehood (Latin Mendacium)

PTOCHEIA (Ptokheia) Beggary


SOPHROSYNE Moderation, Temperence, Self-Control, Prudence, Discretion (Latin Continentia, Sobrietas)

SOTER Safety, Deliverance & Preservation from Harm

SOTERIA Safety, Deliverance & Preservation from Harm

TECHNE (Tekhne) Art, Craft, Technical Skill

TELETE Consecration, Initiation

THALIA Festivity, Banquet

THANATUS (Thanatos) Death (Latin Mors, Letus)

THRASUS (Thrasos) Overboldness, Rashness, Insolence

TYCHE (Tykhe) Fortune, Chance, Providence, Fate (Latin Fortuna)

ZELUS (1) (Zelos) Rivalry, Zeal, Emulation, Ambition, Envy

ZELUS (2) (Zelos) Jealousy, Envy


The following Latin personifications appear in the works of poets and writers such as Ovid, Virgil, Cicero, Statius, Seneca, Apuleius and Hyginus.

ALTERCATIO Altercation, Dispute, Debate (Greek Amphilogia, Neicus)

AMICITIA Friendship (Greek Philotes, Philia)

AMOR Love (Greek Eros)

ARDOR Ardour, Heat of Passion, Ardent Desire (Greek Pothus)

BELLA War (Greek Enyo)

BONUS EVENTUS Good Fortune, Success

CLEMENCIA Clemency, Mercy (Greek Eleus)

CONCORDIA Concord, Harmony, Agreeing Together (Greek Harmonia, Homonoia)

CONSOLATIO Consolation, Comfort (Greek Paregoros)

CONSUETUDO Habit, Custom

CONTINENTIA Continence, Temperence, Moderation (Greek Sophrosyne)

CURA Care, Worry

DISCORDIA Discord, Strife, Dissension, Disagreement (Greek Eris)

DOLOR Pain (of body and mind), Ache, Distress, Grief, Sorrow, Anguish, Trouble (Greek Algos, Ania, Achos)

DOLUS Guile, Trickery, Cunning Deception (Greek Dolus)

EGESTAS Want (Gree Aporia)

ERROR Error (Greek Ate)

FAMA Rumour, Report, Common Talk, Gossip, Fame, Infamy (Greek Pheme, Ossa)

FAMES Hunger, Famine (Greek Limus)

FATUM Fate, Destiny, Fated Death (Greek Morus)

FIDES Trust, Faith (Greek Pistis)

FORTUNA, FORS Fortune, Chance, Luck, Fate (Greek Tyche)

FRAUS Cheating, Deceit, Fraud (Greek Apate)

FUGA Flight, Escape, Flight from Battle, Exile (Greek Phyge)

FUROR Rage, Madness, Fury (Greek Lyssa)

GRATIA Favour, Esteem, Regard, Liking, Love, Friendship (Greek Philotes, Charis)

GRATIAE (plural) Grace, Favour, Regard, Friendship (Greek Charites)

HORROR Horror, Shivering Fear, Trembling Fear (Greek Phrice)

IGNAVIA Laziness, Idleness, Sloth (Greek Aergia)

IMPETUS Attack, Assault, Violent Impulse, Rapid Motion, Impetus, Impulse

IMPIETAS Impiety (Greek Dyssebia)

INCESTUM (i) Religious Impurity, Uncleanliness, Pollution, Defilement (ii) Sexually Impure, Unchaste, Lewd, Lustful, Incestuous

INSANIA Insanity, Madness, Frenzy (Greek Mania)


INVIDIA Envy, Jealousy, Ill-Will (Greek Nemesis, Phthonus, Zelus)

INVIDENTIA Envy, Jealousy, Ill-Will (Greek Nemesis)

IRAE (plural) Anger, Wrath, Rage, Ire (Greek Lyssa)

JUSJURANDUM Oath (Greek Horcus)

JUSTITIA Justice, Equity, Righteousness (Greek Dike)

JUVENTAS Youth (Greek Hebe)

LABOR Labour, Toil, Exertion (Greek Ponus)

LETUM Death, Destruction (Greek Ker)

LETUS Death (Greek Thanatus)

LUCTUS Lamentation, Mourning, Grief, Sorrow (Greek Penthus)

LUES Plague, Pestilence, Spreading Evil or Calamity (Greek Ker, Nosus)

MACIES Wasting, Thinness, Leanness, Meagreness (Greek Ischnasia)


MENDACIUM Lie, Untruth, Falsehood (Greek Pseudologus)

METUS Fear, Dread, Terror, Apprehension, Anxiety (Greek Phobus)

MISERIA Misery, Wretchedness, Unhappiness, Distress (Greek Oizys)

MISERICORDIA Pity, Compassion, Mercy (Greek Eleus)

MONETA Memory (Greek Mnemosyne)

MORBUS Disease, Sickness, Plague, Illness, Malady (Greek Nosi)

MORS Death (Greek Thanatus)

NECESSITAS Necessity (Greek Anance)

NEFAS Sin, Unlawfulness, Impiety, Criminality, Wickedness (Greek Cacia)

OBLIVIO Forgetfulness, Oblivion (Greek Lethe)

OCCASIO Opportunity, Occasion (Greek Caerus)

OTIA Ease, Liesure (Greek Acratus)

PARCAE (plural) Portion, Share, Fate, Destiny (Greek Moira, Moirae)

PAVOR Fear, Dread, Anxiety, Panic (Greek Phobus)

PAX Peace (Greek Eirene)

PERTINACIA Obstinacy, Stubbornness, Pertinacity, Perserverence

PESTIS Pestilence, Contagious Disease, Destruction, Ruin (Greek Olethrus, Ker)

PETULANTIA Impudence, Sauciness, Freakishness, Wantonness, Petulance (Greek Hybris)

PIETAS Piety, Filial Respect, Duty, Loyalty (Greek Eusebia)

POENA Penalty, Vengeance, Punishment, Expiation, Compensation (Greek Poine)

POTESTAS Power, Rule, Dominion (Greek Cratus)

PUDICITIA Modesty, Chastity, Virtue, Shame (Greek Aedus, Aischyne)

PUDOR Shame (Greek Aedus)

PUGNA Fight, Fist-Fight, Battle (Greek Hysmina)

QUERELLA Complaint (Greek Momus)

QUIES Quiet, Rest (Greek Hesychia)

RABIES Rage, Madness, Anger, Fury, Frenzy, Rabies (Greek Lyssa)

RISUS Laughter, Joke (Greek Gelus)

SALUS Good Health (Greek Hygeia)


SENECTUS Old Age (Greek Geras)

SILENTIA Silence, Stillness (Greek Hesychia)

SOBRIETAS Sobriety, Temperance, Moderation, Continence (Greek Sophrosyne)

SOCORDIA Sloth, Laziness, Indolence, Inactivity, Carelessness, Negligence (Greek Aergia)

SOLLICITATIO Vexation, Anxiety

SOMNIA (plural) Dream, Dreams (Greek Oneirus, Oneiri)

SOMNUS Sleep (Greek Hypnus)

SOPOR Sleep (Greek Hypnus)

SPES Hope (Greek Elpis)

SUADELA, SUADA Persuasion (Greek Peitho)

SUPERBIA Pride, Arrogance, Loftiness, Haughtiness (Greek Hybris)

TABES Wasting Away, Wasting Disease, Corruption, Putrefaction (Greek Phthisis)

TEMPUS Temporary Time (Greek Caerus)

TENEBRAE Darkness, Darkness-of-Death, Death-Shades (Greek Keres)

TRISTITIA Sadness, Mournfulness, Sorrow, Dejection, Melancholy, Gloominess (Greek Oizys)

ULTIO Vengeance, Revenge (Greek Poena)

VERITAS Truth, Truthfulness, Verity, Integrity (Greek Aletheia)

VETUSTAS Ancient Times, Antiquity

VICTORIA Victory (Greek Nike)

VIRTUS Virtue, Manliness, Courage, Bravery, Excellence (Greek Arete)

VIS Force, Power, Hostile Strength (Greek Bia)

VOLUPTAS Pleasure, Enjoyment, Delight (Greek Hedone)


Hesiod, Theogony 211 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) :
"Nyx (Night) bare hateful Moros (Doom of Death) and black Ker (Fate of Death) and Thanatos (Death), and she bare Hypnos (Sleep) and the tribe of Oneiroi (Dreams). And again the goddess murky Nyx, though she lay with none, bare Momos (Criticism) and painful Oizys (Misery) , and the Hesperides (Evenings) . . . Also she bare the Moirai (Fates) and the ruthless avenging Keres (Deaths) . . . Also deadly Nyx bare Nemesis to afflict mortal men, and after her, Apate (Deceit) and Philotes (Sex) and hateful Geras (Old Age) and hard-hearted Eris (Strife).
But abhorred Eris (Strife) bare painful Ponos (Toil), and Lethe (Forgetfulness), and Limos (Starvation), and the Algea (Pains), full of weeping, the Hysminai (Fightings) and the Makhai (Battles), the Phonoi (Murders) and the Androktasiai (Man-slaughters), the Neikea (Quarrels), the Pseudo-Logoi (Lies), the Amphilogiai (Disputes), and Dysnomia (Lawlessness) and Ate (Ruin), who share one another's natures, and Horkos (Oath) who does more damage than any other to earthly men, when anyone, of his knowledge, swears to a false oath."

Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) :
"From Nox (Night) and Erebus [were born]: Fatum (Fate), Senectus (Old Age), Mors (Death), Letum (Dissolution), Continentia (Continence), Somnus (Sleep), Somnia (Dreams), Amor--that is Lysimeles, Epiphron, Porphyrion, Epaphus, Discordia (Discord), Miseria (Wretchedness), Petulantia (Wantonness), Nemesis, Euphrosyne, Amicitia (Friendship), Misericordia (Compassion), Styx; the three Parcae (Fates), namely Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos; the Hesperides Aegle, Hesperie and Aerica . . .
From Aether and Terra (Earth) [were born]: Dolor (Grief), Dolus (Deceit), Ira (Wrath), Luctus (Lamentation), Mendacium (Falsehood), Jusiurandum (Oath), Vltio (Vengeance), Intemperantia (Intemperance), Altercatio (Altercation), Obliuio (Forgetfulness), Socordia (Sloth), Timor (Fear), Superbia (Pride), Incestum (Incest), Pugna (Combat)."

Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 17 (trans. Rackham) :
"Aether (Upper Air) and Dies (Day), must be held to be gods, and their brothers and sisters, whom the ancient genealogists name Amor (Love), Dolus (Guile), Metus (Fear), Labor (Toil), Invidentia (Envy), Fatum (Fate), Senectus (Old Age), Mors (Death), Tenebrae (Darkness of Death), Miseria (Misery), Querella (Criticism), Gratia (Friendship), Fraus (Deceit), Pertinacia (Obstinacy), the Parcae (Fates), the Hesperides, the Somnia (Dreams) : all of these are fabled to be the children of Erebus (Darkness) and Nox (Night)."