HESIOD, CATALOGUES OF WOMEN
HESIOD was a Greek epic poet who flourished in Boeotia in the C8th B.C. He was alongside Homer the most respected of the old Greek poets. His works included a poem titled the Theogony, a cosmological work describing the origins and genealogy of the gods, Works and Days, on the subjects of farming, morality and country life, and a large number of lost or now fragmentary poems including the Catalogues of Women, Eoiae, and Astronomy.
Hesiod, Homeric Hymns, Epic Cycle, Homerica. Translated by Evelyn-White, H G. Loeb Classical Library Volume 57. London: William Heinemann, 1914.
The Evelyn-White volume is no longer in print but second-hand copies might be obtained from Amazon.com sellers (click on image right for details). In addition to the Theogony the volume also contains Hesiod's Works and Days, Shield of Heracles, Hesiodic fragments, Homeric Hymns, and fragments of Epic Cycle poems.
Hesiod's great mythological compendium, The Catalogues of Women, is no longer extant. However, the Loeb edition of Hesiod compiled and translated by Evelyn-White, presents a compilation of references to the work by ancient writers, as well as papyri fragments preserving sections of the text. A later compilation of myths known as the Library of Apollodorus is thought to follow the same content-structure as Hesiod's Catalogues, albeit drawing on many additional sources for its material.
Since the publication of this Loeb volume many additional papyri fragments of the Catalogues have been discovered. A recently published commentary on the work by Martina Hirschberger is reviewed in the Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2005.02.31. The two recent English-language commentaries with translations of Catalogues fragments are listed in the book list (column right): M.L. West (1985) and R. Hunter (2005). An overview of the latter can be found on the University of Cambridge website.
CATALOGUES OF WOMEN FRAGMENTS, TRANSLATED BY H. G. EVELYN-WHITE
FRAGMENT 1 - DEUCALION
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iii. 1086:
That Deucalion was the son of Prometheus and Pronoea, Hesiod states in the first Catalogue, as also that Hellen was the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha.
FRAGMENT 2 - GRAECUS
Ioannes Lydus,1 de Mens. i. 13:
They came to call those who followed local manners Latins, but those who followed Hellenic customs Greeks, after the brothers Latinus and Graecus; as Hesiod says: "And in the palace Pandora the daughter of noble Deucalion was joined in love with father Zeus, leader of all the gods, and bare Graecus, staunch in battle."
FRAGMENT 3 - MAGNES AND MACEDON
Constantinus Porphyrogenitus,2 de Them. 2 p. 48B:
The district Macedonia took its name from Macedon the son of Zeus and Thyia, Deucalion's daughter, as Hesiod says: "And she conceived and bare to Zeus who delights in the thunderbolt two sons, Magnes and Macedon, rejoicing in horses, who dwell round about Pieria and Olympus ((lacuna)) . . . And Magnes again (begot) Dictys and godlike Polydectes."
FRAGMENT 4 - DEUCALIONIDES
Plutarch, Mor. p. 747; Schol. on Pindar Pyth. iv. 263:
"And from Hellen the war-loving king sprang Dorus and Xuthus and Aeolus delighting in horses. And the sons of Aeolus, kings dealing justice, were Cretheus, and Athamas, and clever Sisyphus, and wicked Salmoneus and overbold Perieres."
FRAGMENT 5 - DEUCALIONIDES
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 266:
Those who were descended from Deucalion used to rule over Thessaly as Hecataeus and Hesiod say.
FRAGMENT 6 - ALOADAE
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 482:
Aloiadae. Hesiod said that they were sons of Aloeus, -- called so after him, -- and of Iphimedea, but in reality sons of Poseidon and Iphimedea, and that Alus a city of Aetolia was founded by their father.
FRAGMENT 7 - BELLEROPHON
Berlin Papyri, No. 7497; Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 421: 3
(ll. 1-24) "....Eurynome the daughter of Nisus, Pandion's son, to whom Pallas Athene taught all her art, both wit and wisdom too; for she was as wise as the gods. A marvellous scent rose from her silvern raiment as she moved, and beauty was wafted from her eyes. Her, then, Glaucus sought to win by Athena's advising, and he drove oxen4 for her. But he knew not at all the intent of Zeus who holds the aegis. So Glaucus came seeking her to wife with gifts; but cloud-driving Zeus, king of the deathless gods, bent his head in oath that the . . . son of Sisyphus should never have children born of one father.5 So she lay in the arms of Poseidon and bare in the house of Glaucus blameless Bellerophon, surpassing all men in . . . over the boundless sea. And when he began to roam, his father gave him Pegasus who would bear him most swiftly on his wings, and flew unwearying everywhere over the earth, for like the gales he would course along. With him Bellerophon caught and slew the fire-breathing Chimera. And he wedded the dear child of the great-hearted Iobates, the worshipful king . . . lord (of) . . . and she bare . . "
FRAGMENT 8 - ENDYMION
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodes, Arg. iv. 57:
Hesiod says that Endymion was the son of Aethlius the son of Zeus and Calyce, and received the gift from Zeus: "(To be) keeper of death for his own self when he was ready to die."
FRAGMENT 9 - MOLIONIDES
Scholiast Ven. on Homer, Il. xi. 750:
The two sons of Actor and Molione... Hesiod has given their descent by calling them after Actor and Molione; but their father was Poseidon.
Porphyrius,6 Quaest. Hom. ad Iliad. pert., 265:
But Aristarchus is informed that they were twins, not . . . such as were the Dioscuri, but, on Hesiod's testimony, double in form and with two bodies and joined to one another.
FRAGMENT 10 - PERICLYMENUS
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 156:
But Hesiod says that he changed himself in one of his wonted shapes and perched on the yoke-boss of Heracles' horses, meaning to fight with the hero; but that Heracles, secretly instructed by Athena, wounded him mortally with an arrow. And he says as follows: " . . . and lordly Periclymenus. Happy he! For earth-shaking Poseidon gave him all manner of gifts. At one time he would appear among birds, an eagle; and again at another he would be an ant, a marvel to see; and then a shining swarm of bees; and again at another time a dread relentless snake. And he possessed all manner of gifts which cannot he told, and these then ensnared him through the devising of Athene."
FRAGMENT 11 - NESTOR
Stephanus of Byzantium,7 s.v.:
"(Heracles) slew the noble sons of steadfast Neleus, eleven of them; but the twelfth, the horsemen Gerenian Nestor chanced to be staying with the horse-taming Gerenians ((lacuna)) . . . Nestor alone escaped in flowery Gerenon."
FRAGMENT 12 - TELEMACHUS
Eustathius,8 Hom. 1796.39:
"So well-girded Polycaste, the youngest daughter of Nestor, Neleus' son, was joined in love with Telemachus through golden Aphrodite and bare Persepolis."
FRAGMENT 13 - JASON
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 69:
Tyro the daughter of Salmoneus, having two sons by Poseidon, Neleus and Pelias, married Cretheus, and had by him three sons, Aeson, Pheres and Amythaon. And of Aeson and Polymede, according to Hesiod, Iason was born: "Aeson, who begot a son Iason, shepherd of the people, whom Chiron brought up in woody Pelion."
FRAGMENT 14 - ATALANTA
Petrie Papyri (ed. Mahaffy), Pl. III. 3:
" . . . of the glorious lord . . . fair Atalanta, swift of foot, the daughter of Schoeneus, who had the beaming eyes of the Graces, though she was ripe for wedlock rejected the company of her equals and sought to avoid marriage with men who eat bread."
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad xxiii. 683:
Hesiod is therefore later in date than Homer since he represents Hippomenes as stripped when contending with Atalanta.9
Papiri greci e latini, ii. No. 130 (2nd-3rd century):10
"(ll. 1-7) Then straightway there rose up against him the trim-ankled maiden (Atalanta), peerless in beauty: a great throng stood round about her as she gazed fiercely, and wonder held all men as they looked upon her. As she moved, the breath of the west wind stirred the shining garment about her tender bosom; but Hippomenes stood where he was: and much people was gathered together. All these kept silence; but Schoeneus cried and said:
(ll. 8-20) ‘Hear me all, both young and old, while I speak as my spirit within my breast bids me. Hippomenes seeks my coy-eyed daughter to wife; but let him now hear my wholesome speech. He shall not win her without contest; yet, if he be victorious and escape death, and if the deathless gods who dwell on Olympus grant him to win renown, verily he shall return to his dear native land, and I will give him my dear child and strong, swift- footed horses besides which he shall lead home to be cherished possessions; and may he rejoice in heart possessing these, and ever remember with gladness the painful contest. May the father of men and of gods (grant that splendid children may be born to him)11 ((lacuna)) . . . ’
(ll. 21-27) on the right . . . and he, rushing upon her . . . drawing back slightly towards the left. And on them was laid an unenviable struggle: for she, even fair, swift-footed Atalanta, ran scorning the gifts of golden Aphrodite; but with him the race was for his life, either to find his doom, or to escape it. Therefore with thoughts of guile he said to her:
(ll. 28-29) ‘O daughter of Schoeneus, pitiless in heart, receive these glorious gifts of the goddess, golden Aphrodite ((lacuna)) . . . ’
(ll. 30-36) But he, following lightly on his feet, cast the first apple:12 and, swiftly as a Harpy, she turned back and snatched it. Then he cast the second to the ground with his hand. And now fair, swift-footed Atalanta had two apples and was near the goal; but Hippomenes cast the third apple to the ground, and therewith escaped death and black fate. And he stood panting and . . . "
FRAGMENT 15 - ARABUS
Strabo,13 i. p. 42:
"And the daughter of Arabus, whom worthy Hermaon begat with Thronia, daughter of the lord Belus."
FRAGMENT 16 - DANAUS
Eustathius, Hom. 461. 2:
"Argos which was waterless Danaus made well-watered.'
FRAGMENT 17 - AEGYPTUS
Hecataeus14 in Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes, 872:
Aegyptus himself did not go to Argos, but sent his sons, fifty in number, as Hesiod represented.
FRAGMENT 1815 - PROETIDES
Strabo, viii. p. 370:
And Apollodorus says that Hesiod already knew that the whole people were called both Hellenes and Panhellenes, as when he says of the daughters of Proetus that the Panhellenes sought them in marriage.
Apollodorus, ii. 2.1.4:
Acrisius was king of Argos and Proetus of Tiryns. And Acrisius had by Eurydice the daughter of Lacedemon, Danae; and Proetus by Stheneboea "Lysippe and Iphinoe and Iphianassa'. And these fell mad, as Hesiod states, because they would not receive the rites of Dionysus.
Probus16 on Vergil, Eclogue vi. 48:
These (the daughters of Proetus), because they had scorned the divinity of Juno, were overcome with madness, such that they believed they had been turned into cows, and left Argos their own
country. Afterwards they were cured by Melampus, the son of Amythaon.
"Because of their hideous wantonness they lost their tender beauty....'
Eustathius, Hom. 1746.7:
"....For he shed upon their heads a fearful itch: and leprosy covered all their flesh, and their hair dropped from their heads, and their fair scalps were made bare.'
FRAGMENT 19A - EUROPA AND SARPEDON
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358 fr. 1 (3rd cent. A.D.):17
"(ll. 1-32) ....So she (Europa) crossed the briny water from afar to Crete, beguiled by the wiles of Zeus. Secretly did the Father snatch her away and gave her a gift, the golden necklace, the toy which Hephaestus the famed craftsman once made by his cunning skill and brought and gave it to his father for a possession. And Zeus received the gift, and gave it in turn to the daughter of proud Phoenix. But when the Father of men and of gods had mated so far off with trim-ankled Europa, then he departed back again from the rich-haired girl. So she bare sons to the almighty Son of Cronos, glorious leaders of wealthy men -- Minos the ruler, and just Rhadamanthys and noble Sarpedon the blameless and strong. To these did wise Zeus give each a share of his honour.
Verily Sarpedon reigned mightily over wide Lycia and ruled very many cities filled with people, wielding the sceptre of Zeus: and great honour followed him, which his father gave him, the great-hearted shepherd of the people. For wise Zeus ordained that he should live for three generations of mortal men and not waste away with old age. He sent him to Troy; and Sarpedon gathered a great host, men chosen out of Lycia to be allies to the Trojans. These men did Sarpedon lead, skilled in bitter war. And Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, sent him forth from heaven a star, showing tokens for the return of his dear son . . . for well he (Sarpedon) knew in his heart that the sign was indeed from Zeus. Very greatly did he excel in war together with man-slaying Hector and brake down the wall, bringing woes upon the Danaans. But so soon as Patroclus had inspired the Argives with hard courage . . ."
FRAGMENT 19 - EUROPA
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xii. 292:
Zeus saw Europa the daughter of Phoenix gathering flowers in a meadow with some nymphs and fell in love with her. So he came down and changed himself into a bull and breathed from his mouth a crocus.18 In this way he deceived Europa, carried her off and crossed the sea to Crete where he had intercourse with her. Then in this condition he made her live with Asterion the king of the Cretans. There she conceived and bore three sons, Minos, Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys. The tale is in Hesiod and Bacchylides.
FRAGMENT 20 - PHINEUS
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 178:
But according to Hesiod (Phineus) was the son of Phoenix, Agenor's son and Cassiopea.
FRAGMENT 21 - ADONIS
Apollodorus,19 iii. 14.4.1:
But Hesiod says that he (Adonis) was the son of Phoenix and Alphesiboea.
FRAGMENT 22 - DEMODOCE
Porphyrius, Quaest. Hom. ad Iliad. pert. p. 189:
As it is said in Hesiod in the "Catalogue of Women" concerning Demodoce the daughter of Agenor: "Demodoce whom very many of men on earth, mighty princes, wooed, promising splendid gifts, because of her exceeding beauty."
FRAGMENT 23 - NIOBE
Apollodorus, iii. 5.6.2:
Hesiod says that (the children of Amphion and Niobe) were ten sons and ten daughters.
Aelian,20 Var. Hist. xii. 36:
But Hesiod says they were nine boys and ten girls; -- unless after all the verses are not Hesiod but are falsely ascribed to him as are many others.
FRAGMENT 24 - OEDIPUS
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xxiii. 679:
And Hesiod says that when Oedipus had died at Thebes, Argea the daughter of Adrastus came with others to the funeral of Oedipus.
FRAGMENT 25 - TITYUS
Herodian21 in Etymologicum Magnum, p. 60, 40:
Tityos the son of Elara.
FRAGMENT 26 - ETEOCLUS
Argument: Pindar, Ol. xiv:
Cephisus is a river in Orchomenus where also the Graces are worshipped. Eteoclus the son of the river Cephisus first sacrificed to them, as Hesiod says.
Scholiast on Homer, Il. ii. 522:
"which from Lilaea spouts forth its sweet flowing water.... "
Strabo, ix. 424:
". . . And which flows on by Panopeus and through fenced Glechon and through Orchomenus, winding like a snake.'
FRAGMENT 27 - MENESTHIUS
Scholiast on Homer, Il. vii. 9:
For the father of Menesthius, Areithous was a Boeotian living at Arnae; and this is in Boeotia, as also Hesiod says.
FRAGMENT 28 - ONCHESTUS
Stephanus of Byzantium:
Onchestus: a grove.22 It is situate in the country of Haliartus and was founded by Onchestus the Boeotian, as Hesiod says.
Stephanus of Byzantium:
There is also a plain of Aega bordering on Cirrha, according to Hesiod.
FRAGMENT 30 - PELASGUS
Apollodorus, ii. 1.1.5:
But Hesiod says that Pelasgus was autochthonous.
FRAGMENT 31 - LYCAON
Strabo, v. p. 221:
That this tribe (the Pelasgi) were from Arcadia, Ephorus states on the authority of Hesiod; for he says: "Sons were born to god-like Lycaon whom Pelasgus once begot."
FRAGMENT 32 - LYCAONIDES
Stephanus of Byzantium:
Pallantium. A city of Arcadia, so named after Pallas, one of Lycaon's sons, according to Hesiod.
FRAGMENT 33 - PHELLUS
"Famous Meliboea bare Phellus the good spear-man."
Herodian, On Peculiar Diction, p. 18:
In Hesiod in the second Catalogue: "Who once hid the torch23 within."
Herodian, On Peculiar Diction, p. 42:
Hesiod in the third Catalogue writes: "And a resounding thud of feet rose up."
Apollonius Dyscolus,24 On the Pronoun, p. 125:
"And a great trouble to themselves.'
FRAGMENT 37 - THE ARGONAUTS
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 45:
Neither Homer nor Hesiod speak of Iphiclus as amongst the Argonauts.
FRAGMENT 38 - PHRIXUS
"Eratosthenes",25 Catast. xix. p. 124:
The Ram.] -- This it was that transported Phrixus and Helle. It was immortal and was given them by their mother Nephele, and had a golden fleece, as Hesiod and Pherecydes say.
FRAGMENT 39 - PHINEUS
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 181:
Hesiod in the "Great Eoiae" says that Phineus was blinded because he revealed to Phrixus the road; but in the third "Catalogue", because he preferred long life to sight. Hesiod says he had two sons, Thynus and Mariandynus.
FRAGMENT 40A - CHASE OF THE HARPIES
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358 fr. 2 (3rd cent. A.D.):28
((lacuna -- Slight remains of 7 lines)) "(ll. 8-35) (The Sons of Boreas pursued the Harpies) to the lands of the Massagetae and of the proud Half-Dog men, of the Underground-folk and of the feeble Pygmies; and to the tribes of the boundless Black-skins and the Libyans. Huge Earth bare these to Epaphus -- soothsaying people, knowing seercraft by the will of Zeus the lord of oracles, but deceivers, to the end that men whose thought passes their utterance29 might be subject to the gods and suffer harm -- Aethiopians and Libyans and mare-milking Scythians. For verily Epaphus was the child of the almighty Son of Cronos, and from him sprang the dark Libyans, and high-souled Aethiopians, and the Underground-folk and feeble Pygmies. All these are the offspring of the lord, the Loud-thunderer. Round about all these (the Sons of Boreas) sped in darting flight . . . of the well-horsed Hyperboreans -- whom Earth the all-nourishing bare far off by the tumbling streams of deep-flowing Eridanus . . . of amber, feeding her wide-scattered offspring -- and about the steep Fawn mountain and rugged Etna to the isle Ortygia and the people sprung from Laestrygon who was the son of wide-reigning Poseidon. Twice ranged the Sons of Boreas along this coast and wheeled round and about yearning to catch the Harpies, while they strove to escape and avoid them. And they sped to the tribe of the haughty Cephallenians, the people of patient-souled Odysseus whom in aftertime Calypso the queenly nymph detained for Poseidon. Then they came to the land of the lord the son of Ares . . . they heard. Yet still (the Sons of Boreas) ever pursued them with instant feet. So they (the Harpies) sped over the sea and through the fruitless air . . . "
FRAGMENT 40 - CHASE OF THE HARPIES
Strabo, vii. p. 300:
"The Aethiopians and Ligurians and mare-milking Scythians."
FRAGMENT 41 - CHASE OF THE HARPIES
Apollodorus, i. 9.21.6:
As they were being pursued, one of the Harpies fell into the river Tigris, in Peloponnesus which is now called Harpys after her. Some call this one Nicothoe, and others Aellopus. The other who was called Ocypete, or as some say Ocythoe (though Hesiod calls her Ocypus), fled down the Propontis and reached as far as to the Echinades islands which are now called because of her, Strophades (Turning Islands).
FRAGMENT 42 - CHASE OF THE HARPIES
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 297:
Hesiod also says that those with Zetes30 turned and prayed to Zeus: "There they prayed to the lord of Aenos who reigns on high." Apollonius indeed says it was Iris who made Zetes and his following turn away, but Hesiod says Hermes.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 296:
Others say (the islands) were called Strophades, because they turned there and prayed Zeus to seize the Harpies. But according to Hesiod . . . they were not killed.
FRAGMENT 43 - CHASE OF THE HARPIES
Philodemus,31 On Piety, 10:
Nor let anyone mock at Hesiod who mentions . . . or even the Troglodytes and the Pygmies.
FRAGMENT 44 - CHASE OF THE HARPIES
Strabo, i. p. 43:
No one would accuse Hesiod of ignorance though he speaks of the Half-dog people and the Great-Headed people and the Pygmies.
FRAGMENT 45 - THE ARGONAUTS
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 284:
But Hesiod says they (the Argonauts) had sailed in through the Phasis.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 259:
But Hesiod (says) . . . they came through the Ocean to Libya, and so, carrying the Argo, reached our sea.
FRAGMENT 46 - CIRCE
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iii. 311:
Apollonius, following Hesiod, says that Circe came to the island over against Tyrrhenia on the chariot of the Sun. And he called it Hesperian, because it lies toward the west.
FRAGMENT 47 - THE SIRENS
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 892:
He (Apollonius) followed Hesiod who thus names the island of the Sirens: "To the island Anthemoessa (Flowery) which the son of Cronos gave them." And their names are Thelxiope or Thelxinoe, Molpe and Aglaophonus.32
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 168:
Hence Hesiod said that they charmed even the winds.
FRAGMENT 48 - CALYPSO
Scholiast on Homer, Od. i. 85:
Hesiod says that Ogygia is within towards the west, but Ogylia lies over against Crete: "...the Ogylian sea and...the island Ogylia."
FRAGMENT 49 - PHAEACIANS
Scholiast on Homer, Od. vii. 54:
Hesiod regarded Arete as the sister of Alcinous.
FRAGMENT 50 - HIPPOSTRATUS
Scholiast on Pindar, Ol. x. 46:
Her Hippostratus (did wed), a scion of Ares, the splendid son of Phyetes, of the line of Amarynces, leader of the Epeians.
FRAGMENT 51 - OENEUS
Apollodorus, i. 8.4.1:
When Althea was dead, Oeneus married Periboea, the daughter of Hipponous. Hesiod says that she was seduced by Hippostratus the son of Amarynces and that her father Hipponous sent her from Olenus in Achaea to Oeneus because he was far away from Hellas, bidding him kill her. "She used to dwell on the cliff of Olenus by the banks of wide Peirus."
FRAGMENT 52 - MACAREUS
Diodorus33 v. 81:
Macareus was a son of Crinacus the son of Zeus as Hesiod says... and dwelt in Olenus in the country then called Ionian, but now Achaean.
FRAGMENT 53 - AEACUS
Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. ii. 21:
Concerning the Myrmidons Hesiod speaks thus: "And she conceived and bare Aeacus, delighting in horses. Now when he came to the full measure of desired youth, he chafed at being alone. And the father of men and gods made all the ants that were in the lovely isle into men and wide-girdled women. These were the first who fitted with thwarts ships with curved sides, and the first who used sails, the wings of a sea-going ship."
FRAGMENT 54 - AEACUS
Polybius, v. 2:
"The sons of Aeacus who rejoiced in battle as though a feast."
FRAGMENT 55 - PELEUS AND ACASTUS
Porphyrius, Quaest. Hom. ad Iliad. pertin. p. 93:
He has indicated the shameful deed briefly by the phrase "to lie with her against her will", and not like Hesiod who recounts at length the story of Peleus and the wife of Acastus.
FRAGMENT 56 - PELEUS AND ACASTUS
Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. iv. 95:
"And this seemed to him (Acastus) in his mind the best plan; to keep back himself, but to hide beyond guessing the beautiful knife which the very famous Lame One had made for him, that in seeking it alone over steep Pelion, he (Peleus) might be slain forthwith by the mountain-bred Centaurs."
FRAGMENT 57 - PELEUS AND THETIS
Voll. Herculan. (Papyri from Herculaneum), 2nd Collection, viii.105:
The author of the Cypria34 says that Thetis avoided wedlock with Zeus to please Hera; but that Zeus was angry and swore that she should mate with a mortal. Hesiod also has the like account.
FRAGMENT 58 - PELEUS AND THETIS
Strassburg Greek Papyri 55 (2nd century A.D.):
"(ll. 1-13) Peleus the son of Aeacus, dear to the deathless gods, came to Phthia the mother of flocks, bringing great possessions from spacious Iolcus. And all the people envied him in their hearts seeing how he had sacked the well-built city, and accomplished his joyous marriage; and they all spake this word: ‘Thrice, yea, four times blessed son of Aeacus, happy Peleus! For far-seeing Olympian Zeus has given you a wife with many gifts and the blessed gods have brought your marriage fully to pass, and in these halls you go up to the holy bed of a daughter of Nereus. Truly the father, the son of Cronos, made you very pre- eminent among heroes and honoured above other men who eat bread and consume the fruit of the ground.’"
FRAGMENT 5935 - PELEUS AND THETIS
Origen, Against Celsus, iv. 79:
"For in common then were the banquets, and in common the seats of deathless gods and mortal men."
FRAGMENT 60 - POLYDORA
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xvi. 175:
...whereas Hesiod and the rest call her (Peleus' daughter) Polydora.
FRAGMENT 61 - PATROCLUS
Eustathius, Hom. 112. 44 sq:
It should be observed that the ancient narrative hands down the account that Patroclus was even a kinsman of Achilles; for Hesiod says that Menoethius the father of Patroclus, was a brother of Peleus, so that in that case they were first cousins.
FRAGMENT 62 - HALLIRHOTHIUS
Scholiast on Pindar, Ol. x. 83:
Some write "Serus the son of Halirrhothius", whom Hesiod mentions: "He (begot) Serus and Alazygus, goodly sons." And Serus was the son of Halirrhothius Perieres' son, and of Alcyone.
FRAGMENT 63 - ASCLEPIUS
Pausanias,36 ii. 26. 7:
This oracle most clearly proves that Asclepius was not the son of Arsinoe, but that Hesiod or one of Hesiod's interpolators composed the verses to please the Messenians.
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iii. 14:
Some say (Asclepius) was the son of Arsinoe, others of Coronis. But Asclepiades says that Arsinoe was the daughter of Leucippus, Perieres' son, and that to her and Apollo Asclepius and a daughter, Eriopis, were born: "And she bare in the palace Asclepius, leader of men, and Eriopis with the lovely hair, being subject in love to Phoebus.'
And of Arsinoe likewise: "And Arsinoe was joined with the son of Zeus and Leto and bare a son Asclepius, blameless and strong." 37
FRAGMENT 67 - TYNDAREUS
Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes 249:
Steischorus says that while sacrificing to the gods Tyndareus forgot Aphrodite and that the goddess was angry and made his daughters twice and thrice wed and deserters of their husbands . . . And Hesiod also says:
"(ll. 1-7) "And laughter-loving Aphrodite felt jealous when she looked on them and cast them into evil report. Then Timandra deserted Echemus and went and came to Phyleus, dear to the deathless gods; and even so Clytaemnestra deserted god-like Agamemnon and lay with Aegisthus and chose a worse mate; and even so Helen dishonoured the couch of golden-haired Menelaus."
FRAGMENT 6838 - SUITORS OF HELEN
Berlin Papyri, No. 9739:
"(ll. 1-10) . . . Philoctetes sought her, a leader of spearmen, . . . most famous of all men at shooting from afar and with the sharp spear. And he came to Tyndareus' bright city for the sake of the Argive maid who had the beauty of golden Aphrodite, and the sparkling eyes of the Graces; and the dark-faced daughter of Ocean, very lovely of form, bare her when she had shared the embraces of Zeus and the king Tyndareus in the bright palace . . . (And . . . sought her to wife offering as gifts)
(ll. 11-15) ((lacuna) . . . and as many women skilled in blameless arts, each holding a golden bowl in her hands. And truly Castor and strong Polydeuces would have made him39 their brother perforce, but Agamemnon, being son-in-law to Tyndareus, wooed her for his brother Menelaus.
(ll. 16-19) And the two sons of Amphiaraus the lord, Oecleus' son, sought her to wife from Argos very near at hand; yet . . . fear of the blessed gods and the indignation of men caused them also to fail.
(l. 20) ((lacuna)) . . . but there was no deceitful dealing in the sons of Tyndareus.
(ll. 21-27) And from Ithaca the sacred might of Odysseus, Laertes son, who knew many-fashioned wiles, sought her to wife. He never sent gifts for the sake of the neat-ankled maid, for he knew in his heart that golden-haired Menelaus would win, since he was greatest of the Achaeans in possessions and was ever sending messages40 to horse-taming Castor and prize-winning Polydeuces.
(ll. 28-30) And . . . on's son sought her to wife (and brought) . . . bridal-gifts . . . cauldrons ((lacuna)) . . .
(ll. 31-33) to horse-taming Castor and prize-winning Polydeuces, desiring to be the husband of rich-haired Helen, though he had never seen her beauty, but because he heard the report of others.
(ll. 34-42) And from Phylace two men of exceeding worth sought her to wife, Podarces son of Iphiclus, Phylacus' son, and Actor's noble son, overbearing Protesilaus. Both of them kept sending messages to Lacedaemon, to the house of wise Tyndareus, Oebalus' son, and they offered many bridal-gifts, for great was the girl's renown, brazen . . . golden ((lacuna)) . . . (desiring) to be the husband of rich-haired Helen.
(ll. 43-49) From Athens the son of Peteous, Menestheus, sought her to wife, and offered many bridal-gifts; for he possessed very many stored treasures, gold and cauldrons and tripods, fine things which lay hid in the house of the lord Peteous, and with them his heart urged him to win his bride by giving more gifts than any other; for he thought that no one of all the heroes would surpass him in possessions and gifts.
(ll. 50-51) There came also by ship from Crete to the house of the son of Oebalus strong Lycomedes for rich-haired Helen's sake.
Berlin Papyri, No. 10560:
(ll. 52-54) . . . sought her to wife. And after golden-haired Menelaus he offered the greatest gifts of all the suitors, and very much he desired in his heart to be the husband of Argive Helen with the rich hair.
(ll. 55-62) And from Salamis Aias, blameless warrior, sought her to wife, and offered fitting gifts, even wonderful deeds; for he said that he would drive together and give the shambling oxen and strong sheep of all those who lived in Troezen and Epidaurus near the sea, and in the island of Aegina and in Mases, sons of the Achaeans, and shadowy Megara and frowning Corinthus, and Hermione and Asine which lie along the sea; for he was famous with the long spear.
(ll. 63-66) But from Euboea Elephenor, leader of men, the son of Chalcodon, prince of the bold Abantes, sought her to wife. And he offered very many gifts, and greatly he desired in his heart to be the husband of rich-haired Helen.
(ll. 67-74) And from Crete the mighty Idomeneus sought her to wife, Deucalion's son, offspring of renowned Minos. He sent no one to woo her in his place, but came himself in his black ship of many thwarts over the Ogylian sea across the dark wave to the home of wise Tyndareus, to see Argive Helen and that no one else should bring back for him the girl whose renown spread all over the holy earth.
(lI. 75) And at the prompting of Zeus the all-wise came. ((lacuna -- Thirteen lines lost.)) . . .
(ll. 89-100) But of all who came for the maid's sake, the lord Tyndareus sent none away, nor yet received the gift of any, but asked of all the suitors sure oaths, and bade them swear and vow with unmixed libations that no one else henceforth should do aught apart from him as touching the marriage of the maid with shapely arms; but if any man should cast off fear and reverence and take her by force, he bade all the others together follow after and make him pay the penalty. And they, each of them hoping to accomplish his marriage, obeyed him without wavering. But warlike Menelaus, the son of Atreus, prevailed against them all together, because he gave the greatest gifts.
(ll. 100-106) But Chiron was tending the son of Peleus, swift-footed Achilles, pre-eminent among men, on woody Pelion; for he was still a boy. For neither warlike Menelaus nor any other of men on earth would have prevailed in suit for Helen, if fleet Achilles had found her unwed. But, as it was, warlike Menelaus won her before.
II.41 (ll. 1-2) And she (Helen) bare neat-ankled Hermione in the palace, a child unlooked for.
(ll. 2-13) Now all the gods were divided through strife; for at that very time Zeus who thunders on high was meditating marvellous deeds, even to mingle storm and tempest over the boundless earth, and already he was hastening to make an utter end of the race of mortal men, declaring that he would destroy the lives of the demi-gods, that the children of the gods should not mate with wretched mortals, seeing their fate with their own eyes; but that the blessed gods henceforth even as aforetime should have their living and their habitations apart from men. But on those who were born of immortals and of mankind verily Zeus laid toil and sorrow upon sorrow. ((lacuna -- Two lines missing.))
(ll. 16-30) . . . nor any one of men . . . should go upon black ships . . . to be strongest in the might of his hands . . . of mortal men declaring to all those things that were, and those that are, and those that shall be, he brings to pass and glorifies the counsels of his father Zeus who drives the clouds. For no one, either of the blessed gods or of mortal men, knew surely that he would contrive through the sword to send to Hades full many a one of heroes fallen in strife. But at that time he know not as yet the intent of his father's mind, and how men delight in protecting their children from doom. And he delighted in the desire of his mighty father's heart who rules powerfully over men.
(ll. 31-43) From stately trees the fair leaves fell in abundance fluttering down to the ground, and the fruit fell to the ground because Boreas blew very fiercely at the behest of Zeus; the deep seethed and all things trembled at his blast: the strength of mankind consumed away and the fruit failed in the season consumed away and the fruit failed in the season of spring, at that time when the Hairless One42 in a secret place in the mountains gets three young every three years. In spring he dwells upon the mountain among tangled thickets and brushwood, keeping afar from and hating the path of men, in the glens and wooded glades. But when winter comes on, he lies in a close cave beneath the earth and covers himself with piles of luxuriant leaves, a dread serpent whose back is speckled with awful spots.
(ll. 44-50) But when he becomes violent and fierce unspeakably, the arrows of Zeus lay him low . . . Only his soul is left on the holy earth, and that fits gibbering about a small unformed den. And it comes enfeebled to sacrifices beneath the broad-pathed earth . . . and it lies . . . " ((lacuna -- Traces of 37 following lines.))
FRAGMENT 69 - AGAMEMNON
Tzetzes,43 Exeg. Iliad. 68. 19H:
Agamemnon and Menelaus likewise according to Hesiod and Aeschylus are regarded as the sons of Pleisthenes, Atreus' son. And according to Hesiod, Pleisthenes was a son of Atreus and Aerope, and Agamemnon, Menelaus and Anaxibia were the children of Pleisthenes and Cleolla the daughter of Dias.
FRAGMENT 70 - MENELAUS
Laurentian Scholiast on Sophocles' Electra, 539:
"And she (Helen) bare to Menelaus, famous with the spear, Hermione and her youngest-born, Nicostratus, a scion of Ares."
FRAGMENT 71 - IPHIGENEIA
Pausanias, i. 43. 1:
I know that Hesiod in the Catalogue of Women represented that Iphigeneia was not killed but, by the will of Artemis, became Hecate.44
FRAGMENT 72 - BUTES
Eustathius, Hom. 13. 44. sq:
Butes, it is said, was a son of Poseidon: so Hesiod in the Catalogue.
FRAGMENT 73 - SICYON
Pausanias, ii. 6. 5:
Hesiod represented Sicyon as the son of Erechtheus.
FRAGMENT 74 - MINOS
Plato, Minos, p. 320. D:
"(Minos) who was most kingly of mortal kings and reigned over very many people dwelling round about, holding the sceptre of Zeus wherewith he ruled many."
FRAGMENT 75 - ANDROGEUS
The athletic contest in memory of Eurygyes Melesagorus says that Androgeos the son of Minos was called Eurygyes, and that a contest in his honour is held near his tomb at Athens in the Ceramicus. And Hesiod writes: "And Eurygyes,46 while yet a lad in holy Athens . . . "
FRAGMENT 76 - THESEUS AND ARIADNE
Plutarch, Theseus 20:
There are many tales.... about Ariadne...., how that she was deserted by Theseus for love of another woman: "For strong love for Aegle the daughter of Panopeus overpowered him." For Hereas of Megara says that Peisistratus removed this verse from the works of Hesiod.
Athenaeus,47 xiii. 557 A:
But Hesiod says that Theseus wedded both Hippe and Aegle lawfully.
FRAGMENT 77 - CYCHREUS
Strabo, ix. p. 393:
The snake of Cychreus: Hesiod says that it was brought up by Cychreus, and was driven out by Eurylochus as defiling the island, but that Demeter received it into Eleusis, and that it became her attendant.
FRAGMENT 78 - IOLAUS
Argument I. to the Shield of Heracles:
But Apollonius of Rhodes says that it (the Shield of Heracles) is Hesiod's both from the general character of the work and from the fact that in the Catalogue we again find Iolaus as charioteer of Heracles.
FRAGMENT 79 - EURYTUS
Scholiast on Soph. Trach., 266:
"(ll. 1-6) And fair-girdled Stratonica conceived and bare in the palace Eurytus her well-loved son. Of him sprang sons, Didaeon and Clytius and god-like Toxeus and Iphitus, a scion of Ares. And after these Antiope the queen, daughter of the aged son of Naubolus, bare her youngest child, golden-haired Iolea."
FRAGMENT 80 - AUTOLYCUS
Herodian in Etymologicum Magnum:
"Who bare Autolycus and Philammon, famous in speech . . . All things that he (Autolycus) took in his hands, he made to disappear."
FRAGMET 81 - AEPYTUS
Apollonius, Hom. Lexicon:
"Aepytus again, begot Tlesenor and Peirithous."
FRAGMENT 82 - LOCRUS & DEUCALION
Strabo, vii. p. 322:
"For Locrus truly was leader of the Lelegian people, whom Zeus the Son of Cronos, whose wisdom is unfailing, gave to Deucalion, stones gathered out of the earth. So out of stones mortal men were made, and they were called people." 48
FRAGMENT 83 - ILEUS
Tzetzes, Schol. in Exeg. Iliad. 126:
"...Ileus whom the lord Apollo, son of Zeus, loved. And he named him by his name, because he found a nymph complaisant49 and was joined with her in sweet love, on that day when Poseidon and Apollo raised high the wall of the well-built city."
FRAGMENT 84 - IPHICLUS
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xi. 326:
Clymene the daughter of Minyas the son of Poseidon and of Euryanassa, Hyperphas' daughter, was wedded to Phylacus the son of Deion, and bare Iphiclus, a boy fleet of foot. It is said of him that through his power of running he could race the winds and could move along upon the ears of corn50 . . . The tale is in Hesiod: "He would run over the fruit of the asphodel and not break it; nay, he would run with his feet upon wheaten ears and not hurt the fruit."
FRAGMENT 85 - THOAS
Choeroboscus,51 i. 123, 22H:
"And she bare a son Thoas."
FRAGMENT 86 - MARON
Eustathius, Hom. 1623. 44:
Maron,52 whose father, it is said, Hesiod relates to have been Euanthes the son of Oenopion, the son of Dionysus.
FRAGMENT 87 - MARON
Athenaeus, x. 428 B, C:
"Such gifts as Dionysus gave to men, a joy and a sorrow both. Who ever drinks to fullness, in him wine becomes violent and binds together his hands and feet, his tongue also and his wits with fetters unspeakable: and soft sleep embraces him."
FRAGMENT 88 - CORONIS
Strabo, ix. p. 442:
"Or like her (Coronis) who lived by the holy Twin Hills in the plain of Dotium over against Amyrus rich in grapes, and washed her feet in the Boebian lake, a maid unwed."
FRAGMENT 89 - CORONIS
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iii. 48:
"To him, then, there came a messenger from the sacred feast to goodly Pytho, a crow,53 and he told unshorn Phoebus of secret deeds, that Ischys son of Elatus had wedded Coronis the daughter of Phlegyas of birth divine."
FRAGMENT 90 - ASCLEPIUS
Athenagoras,54 Petition for the Christians, 29:
Concerning Asclepius Hesiod says: "And the father of men and gods was wrath, and from Olympus he smote the son of Leto with a lurid thunderbolt and killed him, arousing the anger of Phoebus."
FRAGMENT 91 - ASCLEPIUS
Philodemus, On Piety, 34:
But Hesiod (says that Apollo) would have been cast by Zeus into Tartarus55; but Leto interceded for him, and he became bondman to a mortal.
FRAGMENT 92 - CYRENE
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. ix. 6:
"Or like her, beautiful Cyrene, who dwelt in Phthia by the water of Peneus and had the beauty of the Graces."
FRAGMENT 93 - ARISTAEUS
Servius on Vergil, Georg. i. 14:
He invoked Aristaeus, that is, the son of Apollo and Cyrene, whom Hesiod calls "the shepherd Apollo." 56
Scholiast on Vergil, Georg. iv. 361:
"But the water stood all round him, bowed into the semblance of a mountain." This verse he has taken over from Hesiod's Catalogue of Women.
FRAGMENT 95 - ANTIOPE
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad ii. 469:
"Or like her (Antiope) whom Boeotian Hyria nurtured as a maid."
FRAGMENT 96 - AMPHION AND ZETHUS
Palaephatus,57 c. 42:
Of Zethus and Amphion. Hesiod and some others relate that they built the walls of Thebes by playing on the lyre.
FRAGMENT 97 - ORACLE OF DODONA
Scholiast on Soph. Trach., 1167:
"(ll. 1-11) There is a land Ellopia with much glebe and rich meadows, and rich in flocks and shambling kine. There dwell men who have many sheep and many oxen, and they are in number past telling, tribes of mortal men. And there upon its border is built a city, Dodona58; and Zeus loved it and (appointed) it to be his oracle, reverenced by men . . . And they (the doves) lived in the hollow of an oak. From them men of earth carry away all kinds of prophecy, -- whosoever fares to that spot and questions the deathless god, and comes bringing gifts with good omens."
FRAGMENT 98 - MELEAGER AND DEIANEIRA
Berlin Papyri, No. 9777:59
"(ll. 1-22) . . . strife . . . Of mortals who would have dared to fight him with the spear and charge against him, save only Heracles, the great-hearted offspring of Alcaeus? Such an one was (?) strong Meleager loved of Ares, the golden-haired, dear son of Oeneus and Althaea. From his fierce eyes there shone forth portentous fire: and once in high Calydon he slew the destroying beast, the fierce wild boar with gleaming tusks. In war and in dread strife no man of the heroes dared to face him and to approach and fight with him when he appeared in the forefront. But he was slain by the hands and arrows of Apollo,60 while he was fighting with the Curetes for pleasant Calydon. And these others (Althaea) bare to Oeneus, Porthaon's son; horse-taming Pheres, and Agelaus surpassing all others, Toxeus and Clymenus and godlike Periphas, and rich-haired Gorga and wise Deianeira, who was subject in love to mighty Heracles and bare him Hyllus and Glenus and Ctesippus and Odites. These she bare and in ignorance she did a fearful thing: when (she had received) . . . the poisoned robe that held black doom . . . "
FRAGMENT 99A - SEVEN AGAINST THEBES
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad. xxiii. 679:
And yet Hesiod says that after he had died in Thebes, Argeia the daughter of Adrastus together with others (cp. frag. 99) came to the lamentation over Oedipus.
FRAGMENT 9961 - SEVEN AGAINST THEBES, AMPHITRYON AND ALCMENE
Papyri greci e latine, No. 131 (2nd-3rd century):62
"(ll. 1-10) And (Eriphyle) bare in the palace Alcmaon,63 shepherd of the people, to Amphiaraus. Him (Amphiaraus) did the Cadmean (Theban) women with trailing robes admire when they saw face to face his eyes and well-grown frame, as he was busied about the burying of Oedipus, the man of many woes . . . Once the Danai, servants of Ares, followed him to Thebes, to win renown . . . for Polynices. But, though well he knew from Zeus all things ordained, the earth yawned and swallowed him up with his horses and jointed chariot, far from deep-eddying Alpheus.
(ll. 11-20) But Electyron married the all-beauteous daughter of Pelops and, going up into one bed with her, the son of Perses begat . . . and Phylonomus and Celaeneus and Amphimachus and . . . and Eurybius and famous . . . All these the Taphians, famous shipmen, slew in fight for oxen with shambling hoofs, . . . in ships across the sea's wide back. So Alcmena alone was left to delight her parents . . . and the daughter of Electryon ((lacuna)) . . .
(l. 21) . . . . who was subject in love to the dark-clouded son of Cronos and bare (famous Heracles)."
FRAGMENT 100 - SHIELD OF HERACLES
Argument to the Shield of Heracles, i:
The beginning of the Shield as far as the 56th verse is current in the fourth Catalogue.
FRAGMENT 101 - HERACLES AND TEUTHRAS
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1359 fr. 1 (early 3rd cent. A.D.):
((lacuna -- Slight remains of 3 lines)) "(ll. 4-17) . . . if indeed he (Teuthras) delayed, and if he feared to obey the word of the immortals who then appeared plainly to them. But her (Auge) he received and brought up well, and cherished in the palace, honouring her even as his own daughters. And Auge bare Telephus of the stock of Areas, king of the Mysians, being joined in love with the mighty Heracles when he was journeying in quest of the horses of proud Laomedon -- horses the fleetest of foot that the Asian land nourished, -- and destroyed in battle the tribe of the dauntless Amazons and drove them forth from all that land. But Telephus routed the spearmen of the bronze-clad Achaeans and made them embark upon their black ships. Yet when he had brought down many to the ground which nourishes men, his own might and deadliness were brought low . . . "
FRAGMENT 102 - DARDANUS, EETION, GANYMEDE AND HYACINTHUS
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1359 fr. 2 (early 3rd cent. A.D.):
((lacuna -- Remains of 4 lines)) "(ll. 5-16) . . . Electra . . . was subject to the dark-clouded Son of Cronos and bare Dardanus . . . and Eetion . . . who once greatly loved rich-haired Demeter. And cloud-gathering Zeus was wroth and smote him, Eetion, and laid him low with a flaming thunderbolt, because he sought to lay hands upon rich-haired Demeter. But Dardanus came to the coast of the mainland -- from him Erichthonius and thereafter Tros were sprung, and Ilus, and Assaracus, and godlike Ganymede, -- when he had left holy Samothrace in his many-benched ship. ((lacuna))
Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1359 fr. 3 (early 3rd cent. A.D.):
(ll. 17-24)64 . . . Cleopatra . . . the daughter of . . . But an eagle caught up Ganymede for Zeus because he vied with the immortals in beauty . . . rich-tressed Diomede; and she bare Hyacinthus, the blameless one and strong . . . whom, on a time Phoebus himself slew unwittingly with a ruthless disk . . . "
1. An antiquarian writer of Byzantium, c. 490-570 A.D.
2. Constantine VII. Born in the Porphyry Chamber, 905-959 A.D.
3. Berlin Papyri, 7497 (left-hand fragment) and Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 421 (right-hand fragment). For the restoration see Class. Quart. vii. 217-8.
4. As the price to be given to her father for her: so in Iliad xviii. 593 maidens are called "earners of oxen." Possibly Glaucus, like Aias (fr. 68, ll. 55 ff.), raided the cattle of others.
5. i.e. Glaucus should father the children of others. The curse of Aphrodite on the daughters of Tyndareus (fr. 67) may be compared.
6. Porphyry, scholar, mathematician, philosopher and historian, lived 233-305 (?) A.D. He was a pupil of the neo-Platonist Plotinus.
7. Author of a geographical lexicon, produced after 400 A.D., and abridged under Justinian.
8. Archbishop of Thessalonica 1175-1192 (?) A.D., author of commentaries on Pindar and on the Iliad and Odyssey.
9. In the earliest times a loin-cloth was worn by athletes, but was discarded after the 14th Olympiad.
10. Slight remains of five lines precede line 1 in the original: after line 20 an unknown number of lines have been lost, and traces of a verse preceding line 21 are here omitted. Between lines 29 and 30 are fragments of six verses which do not suggest any definite restoration.
11. The end of Schoeneus' speech, the preparations and the beginning of the race are lost.
12. Of the three which Aphrodite gave him to enable him to overcome Atalanta.
13. The geographer; fl. c.24 B.C.
14. Of Miletus, flourished about 520 B.C. His work, a mixture of history and geography, was used by Herodotus.
15. The Hesiodic story of the daughters of Proetus can be reconstructed from these sources. They were sought in marriage by all the Greeks (Panhellenes), but having offended Dionysus (or, according to Servius, Juno), were afflicted with a disease which destroyed their beauty (or were turned into cows). They were finally healed by Melampus.
16. Fl. 56-88 A.D.: he is best known for his work on Vergil.
17. For the restoration of ll. 1-16 see Ox. Pap. pt. xi. pp. 46-7: the supplements of ll. 17-31 are by the Translator (cp. Class. Quart. x. (1916), pp. 65-67).
18. The crocus was to attract Europa, as in the very similar story of Persephone: cp. Homeric Hymns ii. lines 8 ff.
19. Apollodorus of Athens (fl. 144 B.C.) was a pupil of Aristarchus. He wrote a Handbook of Mythology, from which the extant work bearing his name is derived.
20. Priest at Praeneste. He lived c. 170-230 A.D.
21. Son of Apollonius Dyscolus, lived in Rome under Marcus Aurelius. His chief work was on accentuation.
22. Sacred to Poseidon. For the custom observed there, cp. Homeric Hymns iii. 231 ff.
23. The allusion is obscure.
24. Apollonius "the Crabbed" was a grammarian of Alexandria under Hadrian. He wrote largely on Grammar and Syntax.
25. 275-195 (?) B.C., mathematician, astronomer, scholar, and head of the Library of Alexandria.
26. Of Cyme. He wrote a universal history covering the period between the Dorian Migration and 340 B.C.
27. i.e. the nomad Scythians, who are described by Herodotus as feeding on mares' milk and living in caravans.
28. The restorations are mainly those adopted or suggested in Ox. Pap. pt. xi. pp. 48 ff.: for those of ll. 8-14 see Class. Quart. x. (1916) pp. 67-69.
29. i.e. those who seek to outwit the oracle, or to ask of it more than they ought, will be deceived by it and be led to ruin: cp. Hymn to Hermes, 541 ff.
30. Zetes and Calais, sons of Boreas, who were amongst the Argonauts, delivered Phineus from the Harpies. The Strophades ("Islands of Turning") are here supposed to have been so called because the sons of Boreas were there turned back by Iris from pursuing the Harpies.
31. An Epicurean philosopher, fl. 50 B.C.
32. "Charming-with-her-voice" (or "Charming-the-mind"), "Song," and "Lovely-sounding."
33. Diodorus Siculus, fl. 8 B.C., author of an universal history ending with Caesar's Gallic Wars.
34. The first epic in the Trojan Cycle; like all ancient epics it was ascribed to Homer, but also, with more probability, to Stasinus of Cyprus.
35. This fragment is placed by Spohn after Works and Days l.120.
36. A Greek of Asia Minor, author of the Description of Greece (on which he was still engaged in 173 A.D.).
37. Wilamowitz thinks one or other of these citations belongs to the Catalogue.
38. Lines 1-51 are from Berlin Papyri, 9739; lines 52-106 with B. 1-50 (and following fragments) are from Berlin Papyri, 10560. A reference by Pausanias (iii. 24. 10) to ll. 100 ff. proves that the two fragments together come from the Catalogue of Women. The second book (the beginning of which is indicated after l. 106) can hardly be the second book of the Catalogues proper: possibly it should be assigned to the Eoiai, which were sometimes treated as part of the Catalogues, and sometimes separated from it. The remains of thirty-seven lines following B. 50 in the Papyrus are too slight to admit of restoration.
39. sc. the Suitor whose name is lost.
40. Wooing was by proxy; so Agamemnon wooed Helen for his brother Menelaus (ll. 14-15), and Idomeneus, who came in person and sent no deputy, is specially mentioned as an exception, and the reasons for this -- if the restoration printed in the text be right -- is stated (ll. 69 ff.).
41. The Papyrus here marks the beginning of a second book ("B"), possibly of the Eoiae. The passage (ll. 2-50) probably led up to an account of the Trojan (and Theban?) war, in which, according to Works and Days ll. 161-166, the Race of Heroes perished. The opening of the Cypria is somewhat similar. Somewhere in the fragmentary lines 13-19 a son of Zeus -- almost certainly Apollo -- was introduced, though for what purpose is not clear. With l. 31 the destruction of man (cp. ll. 4-5) by storms which spoil his crops begins: the remaining verses are parenthetical, describing the snake "which bears its young in the spring season'.
42. i.e. the snake; as in Works and Days l. 524, the "Boneless One" is the cuttle-fish.
43. c. 1110-1180 A.D. His chief work was a poem, Chiliades, in accentual verse of nearly 13,000 lines.
44. According to this account Iphigeneia was carried by Artemis to the Taurie Chersonnese (the Crimea). The Tauri (Herodotus iv. 103) identified their maiden-goddess with Iphigeneia; but Euripides (Iphigeneia in Tauris) makes her merely priestess of the goddess.
45. Of Alexandria. He lived in the 5th century, and compiled a Greek Lexicon.
46. For his murder Minos exacted a yearly tribute of boys and girls, to be devoured by the Minotaur, from the Athenians.
47. Of Naucratis. His Deipnosophistae ("Dons at Dinner") is an encyclopaedia of miscellaneous topics in the form of a dialogue. His date is c. 230 A.D.
48. There is a fancied connection between laas ("stone") and laos ("people"). The reference is to the stones which Deucalion and Pyrrha transformed into men and women after the Flood.
49. Eustathius identifies Ileus with Oileus, father of Aias. Here again is fanciful etymology, ileus being similar to eleos (complaisant, gracious).
50. Imitated by Vergil, Aeneid vii. 808, describing Camilla.
51. c. 600 A.D., a lecturer and grammarian of Constantinople.
52. Priest of Apollo, and, according to Homer, discoverer of wine. Maronea in Thrace is said to have been called after him.
53. The crow was originally white, but was turned black by Apollo in his anger at the news brought by the bird.
54. A philosopher of Athens under Hadrian and Antonius. He became a Christian and wrote a defence of the Christians addressed to Antoninus Pius.
55. Zeus slew Asclepus (fr. 90) because of his success as a healer, and Apollo in revenge killed the Cyclopes (fr. 64). In punishment Apollo was forced to serve Admetus as herdsman. (Cp. Euripides, Alcestis, 1-8)
56. For Cyrene and Aristaeus, cp. Vergil, Georgics, iv. 315 ff.
57. A writer on mythology of uncertain date.
58. In Epirus. The oracle was first consulted by Deucalion and Pyrrha after the Flood. Later writers say that the god responded in the rustling of leaves in the oaks for which the place was famous.
59. The fragment is part of a leaf from a papyrus book of the 4th century A.D.
60. According to Homer and later writers Meleager wasted away when his mother Althea burned the brand on which his life depended, because he had slain her brothers in the dispute for the hide of the Calydonian boar. (Cp. Bacchylides, Ode v. 136 ff.)
61. The fragment probably belongs to the Catalogues proper rather than to the Eoiae; but, as its position is uncertain, it may conveniently be associated with Frags. 99A and the Shield of Heracles.
62. Most of the smaller restorations appear in the original publication, but the larger are new: these last are highly conjectual, there being no definite clue to the general sense.
63. Alcmaon (who took part in the second of the two heroic Theban expeditions) is perhaps mentioned only incidentally as the son of Amphiaraus, who seems to be clearly indicated in ll. 7-8, and whose story occupies ll. 5-10. At l. 11 the subject changes and Electryon is introduced as father of Alcmena.
64. The association of ll. 1-16 with ll. 17-24 is presumed from the apparent mention of Erichthonius in l. 19. A new section must then begin at l. 21. See Ox. Pap. pt. xi. p.55 (and for restoration of ll. 5-16, ib. p. 53). ll. 19-20 are restored by the Translator.