DICTYS CRETENSIS 4
DICTYS CRETENSIS CONTENTS
Antehomerica & The Iliad
DICTYS CRETENSIS BOOK 4, TRANSLATED BY R. M. FRAZER
 On learning that the king had accomplished his mission and returned unharmed along with the others, the Trojans praised the Greeks’ compassion. Priam, they had thought, would never obtain the body; the Greeks would feel justified in holding him prisoner since they, the Trojans, had refused to give Helen up.
When they saw Hector’s body, everyone, including the allies, ran forward. They were weeping and pulling their hair and scratching their faces. The city was ruled by despair. Hector, whose deeds in war and peace alike were known throughout the world, his fame being due to his righteous character no less than to his martial spirit, Hector was dead. They buried him close to the tomb of their former king Ilus;1 and, gathering around, on this side the women with Hecuba, on that the Trojan men and their allies, they raised the mournful dirge. For ten days from sunrise until sunset, the time of the truce, everyone, without ceasing, wailed for Hector, as was his due.
 During the funeral Penthesilae (whom we have mentioned above) arrived. She brought a huge army of Amazons and other neighbouring peoples. On being informed of Hector’s death, she was very upset and desired to go home. But Alexander gave her much gold and silver, and finally prevailed upon her to stay.
Several days later she drew up her forces and made an attack, without any help from the Trojans, so great was her trust in her people. She arranged the archers on the right flank, the foot soldiers on the left, and the cavalry, to which she herself belonged, in the center. Our men were drawn up to meet her, with Menelaus, Ulysses, Meriones, and Teucer against the archers, the two Ajaxes, Diomedes, Agamemnon, Tlepolemus, Ascalaphus, and Ialmenus against the foot soldiers, and Achilles, along with the others, against the cavalry. Thus the two armies, having drawn up their forces, joined battle. The queen slaughtered many, using her bow; as did Teucer for us. Meanwhile the Ajaxes were leading the foot soldiers; advancing with their shields before them and pushing back any who got in their way, they wreaked general havoc; no one, it seemed, could stop them from wiping the enemy out.
 Achilles found Penthesilae among the cavalry and, hurling his spear, hit the mark. Then – no trouble now that she was wounded – he seized her by the hair and pulled her off her horse. Her followers, seeing her fallen, became disheartened and took to flight. We pursued and cut down those who were unable to reach the gates before they closed; nevertheless, we abstained from touching the women because of their sex.
Then we returned, all of us victors, our enemies slain. Finding Penthesilea still half-alive, we marveled at her brazen boldness. Almost immediately a meeting was held to determine her fate, and it was decided to throw her, while still alive enough to have feeling, either into the river to drown or out for the dogs to tear apart, for she had transgressed the bounds of nature and her sex. Achilles favored just letting her die and then giving her burial. Diomedes, however, prevailed: going around, he asked everyone what to do and won a unanimous vote in favor of drowning. Accordingly, dragging her by the feet, he dumped her into the Scamander. It goes without saying that this was a very cruel and barbarous act. But thus the queen of the Amazons having lost the forces she had brought to aid Priam, died in a way that befitted her foolhardy character.
 On the following day, Memnon, the son of Tithonus and Aurora, arrived with a large army of Indians and Ethiopians, a truly remarkable army which consisted of thousands and thousands of men with various kinds of arms, and surpassed the hops and prayers even of Priam. All the country around and beyond Troy, as far as eye could see, was filled with men and horses, and glittered with the splendor of arms and standards. Memnon had led these forces to Troy by way of the Caucasus mountains.
At the same time he had sent another group of equal size by sea, with Phalas as their guide and leader. These others had landed on the island of Rhodes, which they soon discovered to be an ally of Greece. At first, fearing that when the purpose of their mission was known, their ships might be fired, they stayed in the harbor. Later, however, dividing their strength, they went to the wealthy cities of Camirus and Ialysus.
Soon the Rhodians were blaming Phalas for trying to aid Alexander, the same Alexander who had recently conquered Phalas’ country, Sidon.2 In order to stir up the army, they said that whoever defended this crime was in no way different from a barbarian; and they added many such things as would incense the common soldiers and make them take their side. Nor did they fail in their intent, for the Phoenicians, who composed a majority of Phalas’ army, whether influenced by the accusations of the Rhodians, or wishing to gain control of the wealth their ships were carrying, made an attack against Phalas and stoned him to death. Then, dividing their gold and whatever booty they had, they dispersed to the cities we mentioned above.
 Meanwhile the army that had come with Memnon had set up camp in a wide area (the walls of the city could not have easily contained so great a number of men), and everyone, each in his own particular group, was training for combat. These groups differed in their fighting methods and skills according to the regions from which they came. Their different kinds of weapons, their different kinds of shields and helmets, gave them a terrifying warlike appearance.
Then at dawn, after several days, when his soldiers were ready to fight, Memnon gave them the signal and led them to battle. And the Trojans, along with their allies, left the protection of their walls and also advanced. We, for our part, drew up our forces to meet them, being somewhat awed by the size of our unknown enemy. When they had come within a spear’s throw of our side, they fell upon us with a huge and dissonant clamor. It was like a landslide. Our men, standing together, were able to break their attack. But soon their lines were renewed and reformed, and weapons were flying this way and that, and many on both sides were dying. Nor was there any end in sight, so long as Memnon, accompanied by all of his bravest men, was attacking our center, riding in his chariot, and slaying or wounding whomever he met. Our casualties were mounting terribly, and our leaders conceded defeat; they felt that we were destined to lose and that our only hope was in flight. But night, the refuge of the oppressed, kept the enemy off. Otherwise, that day would have seen our ships destroyed by fire; so great was Memnon’s power and martial skill, so grievous our predicament.
 When the fighting had stopped, we, being broken in spirit and fearing the war’s final outcome, spent the night burying those we had lost in battle. Then we thought of a plan: one of our men should challenge Memnon to fight in single combat. Accordingly, we proceeded to choose a champion by lot. The lots of all were shaken, excepting only – as Agamemnon requested – Menelaus’, Ulysses’, and Idomeneus’; and Ajax, in answer to everyone’s prayers, was chosen. Then we ate and renewed out strength and spent the rest of the night in sleep.
At daybreak we armed, drew up our forces in order, and went out to battle. Memnon, no less alert, also advanced, and with him all the Trojans. When both of the armies were ready, the battle was joined. As might be expected, a great number of men fell dead on both sides, or withdrew mortally wounded. It was in this battle that Antilochus, the son of Nestor, ran into Memnon, and thus met his death.
When Ajax thought that the time was right, he went out between the lines and challenged the king. First, however, he called on Ulysses and Idomeneus to defend him in case any others attacked. Memnon, seeing Ajax advance, leaped from his chariot and met him on foot. Among both armies fear and hope were running high. Finally Ajax thrust his spear into the center of Memnon’s shield and, using all his weight and force, shoved it through and into Memnon’s side. The companions of Memnon, when they saw what had happened, rushed to his aid and tried to push Ajax away. But this interference on the part of the barbarians stirred Achilles to act; he entered the fray and drove his spear through Memnon’s throat, where the shield gave no protection.
 Memnon’s unexpected death, while breaking the enemy’s spirit, bolstered ours. Now the Ethiopians had turned and were fleeing; now our men were pursuing, wreaking great slaughter. Polydamas tried to renew the battle, but soon was surrounded and fell, hit in the groin by Ajax. And Glaucus, the son of Antenor, was killed; he was fighting Diomedes when Agamemnon struck him down with a spear. One might see Ethiopians and Trojans fleeing everywhere over the field in disorder, without leaders, crowding and rushing, hindering each other, falling where driverless horses were trampling them down. Our men, their spirits renewed, were attacking and slaughtering the enemy, scattering those who had been entangled and then picking them off with their spears. The field near the walls was flowing with blood; armor and corpses abounded wherever the enemy went. It was in this battle that Priam lost the following sons: Aretus and Echemmon were killed by Ulysses; Dryops, Bias, and Chorithan3 were killed by Idomeneus; Ilioneus and Philenor by Ajax the son of Oileus; Thyestes and Telestes by Diomedes; Antiphus, Agavus, Agathon, and Glaucus by the other Ajax; and Asteropaeus by Achilles. There was no end to the slaughter until our men were finally thoroughly sated, thoroughly tired.
 When we had returned to camp, the Trojans sent envoys to obtain permission to bury their dead. Thus the dead were gathered, each by his own, and cremated and buried according to ancient custom. Memnon, however, was cremated apart from the others; his remains were put in an urn and given to relatives to take to his native land.4
When we had duly washed the body of Antilochus, we handed it over to Nestor for proper burial and begged him to bear the adversities of war with courage. Then, finally, each of us spent much of the night honouring his dead with wine and funeral feasts, and praising both Ajax and Achilles in highest terms.
The Trojans, with the completion of their funerals, ended their grief over Memnon’s disaster. But now they were gripped by despair; they feared the war’s final outcome. The death of Sarpedon and, soon afterwards, the slaughter of Hector, had taken away their remaining hopes; and now what fortune had for the last time offered in the person of Memnon no longer remained. Thus, with so many adversities conspiring against them, their will to recover was utterly gone.
 After a few days the Greeks took up arms and, having gone onto the field, challenged the Trojans to come out and fight, if they dared. Alexander and his brothers, in answer to this challenge, set their army in order and led it forth. But before the battle lines could meet or spears be thrown, the barbarians broke formation and took to flight. We rushed upon them, from this side and that, slaughtering great numbers, or hurling them headlong into the river; they had no way to escape. And two of Priam’s sons were captured, Lycaon and Troilus, the throats of whom, when they had been brought forth into the center, were cut, by order of Achilles, who was angry with Priam for not having seen to that business they had discussed. The Trojans raised a cry of grief and, mourning loudly, bewailed the fact that Troilus had met so grievous ad death, for they remembered how young he was, who, being in the early years of his manhood, was the people’s favorite, their darling, not only because of his modesty and honesty, but more especially because of his handsome appearance.
 After a few days, the religious festival of the Thymbraean Apollo began; a truce was made and hostilities ceased. Then, while both armies were preoccupied with sacrificing, Priam found time to send Idaeus to Achilles with instructions concerning Polyxena. While, however, Achilles was examining these instructions, alone in the grove with Idaeus, word of this meeting was brought to the ships. Our men were angered, suspecting Achilles of being disloyal, for the rumor that he was a traitor had gradually grown and now was accepted as truth throughout the whole army. Therefore, in order to placate the fired-up emotions of the soldiers, Ajax, Diomedes and Ulysses went to the grove and stood in front of the temple, waiting for Achilles to leave. They likewise wanted to tell him what had happened at the ships and hoped to deter him from further secret dealings with Trojans.
 Meanwhile Alexander and Deiphobus, having formed a plot, approached Achilles, as if to confirm the agreement of Priam. In order to incur no suspicion, Alexander (he was wearing a dagger) stopped near the altar and faced away from our leader. Achilles was carrying no weapon, thinking there was nothing to fear in the temple of Apollo. Then Deiphobus, when the time seemed right, came up to Achilles and, with flattering congratulations for the terms he had made, embraced him and, hanging upon him, refused to let go until Alexander, with sword drawn, rushed forward and thrust two blows in the victim’s sides. When they saw that he was dying they departed in haste and returned to the city, their very important mission accomplished beyond their fondest hopes.
Ulysses, who had seen them leave, said: “Something is wrong. Why are these men so excited? Why are they frightened and rushing like this?” And thereupon he and the others entered the grove and, looking around, discovered Achilles stretched on the ground, already half-dead with the loss of much blood.
Then Ajax said: “We know for a fact that no one could have defeated you in a fairly fought contest but, as is clear, you are undone by your own ill-advised rashness.”
And Achilles, breathing his last, said: “Deiphobus and Alexander overpowered me. They came in the matter concerning Polyxena – deceitfully, treacherously.”
As he lay there dying, our leaders embraced him and kissed him farewell. Great was their grief. And when he was dead, Ajax shouldered the body and carried it out of the grove.
 The Trojans, having seen what had happened, rushed from their gates all together. Following their usual custom, they wanted, no doubt, to mangle the body and thus were eager to snatch it away and carry it to the city. But the Greeks were also alerted and, taking up arms, advanced to meet them. Soon after they had led forth all of their forces, both sides clashed in battle.
Ajax, having handed the body of Achilles to those who were with him, went on the attack and slew Asius (the son of Dymas and the brother of Hecuba) whom he encountered first. Then he cut down a great number of others, as they came, one by one within reach of his spear. Among these were Nastes and Amphimachus, the rulers of Caria.
And now our leaders, Ajax the son of Oileus and Sthenelus, joined together and killed and put great numbers to flight.
Finally this general destruction caused the Trojans to rush for their gates. They abandoned all hope of resisting and scattered and fled in utter disorder, believing that only their walls could protect them. Behind them the Greeks were pursuing, piling slaughter on slaughter.
 When the gates were closed and the slaughter had ended, the Greeks took Achilles back to the ships. All of our leaders bewailed the loss of this hero. Many of the soldiers, however, believing that Achilles had often tried to betray them, were grieved not in the least and refused to mourn as they should. Nevertheless, he had been their greatest military asset and now, by his death, all was lost. They had to admit that, for a man so outstanding in battle, he had met a dishonourable death, or at least an obscure one. Accordingly, they hastened to bring plenty of wood from Mount Ida and built a pyre in the place where that of Patroclus had been. Then, having put the body in place, they lit the fire, and thus performed the rites of the funeral. Ajax acted with special devotion, keeping watch for three continuous days until the remains were gathered together. He was grieved by the death of Achilles more than any one else, grieved almost beyond his powers of endurance. He had loved Achilles above all others and had served him with highest allegiance, for Achilles was not only his relative and closest friend but also, what especially mattered, the most courageous man there was.
 The Trojans, for their part, abounded in joy and thanksgiving, for the enemy whom they had feared the most was dead. They lavished praises on Alexander’s trickery; he had, to be sure, done by devious means what he would never have dared to do in combat.
Meanwhile a messenger arrived to tell Priam that Eurypylus, the son of Telephus, was arriving from Mysia. (The king had enticed him with many beautiful gifts, and had finally won his support by offering Cassandra in marriage. Among the other very beautiful things he had sent to him was a staff which, being made of gold, was talked of far and wide.) Eurypylus, the illustrious warrior, had come with his Mysian and Ceteian forces. The Trojans welcomed him joyously, for in him their every hope was revived.
 Meanwhile the Greeks placed the bones of Achilles in an urn with those of Patroclus and buried the urn at Sigeum.5 Then Ajax hired some Sigeans to build a tomb for Achilles; he was angry with the Greeks, for he thought that their grief was in no way equal to the loss of so great a hero.
When the tomb was almost finished, Pyrrhus arrived. He was called Neoptolemus and was the son of Achilles and Deidamia, the daughter of King Lycomedes. After being informed how his father had died, he reinforced the Myrmidons and bolstered their spirits; they were the bravest of men and famous in war. Then, leaving Phoenix in charge of this work, he went to the ships and there, at his father’s hut, found Hippodamia guarding the property.
Soon his arrival was known, and all the leaders convened. When they begged him to keep control of himself, he, answering calmly, said that he knew well enough that men must bravely endure whatever the gods caused to happen. Everyone’s life must come to an end; only the weak wanted old age, the strong shunned and despised it. Moreover, his grief was mitigated by the fact that Achilles had been killed neither in single combat nor in the blaze of war; Achilles could never have been beaten – it was unthinkable – by anyone, living or dead, with the single exception of Hercules. Though the time called for Achilles, under whose hands it was fitting that Troy should fall, nevertheless, he affirmed, they, with his help, would finish the task that his father had left uncompleted.
 After he had finished this speech, they decided to fight on the following day.
All of the leaders, when the time seemed right, went, as usual, to Agamemnon’s to dine. Among them were Ajax and Neoptolemus, and Diomedes, Ulysses, and Menelaus; these took places of equal honor at dinner. While they were eating, they praised the prowess of Achilles and told Neoptolemus about the numerous brave deeds of his father. Their words delighted him and moved him to say that he would strive, with might and main, to prove himself a worthy son. After the dinner was over, they left to spend the night in their huts.
At dawn the next day Neoptolemus, on leaving camp, was met by Diomedes and Ulysses. Having given them greeting, he asked if something was wrong. They answered that we should delay our attack a few days, until his soldiers recovered from their long journey by sea: their legs were still shaky, their feet were unsteady.
 And so, in accordance with this advice, our attack was delayed for two days. Then all our leaders and kings, having armed our men and set them in order, went out to battle. Neoptolemus commanded the center. With him were the Myrmidones and also Ajax (whom Neoptolemus, as befitted their close relationship, honored in place of his father).
The Trojans were very upset, for they saw that, while their own allies were daily defecting, a new contingent, led by an illustrious leader, had come to the aid of the Greeks. Nevertheless, they took up arms, as Eurypylus urged them to do. He, having gained the support of the princes, created a combined force consisting of his own men and those of the Trojans and, leading them out of the gate, deployed them for battle; he himself commanded the center. (Aeneas stayed behind in the city and, for the first time, refused to fight; he was a devoted worshiper of Apollo and detested the crime Alexander had committed against this god.)
When the signal for battle was given, the two sides clashed and fought with all their might; great numbers were slain. Eurypylus, chancing upon Peneleus, drove him back and pinned him with his spear; then he attacked Nireus even more savagely, and cut him down; and finally, having put to flight our men in front, he was fighting in the very midst of our forces. But Neoptolemus, on seeing this, drove up close and knocked Eurypylus out of his chariot; then he dismounted himself and, sword in hand, quickly finished Eurypylus off. Thereupon our men, as Neoptolemus ordered, carried the body out of the battle and back to the ships. When the barbarians – they had placed all their hopes in Eurypylus – saw this sight, they deserted the battle and fled for the walls, leaderless, without any definite order. And as they fled, great numbers were killed.
 Thus the enemy was put to flight, and the Greeks returned to the ships. Then, the council so willing, we cremated Eurypylus and sent his bones, in an urn, back to his father, for we remembered his father’s kindness and friendship.6 Also, there were separate funerals for Nireus and Peneleus; each was cremated by his own people.
On the next day Chryses reported to the Greeks that Priam’s son Helenus had fled from Troy because of Alexander’s crime and was now at the temple nearby. Accordingly, we sent Diomedes and Ulysses to fetch him. After these had promised him leave to spend the rest of his life somewhere in seclusion, he placed himself in their power.
When he had been brought to the ships, he made a long speech at a meeting of the council, in which he told his reason for leaving his parents and people: he feared not death but the gods, whose shrines Alexander had desecrated, a crime which neither Aeneas nor himself was able to bear. As for Aeneas, he, fearing our anger, had stayed behind with Antenor and old Anchises, his father. It was from an oracle of Anchises, Helenus said, that he had learned of Troy’s imminent fall, and thus had made up his mind to come to us as a suppliant.
We were eager to know the contents of this oracle. Accordingly, Chryses, having nodded for us to keep silent, took Helenus aside and learned everything, which then he reported to us. Thus we were informed of the very time of Troy’s fall and how Aeneas and Antenor would help us. And we saw that this oracle was entirely consistent with what we remembered Calchas had already told us was going to happen.
 On the next day both armies went out to battle and many were killed on the Trojan side, their allies suffering the greatest losses. But as our men were attacking more vehemently and striving with all their might to end the war, our leaders, at a given signal, attacked those of the enemy and centered the battle around themselves.
Philoctetes advanced against Alexander and challenged him to fight, if he dared, a duel with the bow. Alexander agreed, and thus Ulysses and Deiphobus marked off a place for the contest. Alexander was the first to shoot and missed. Thereupon Philoctetes hit Alexander in the left hand, and then – he was howling with pain – struck his right eye, and then – he was trying to flee – pierced both his feet, and finally finished him off. Philoctetes’ arrows had once been Hercules’, and the Hydra’s lethal blood had stained their points.7
 The barbarians, seeing that their leader was dead, rushed and tried to snatch his body away. Philoctetes killed many of them, but they kept pressing on, and eventually got the body into the city. Ajax the son of Telamon pursued them as far as the gate, and there the slaughter was huge. Many were unable to enter; the crowd was frantic, with everyone shoving, everyone striving to get in first. Those who had entered went to the walls and hurled down rocks of every description, rolled down earth collected from everywhere, onto the shield of Ajax, hoping to drive him off. But our illustrious leader, shaking his shield whenever it grew too heavy, relented not in the least. And Philoctetes, shooting from a distance, killed many of those on the wall and drove the others away.
In other parts of the field the rest of our soldiers met with equal success. That day would have seen the walls of Troy destroyed, the city sacked, if the swift arrival of night had not restrained us. Thus we returned to the ships, rejoicing, our spirits tremendously buoyed because of the deeds Philoctetes had done. To him we gave our highest praise and showed our deepest gratitude.
At daybreak, Philoctetes, accompanied by the rest of our leaders, returned to the field. And the Trojans, even with the help of their walls, could scarcely protect themselves, so great was their terror.
 Meanwhile Neoptolemus, now that his father’s murder was avenged, began the mourning around Achilles’ mound. Along with Phoenix and the entire army of the Myrmidons, he cut off his hair and placed it on the tomb. Thus they stayed there all the night.
During the same time, the sons of Antimachus (whom we have mentioned above) came to Helenus as representatives of Priam. But he refused to do as they begged, that is, to return to his people; and so they departed. Halfway back to the city, they were encountered by Diomedes and the other Ajax, and thus were captured and brought to the ships. When they had told who they were and explaining their reason for coming, we, remembering how their father had spoken and plotted against our envoys,8 ordered the soldiers to take them and lead them out where the Trojans could see and stone them to death.
At Try, in a different direction, the relatives of Alexander, who were seeing to his burial, were carrying his body to Oenone. They say that Oenone – she had been married to him before his abduction of Helen – was so shocked by the sight of his body that she lost all power of speech, lost her spirit and, gradually being overwhelmed with grief, fell down dead. And thus a single tomb held her and him.
 All the Trojan nobles, since they saw the enemy raging more and more fiercely around their walls and knew that their own resources were failing, felt that further resistance was hopeless. Accordingly, they plotted sedition against the princes and Priam. Having summoned Aeneas and the sons of Antenor, they were planning to return Helen to Menelaus, along with the things that had been carried off. But Deiphobus, having heard of their plans, took Helen off and married her himself.
When Priam entered the council, Aeneas heaped insults upon him. Finally the king yielded to the will of the nobles and ordered Antenor to go the Greeks and seek and end to the war.
When Antenor signaled from the walls that the Trojans desired to negotiate, we granted permission. Thus he came to the ships, and we welcomed him gladly. Nestor, especially, told how faithful and kind he had been to the Greeks: his counsel and the aid of his sons had saved Menelaus from Trojan treachery. In return for what he had done, we promised to reward him richly when Troy was destroyed, and urged him to work with us – hew knew we were friends – against those he knew to be treacherous.
Then, in a long speech, Antenor told how the gods were always punishing Trojan rulers for ill-considered acts. Laomedon, he said, had lied to Hercules – a famous story – and thus his kingdom had been destroyed. Then, through the influence of Hesione, Priam, who was still young and had had no share in all that had happened, had come to power; thereafter, becoming evil and foolish, he had been accustomed to attack everyone; he had killed and committed personal injuries, being sparing of his own property while seeking that of another. Such was the example which spread, like the worst of plagues, to his sons, who abstained from nothing either sacred or profane.
Antenor said that he himself was a very different person from Priam, in spite of the fact that they both were related to the Greeks by the same line of descent.9 Hesione, the daughter of Danaus, was the mother of Electra, and Electra was the mother of Dardanus; Dardanus had married Olizone, the daughter of Phineus; their child was Erichthonius, who was the father of Tros; and Tros was the father of Ilus, Ganymede, and Cleomestra. Cleomestra was the mother of Assaracus, and Assaracus had begotten Capys, the father of Anchises. Ilus had begotten Tithonus and Laomedon, and Laomedon was the father of Hicetaon, Lampus, Thymoetes, Bucolion, and finally Priam. As for himself, he was the son of Cleomestra and Aesyetes. But Priam had disregarded every bond of kinship and had acted with especial insolence and hatred toward his own relations.
When he had finished this speech, he asked us to choose representatives for the purpose of talking with him about peace; as this was the reason the Trojan elders had sent him. Accordingly, we chose Agamemnon, Idomeneus, Ulysses, and Diomedes. Thereupon these plotted together, in secret, and decided, among other things, that Aeneas, contingent upon his remaining faithful, should share the spoils, nor should his house be harmed in any way; as for Antenor, half of Priam’s wealth should be given to him; and one of his sons, whomever he chose, should rule over Troy.
When they felt that their plans were complete, Antenor was sent back to Troy to make a report far different from what they had really decided. He was to say that the Greeks were preparing an offering, a gift, for Minerva, and that, providing they recovered Helen and received some gold, they were only too glad to abandon the war and return to their people. Thus Antenor went off to Troy, accompanied by Talthybius whose presence might help to produce an illusion of trust.
1. The tomb of Ilus is mentioned in Iliad 10.415 and 11.372.
2. See Dictys 1.5.
3. The spelling of this name is doubtful.
4. In the Aethiopis (fragment 1, p. 507, ed. Evelyn-White), Aurora obtains immortality for her son from Jupiter.
5. Sigeum was located at the mouth of the Scamander River. Strabo tells of a temple and a monument of Achilles in this area, and also of monuments of Patroclus and Antilochus. See his Geography 13.1.31-32.
6. See Dictys 2.10 and 12.
7. See Sophocles Philoctetes.
8. See Dictys 2.23.24. In the Iliad (11.122-162), Agamemnon slaughters the two sons of Antimachus because their father had opposed the return of Helen and had plotted the death of Menelaus.
9. See Dictys 1.9 and note 8 thereto.